Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 313
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800987

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Lagochilus setulosus (Lamiaceae) afforded the new compound 1-methoxy-3-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-α-l-oliose (1) together with five known glycosides, namely sitosterol-3-O-ß-glucoside (2), stigmasterol-3-O-ß-glucoside (3), pinitol (4), 6ß-hydroxyl-7-epi-loganin (5), and chlorotuberoside (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extract and the isolated compounds was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) staining assays. In addition, the antifungal activities of the components were evaluated against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Phytophthora infestans. The anthelmintic potential was determined against Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. Neither the extract nor the isolated compounds showed promising activity in all the bioassays.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Antifúngicos , Glicosídeos , Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Phytophthora infestans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113142, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697959

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf of Sarcocephalus latifolius is known to be used traditionally by the Fulanis in Nigeria to deworm animals. As helminthosis remains a major constraint to profitable livestock production worldwide, a precarious situation aggravated by the advent of resistant parasites, the discovery of new anthelmintics is a priority, necessitating exploration of medicinal plants for their anthelmintic principles. AIM OF THE STUDY: To identify and characterise compounds with anthelmintic activity from the leaf of Sarcocephalus latifolius. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Powdered S. latifolius leaves were extracted by successive maceration with n-hexane, chloroform and acetone. The dried extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus placei adult worms, and the most active extract was subjected to bioassay-guided chromatographic separations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the mammalian HeLa and MC3T3-E1 cell lines, using alamar blue and CellTitreGloTM to quantify cell viability. LC50 values were computed from the in vitro anthelmintic activity data by fitting to a non-linear regression equation (variable slope). Isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: Anthelmintic activity LC50 values for n-hexane, chloroform and acetone extracts were 47.85, 35.76 and 5.72 (mg/mL), respectively. Chromatographic separation of acetone extract afforded two bioactive epimers, identified as vincosamide (LC50 14.7 mg/mL) and strictosamide (LC50 12.8 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that, below 200 µg/mL (400 µM), neither compound was toxic to the HeLa or MC3T3-E1 cells. CONCLUSION: Vincosamide and strictosamide could serve as novel scaffolds for the development of anthelmintic derivatives with improved potency and helminth selectivity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Rubiaceae/química , Alcaloides de Vinca/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Alcaloides de Vinca/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Vinca/toxicidade
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107980, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877640

RESUMO

Acacia farnesiana pods are rich in secondary metabolites and their biological activities have been recorded as antibacterial, antioxidant and anthelmintic. Previously, an in vitro bioguided study showed the important ovicidal and larvicidal effects of an organic fraction (EtOAc-F) from a hydroalcoholic extract of A. farnesiana pods against Haemonchus contortus. The present study aimed to assess the in vivo anthelmintic effect of EtOAc-F from A. farnesiana pods on the H. contortus faecal egg elimination in female lambs and on the infective larvae (L3) population reduction in coprocultures. The EtOAc-F was obtained from a hydroalcoholic extract from A. farnesiana pods through chromatographic procedures; additionally, some secondary compounds were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one 'Katahdin' crossbred female lambs ranging from three to four months of age, with body weights 21.9 ± 0.39 kg were used. Animals were orally infected with H. contortus (L3) by a single dose of 350 L3/kg BW. Three experimental groups (n = 7) were assigned as follows: 1) Control (untreated), 2) Albendazole, as a positive control (at 7.5 mg/kg BW, unique dose) and 3) EtOAc-F (at 100 mg/kg BW, once every third day, with three applications in total). Individual faecal samples were collected once a week for 5 weeks (at days 38, 45, 52, 59 and 66) post-treatment, to measure the faecal egg counts (FEC) and to obtain the H. contortus (L3) population from faecal cultures. The highest FEC reduction caused by EtOAc-F was 67.7%; meanwhile, albendazole showed a total FEC reduction after the second week post-treatment (day 45). On the other hand, the fraction caused an important reduction in the larval population in coprocultures (54.3-68.5%). The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of galloyl derivatives and flavonoids as major compounds. The A. farnesiana pods could serve as a natural anthelmintic for the control of H. contortus, and perhaps for controlling other parasites of veterinary importance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Hematócrito/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 285: 109184, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835931

