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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601031

RESUMO

: Bacterial, protozoan and other microbial infections share an accelerated metabolic rate. In order to ensure a proper functioning of cell replication and proteins and nucleic acids synthesis processes, folate metabolism rate is also increased in these cases. For this reason, folic acid antagonists have been used since their discovery to treat different kinds of microbial infections, taking advantage of this metabolic difference when compared with human cells. However, resistances to these compounds have emerged since then and only combined therapies are currently used in clinic. In addition, some of these compounds have been found to have an immunomodulatory behavior that allows clinicians using them as anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an updated state-of-the-art on the use of antifolates as antibacterial and immunomodulating agents in the clinical setting, as well as to present their action mechanisms and currently investigated biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Resistência a Medicamentos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 352(9): e1900099, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381192

RESUMO

Optimization of a modified Grimmel's method for N-heterocyclization of a leucine-linked sulfonamide side-arm at position 2 leading to 2,3-disustituted-4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones was accomplished. Further, 22 hybrid quinazolinone motifs (4a-v) were synthesized by N-heterocyclization reaction under microwave irradiation using the ionic liquid [Bmim][BF4 ]-H2 O as green solvent as well as the catalyst. The in vitro screening of the hybrid entities against the malarial species Plasmodium falciparum yielded five potent molecules 4l, 4n, 4o, 4t, and 4u owning antimalarial activity comparable to those of the reference drugs. In continuation, an in silico study was carried out to obtain a pharmacophoric model and quantitative structure-activity relationship. We also built a 3D-QSAR model to procure more information that could be applied to design new molecules with more potent Pf-DHFR inhibitory activity. The designed pharmacophore was recognized to be more potent for the selected molecules, exhibiting five pharmacophoric features. The active scaffolds were further evaluated for enzyme inhibition efficacy against alleged receptor Pf-DHFR computationally and in vitro, proving their candidature as lead dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, and the selectivity of the test candidates was ascertained by toxicity study against Vero cells. Good oral bioavailability was also proved by studying pharmacokinetic properties.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/síntese química , Desenho de Fármacos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/síntese química , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Leucina/química , Quinazolinas/química , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacocinética , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacocinética , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células Vero
3.
Postgrad Med ; 131(8): 589-596, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399001

RESUMO

No new drugs for treatment of toxoplasmosis have been approved in over 60 years, despite the burden of toxoplasmosis on human society. The small selection of effective drugs is limited by important side effects, often limiting patient use. This perspective highlights promising late-stage drug candidates in the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Presently, drugs target the tachyzoite form of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii responsible for the acute infection but do not eradicate the tissue cyst form underlying chronic infection. Pyrimethamine - the first-line and only approved drug for treatment of toxoplasmosis in the United States - inhibits parasite DNA synthesis by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Two novel DHFR inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity for parasite DHFR over human DHFR are in clinical-stage development. One of the most advanced and promising therapeutic targets, demonstrating potential to treat both acute and chronic toxoplasmosis, is the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) which plays an essential role in the intracellular replicative cycle of the parasite, and has no direct mammalian homolog. Two CDPK1 inhibitor programs have identified potent and selective lead series, demonstrating acceptable systemic and CNS exposure, and in vivo efficacy in animal models of acute and chronic infection. Physicians need a better arsenal of parasiticidal drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, particularly those active against tissue cysts.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Animais , Antiprotozoários/efeitos adversos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase , Toxoplasma , Estados Unidos
4.
Nanoscale ; 11(32): 15224-15233, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385577

RESUMO

One of the frontiers of nanomedicine is the rational design of theranostic nanovectors. These are nanosized materials combining diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, i.e. capable of tracking cancer cells and tissues in complex environments, and of selectively acting against them. We herein report on the preparation and application of antifolate plasmonic nanovectors, made of functionalized gold nanoparticles conjugated with the folic acid competitors aminopterin and methotrexate. Due to the overexpression of folate binding proteins on many types of cancer cells, these nanosystems can be exploited for selective cancer cell targeting. The strong surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signature of these nanovectors acts as a diagnostic tool, not only for tracing their presence in biological samples, but also, through a careful spectral analysis, to precisely quantify the amount of drug loaded on a single nanoparticle, and therefore delivered to the cells. Meanwhile, the therapeutic action is implemented based on the strong toxicity of antifolate drugs. Remarkably, supplying the drug in the nanostructured form, rather than as a free molecule, enhances its specific toxicity. The selectivity of the antifolate nanovectors can be optimized by the design of a hybrid folate/antifolate coloaded nanovector for the specific targeting of folate receptor α, which is overexpressed on numerous cancer cell types.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Aminopterina/química , Aminopterina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/química , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metotrexato/química , Metotrexato/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466322

RESUMO

A series of Schiff bases 14-25 were designed and synthesized for evaluation of their antibacterial properties against multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB). The antibacterial activities of Schiff bases 14-25 showed that most of the synthesized compounds displayed a significant antibacterial activity. Assessment of in silico ADMET properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) of Schiff bases illustrates that all derivatives showed agreement to the Lipinski's rule of five. Further enzymatic assay aided by molecular docking study demonstrated that compound 18 is a potent inhibitor of staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase kinases. This study could be valuable in the discovery of new potent antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Pirazóis/química , Bases de Schiff/síntese química , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação por Computador , DNA Girase/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/síntese química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/síntese química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3531-3542, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, we demonstrated the ability of inhibitors of protein kinase 2 (casein kinase II; CK2) to enhance the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil, a thymidylate synthase (TYMS)-directed drug for anticancer treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the antileukemic effect of simultaneous inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), another enzyme involved in the thymidylate biosynthesis cycle, and CK2 in CCRF-CEM acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of combined treatment on apoptosis and cell-cycle progression, as well as the endocellular level of DHFR protein and inhibition of CK2 were determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the influence of silmitasertib (CX-4945), a selective inhibitor of CK2 on the expression of DHFR and TYMS genes. RESULTS: The synergistic effect was correlated with the increase of annexin V-binding cell fraction, caspase 3/7 activation and a significant reduce in the activity of CK2. An increase of DHFR protein level was observed in CCRF-CEM cells after CX-4945 treatment, with the mRNA level remaining relatively constant. CONCLUSION: The obtained results demonstrate a possibility to improve methotrexate-based anti-leukemia therapy by simultaneous inhibition of CK2. The effect of CK2 inhibition on DHFR expression suggests the important regulatory role of CK2-mediated phosphorylation of DHFR inside cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 329-340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200235

RESUMO

A novel series of 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines with reversed amide moieties from the lead compound 1a were designed and synthesized as nonclassical antifolates and as potential antitumor agents. Target compounds 1-9 were successfully obtained through two sequential condensation reactions from the key intermediate 2-amino-6-(2-aminoethyl)-3,7-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one. In preliminary antiproliferation assay, all compounds demonstrated submicromolar to nanomolar inhibitory effects against KB tumor cells, whereas compounds 1-3 also exhibited nanomolar antiproliferative activities toward SW620 and A549 cells. In particular, compounds 1-3 were significantly more potent than the positive control methotrexate (MTX) and pemetrexed (PMX) to A549 cells. The growth inhibition induced cell cycle arrest at G1-phase with S-phase suppression. Along with the results of nucleoside protection assays, inhibition assays of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) clearly elucidated that the intracellular target of the designed compounds was DHFR. Molecular modeling studies suggested two binding modes of the target compounds with DHFR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/síntese química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Células KB , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979096

RESUMO

A class of gold(I) phosphane complexes have been identified as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from E. coli, an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF), using NADPH as a coenzyme. In this work, to comprehend the nature of the interaction at the basis of these inhibitory effects, the binding properties of bis- and tris-phosphane gold(I) chloride compounds in regards to DHFR have been studied by emission spectroscopy and spectrophotometric assays. The lack of cysteine and seleno-cysteine residues in the enzyme active site, the most favorable sites of attack of Au(I) moieties, makes this work noteworthy. The interaction with the gold compounds results into the quenching of the DHFR tryptophan's emissions and in an enhancement of their intrinsic emission intensities. Moreover, a modulating action of NADPH is highlighted by means of an increase of the gold compound affinity toward the enzyme; in fact, the dissociation constants calculated for the interactions between DHFR and each gold compound in the presence of saturating NADPH were lower than the ones observed for the apo-enzyme. The fluorimetric data afforded to Kd values ranged from 2.22 ± 0.25 µM for (PPh3)2AuCl in the presence of NADPH to 21.4 ± 3.85 µM for 4L3AuTf in the absence of NADPH. By elucidating the energetic aspects of the binding events, we have attempted to dissect the role played by the gold phosphane/protein interactions in the inhibitory activity, resulting in an exothermic enthalpy change and a positive entropic contribution (ΔH° = -5.04 ± 0.08 kcal/mol and ΔS° = 7.34 ± 0.005 cal/mol·K).


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , NAD/metabolismo , Compostos Organoáuricos/farmacologia , Fosfinas/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Organoáuricos/química , Fosfinas/química
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 853: 264-274, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951714

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) efficacy in autoimmune arthritis is variable and unpredictable resulting in the need for the identification of biomarkers to guide drug therapy. This study utilizes the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate erythrocyte MTX disposition and anti-folate activity as biochemical markers of efficacy in autoimmune arthritis. Following induction of arthritis, DBA/1J mice were treated with once-weekly subcutaneous MTX at varying doses over a period of 40 days. At the completion of the study tissue samples were analyzed for MTX and folate content and assessed for their relationship with MTX efficacy. MTX treatment resulted in a reduction in disease activity that was variable and dose-dependent. Erythrocyte accumulation of MTX and its polyglutamate metabolites were dose proportionate, however, polyglutamate metabolites represented a mean ±â€¯S.E.M. of 8.9 ±â€¯0.4% of total erythrocyte MTX, which is markedly lower than previously observed in humans and failed to display any significant association with MTX efficacy. MTX treatment resulted in reductions in erythrocyte 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) levels that were similar to those previously observed in human studies. Disease induction was associated with a decrease in liver 5mTHF and increased formyl-tetrahydrofolate (fTHF) that was normalized in MTX treated mice. MTX efficacy was associated with reductions in erythrocyte 5mTHF (P = 0.04) and increases in liver 5mTHF (P = 0.0001). Together, these findings demonstrate a relationship between alterations in tissue folate levels and MTX efficacy, and supports erythrocyte levels of 5mTHF as a marker of MTX efficacy in autoimmune arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Colágeno/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007223, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cotrimoxazole prevents opportunistic infections including falciparum malaria in HIV-infected individuals but there are concerns of cross-resistance to other antifolate drugs such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antifolate-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with SP resistance in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment randomized to discontinue (STOP-CTX), or continue (CTX) cotrimoxazole in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Samples were obtained from an unblinded, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial where participants were recruited on a rolling basis for the first six months of the study, then followed-up for 12 months with samples collected at enrollment, quarterly, and during sick visits. METHOD: Plasmodium DNA was extracted from blood specimens. Initial screening to determine the presence of Plasmodium spp. was performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR, followed by genotyping for the presence of SP-resistance associated mutations by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The prevalence of mutant haplotypes associated with SP-resistant parasites in pfdhfr (51I/59R/108N) and pfdhps (437G/540E) genes were significantly higher (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.027, respectively) in STOP-CTX compared to CTX arm. The prevalence of quintuple haplotype (51I/59R/108N/437G/540E) was 51.8% in STOP-CTX vs. 6.3% (P = 0.0007) in CTX arm. There was a steady increase in mutant haplotypes in both genes in STOP-CTX arm overtime through the study period, reaching statistical significance (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The frequencies of mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were higher in STOP-CTX arm compared to CTX arm, suggesting cotrimoxazole effectively controls and selects against SP-resistant parasites. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425073.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Di-Hidropteroato Sintase/genética , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/complicações , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Sulfadoxina/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909399

RESUMO

Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors are an important class of drugs, as evidenced by their use as antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal, and anticancer agents. Progress in understanding the biochemical basis of mechanisms responsible for enzyme selectivity and antiproliferative effects has renewed the interest in antifolates for cancer chemotherapy and prompted the medicinal chemistry community to develop novel and selective human DHFR inhibitors, thus leading to a new generation of DHFR inhibitors. This work summarizes the mechanism of action, chemical, and anticancer profile of the DHFR inhibitors discovered in the last six years. New strategies in DHFR drug discovery are also provided, in order to thoroughly delineate the current landscape for medicinal chemists interested in furthering this study in the anticancer field.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
12.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 93(5): 737-759, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663249

RESUMO

Malaria is the most lethal and debilitating disease caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium worldwide. The most severe forms of disease and the incidence rates of mortality are associated with P. falciparum infections. With the identification of disease source and symptoms, many chemical entities were developed naturally and synthetically for administration as a potential antimalarial drug. The major classes of approved antimalarial drugs that are governed as first-line treatment in tropical and subtropical areas include quinolines, naphthoquinones, antifolates, 8-aminoquinolines, and endoperoxides. However, the efficacy of antimalarial drugs has decreased due to ongoing multidrug resistance problem to current drugs. With increasing resistance to the current antimalarial artemisinin and its combination therapies, malaria prophylaxis has declined gradually. New-generation antimalarial and novel drug target are required to check the incidence of malaria resistance. This review summarizes the emergence of multidrug resistance to known antimalarial and the development of new antimalarial to resolve drug resistance condition. Few essential proteins are also discussed that can be considered as novel drug target against malaria in future.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Amino Álcoois/química , Amino Álcoois/farmacologia , Apicoplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Apicoplastos/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/química , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Peróxidos/química , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Primaquina/química , Primaquina/farmacologia
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(3): 456-466, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extracellular protein toxins contribute to the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The present study compared the effects of iclaprim and trimethoprim - two folic acid synthesis inhibitors - with nafcillin and vancomycin on production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), alpha haemolysin (AH) and toxic-shock syndrome toxin I (TSST-1) in methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (MRSA and VISA, respectively). METHODOLOGY: Northern blotting and RT-PCR were used to assess gene transcription; toxin-specific bioassays were used to measure protein toxin production. RESULTS: As shown previously, sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of nafcillin increased and prolonged MRSA toxin gene transcription and enhanced PVL, TSST-1 and AH production. Sub-inhibitory doses of iclaprim and trimethoprim delayed maximal AH gene (hla) transcription and suppressed AH production; both drugs delayed, but neither reduced, maximal TSST-1 production. Trimethoprim significantly increased lukF-PV expression and PVL production compared to both untreated and iclaprim-treated cultures. Higher concentrations of iclaprim and trimethoprim markedly suppressed MRSA growth, mRNA synthesis and toxin production. In VISA, iclaprim, vancomycin and nafcillin variably increased tst and hla expression, but only nafcillin increased toxin production. Despite its ability to increase hla expression, iclaprim was the most potent inhibitor of AH production. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, due to its ability to suppress toxin production, iclaprim should be effective against severe staphylococcal infections caused by toxin-producing MRSA and VISA strains, especially given its ability to concentrate at sites of infection such as skin and skin structures and the lung.


Assuntos
Exotoxinas/biossíntese , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Bioensaio , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 163: 169-182, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508666

RESUMO

The emergence of various drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains has necessitated the exploration of new drugs that lack cross-resistance with existing therapeutics. By screening the MedChemExpress bioactive compound library, ceritinib was identified as a compound with activity against Mtb H37Ra. Ceritinib had a MIC value of 9.0 µM in vitro and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in a BALB/c mouse model infected with autoluminescent H37Ra. Then, 32 novel ceritinib derivatives were synthesized, and their antimycobacterial activities were evaluated in vitro. The antimycobacterial activities of the synthesized compounds were drastically affected by substitutions at position 4 of the pyrimidine nucleus and were enhanced by the presence of 2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-yl)aniline at position 2 of the pyrimidine nucleus. The in vivo antitubercular activities of the three most potent compounds were evaluated. 5-Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-yl) phenyl)-N4-(naph thalen-1-yl) pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (16j) remarkably reduced the Mtb burden of mice. This result suggested the potential of 16j as a novel drug with superior antitubercular activities. The results of experiments on the combination of sulfamethoxazole with 16j and in silico modeling suggest that dihydrofolate reductase is the potential molecular target of 16j.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/síntese química , Desenho de Fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Sulfonas/síntese química , Animais , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 9(1): 366-378, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280318

RESUMO

Macrophages play a key role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Notably, positive correlations have been reported between synovial macrophage infiltration and disease activity as well as therapy outcome in RA patients. Hence, macrophages can serve as an important target for both imaging disease activity and drug delivery in RA. Folate receptor ß (FRß) is a glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein being expressed on myeloid cells and activated macrophages. FRß harbors a nanomolar binding affinity for folic acid allowing this receptor to be exploited for RA disease imaging (e.g., folate-conjugated PET tracers) and therapeutic targeting (e.g., folate antagonists and folate-conjugated drugs). This review provides an overview of these emerging applications in RA by summarizing and discussing properties of FRß, expression of FRß in relation to macrophage polarization, FRß-targeted in vivo imaging modalities, and FRß-directed drug targeting.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Folato/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
17.
Med Res Rev ; 39(2): 684-705, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192413

RESUMO

Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate reductase is an important enzyme that is essential for the survival of the Gram-negative microorganism. Inhibitors designed against this enzyme have demonstrated application as antibiotics. However, either because of poor bioavailability of the small-molecules resulting from their inability to cross the double membrane in Gram-negative bacteria or because the microorganism develops resistance to the antibiotics by mutating the DHFR target, discovery of new antibiotics against the enzyme is mandatory to overcome drug-resistance. This review summarizes the field of DHFR inhibition with special focus on recent efforts to effectively interface computational and experimental efforts to discover novel classes of inhibitors that target allosteric and active-sites in drug-resistant variants of EcDHFR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Algoritmos , Sítio Alostérico , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Ligantes , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 122: 10-15, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593388

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX), an antifolate, is the anchor drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is inexpensive, effective, and generally safe. When clinical response is inadequate, biological therapies are commonly used in combination with MTX. However, biological agents have safety concerns (i.e. infections, malignancy) and the addition of a biologic agent is expensive, making strategies to improve MTX efficacy important. Inhibition of pathways of folate metabolism involving purine metabolism by MTX, have been traditionally emphasized as important in MTX efficacy. However, inhibition MTX catabolism may also be important. MTX is irreversibly hydroxylated to form 7-hydroxy methotrexate (7-OH-MTX) by aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1) (AOX). Catabolism of MTX to 7-OH-MTX is the first metabolic process imposed on an oral dose of MTX and will alter subsequent interactions of MTX with other enzymes. 7-OH-MTX is less potent than MTX in the treatment of rat adjuvant arthritis. RA patients with a low capacity to catabolize MTX to 7-OH-MTX do better clinically than individuals who are rapid formers of 7-OH-MTX. Therefore, altering the catabolism of MTX may be an innovative way to improve MTX efficacy. Raloxifene is a FDA-approved therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis and for the reduction of invasive breast cancers but has no known activity in RA. Raloxifene is a potent inhibitor of human liver AOX. Postmenopausal women with RA frequently have low bone mineral density and would be candidates for raloxifene and MTX combination therapy. The effect of raloxifene on MTX metabolism has never been studied. Our hypothesis is that in postmenopausal women with RA and osteoporosis treated with MTX and raloxifene, the inhibition of AOX with resultant decreased formation of 7-OH MTX; will increase MTX levels and improve MTX efficacy. This hypothesis could be studied in an open-label, proof of concept clinical study in individuals before and after the addition of raloxifene. Red blood cell MTX and 7-OH-MTX levels and RA disease activity (DAS28) would be measured. In possible future studies, there are dietary substances, as supplements, (e.g. epigallocatechin gallate in green tea and resveratrol) which inhibit human liver AOX which could be evaluated.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Animais , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/química , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucovorina/química , Masculino , Metotrexato/análogos & derivados , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Purinas/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559133

RESUMO

The potential spread of antimalarial drug resistance to Africa, in particular for artemisinins and key partner drugs, is a major concern. We surveyed Plasmodium falciparum genetic markers associated with drug sensitivity on 3 occasions at ∼6-month intervals in 2016 and 2017 at 10 sites representing a range of epidemiological settings in Uganda. For putative drug transporters, we found continued evolution toward wild-type sequences associated with increased sensitivity to chloroquine. For pfcrt K76T, by 2017 the prevalence of the wild type was >60% at all sites and >90% at 6 sites. For the pfmdr1 N86Y and D1246Y alleles, wild type prevalence ranged from 80 to 100%. We found low prevalence of K13 propeller domain mutations, which are associated with artemisinin resistance in Asia, but one mutation previously identified in northern Uganda, 675V, was seen in 2.0% of samples, including 5.5% of those from the 3 northernmost sites. Amplification of the pfmdr1 and plasmepsin2 genes, associated elsewhere with decreased sensitivity to lumefantrine and piperaquine, respectively, was seen in <1% of samples. For the antifolate targets pfdhfr and pfdhps, 5 mutations previously associated with resistance were very common, and the pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G mutations associated with higher-level resistance were seen at multiple sites, although prevalence did not clearly increase over time. Overall, changes were consistent with the selective pressure of the national treatment regimen, artemether-lumefantrine, with increased sensitivity to chloroquine, and with poor efficacy of antifolates. Strong evidence for resistance to artemisinins was not seen. Continued surveillance of markers that predict antimalarial drug sensitivity is warranted.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Criança , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Humanos , Lumefantrina/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Uganda
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