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the fasciolicidal efficacy of extracts and fractions of Artemisia ludoviciana and identify the active substance. Extracts from A. ludoviciana were obtained by using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. To test the extracts, newly excysted juveniles of Fasciola hepatica were artificially obtained. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 125, 250, 375 and 500 mg/L. In each test run, an untreated control group and control wells containing triclabendazole sulfoxide were also included. The flukes were examined at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Ethyl acetate extract (ALEAE) showed 100 % efficacy at 48 h of exposure (P < 0.05). Then, this extract was fractionated by column chromatography (CC), and the obtained fractions were evaluated in vitro as previously mentioned. The results indicated that fraction 3 yielded 100 % efficacy at 48 h (P < 0.05). Subsequently, the purification of fraction 3 was performed. New fractions were obtained (A-L), with sub-fraction "J" exhibiting 100 % efficacy at 24 h (P < 0.05). These sub-fractions were submitted to phytochemical analysis, demonstrated the presence of sesquiterpene lactones. Likewise, were analyzed by HPLC/MS/DAD, and the results showed that artemisinin was the main compound. In addition, flukes treated were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing areas of inflammation throughout the tegument.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Fasciola hepatica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola hepatica/ultraestrutura , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6078917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685507

RESUMO

The present paper reviewed publications on the nematocidal activity of edible mushrooms (EM) and their potential use as sustainable tools for the control of parasitic nematodes affecting agriculture and livestock industry. Nematodes are organisms living in the soil and animals' guts where they may live as parasites severely affecting economically important crops and farm animals, thus causing economic losses to worldwide agriculture. Traditionally, parasitic nematodes have been controlled using commercial pesticides and anthelmintic (AH) drugs. Over the years, nematodes developed resistance to the AH drugs, reducing the usefulness of many commercial drugs. Also, the use of pesticides/anthelmintic drugs to control nematodes can have important negative impacts on the environment. Different EM have been not only used as food but also studied as alternative methods for controlling several diseases including parasitic nematodes. The present paper reviewed publications from the last decades about the nematocidal activity of EM and assessed their potential use as sustainable tools for the control of nematodes affecting agriculture and livestock industry. A reduced number of reports on the effect of EM against nematodes were found, and an even smaller number of reports regarding the potential AH activity of chemical compounds isolated from EM products were found. However, those studies have produced promising results that certainly deserve further investigation. It is concluded that EM, their fractions and extracts, and some compounds contained in them may have biotechnological application for the control of animal and plant parasitic nematodes.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Anti-Helmínticos , Antinematódeos , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Antinematódeos/química , Antinematódeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 238: 111297, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619645

RESUMO

Like mammalian cells, helminth parasites are equipped with an array of enzymatic anti-oxidant system which has an adaptive strategy to cope up with several conditions of stress that arise from host immune response or drug treatment. Earlier, we had reported that three species of Senna, viz. S. alata, S. alexandrina and S. occidentalis leaf extracts caused severe morphological and biochemical alterations in the zoonotic parasite Hymenolepis diminuta. To understand whether the leaf extracts of the three species of Senna have any effect on the enzymatic anti-oxidant system in H.diminuta or not, the present study was investigated on the mechanism of action of these leaf extracts on the anti-oxidant system of the parasite. The viability of the parasite was assessed by MTT reduction assay, chromatin condensation through Hoechst staining of tissue and DNA fragmentation assay, and the oxidative enzymes of the parasite were estimated biochemically. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S- transferase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be increased in all the treated parasites from that of the control, with S. alata showed the highest increased amongst the three plant species in all the enzymes, at 331.0 %, 215.4 %, 85.4 % and 65.5 % respectively. Upliftment of apoptotic protein CED-3, CED-4 and EGL-1 and down regulation of anti-apototic protein CED-9 was visualised in all treated paraites. The redox imbalance triggered by these leaf extracts resulted in the activation of apoptotic pathway that led to death of the parasite. Our results demonstrated that the leaf extracts of the three Senna plant species could open new insight for an affordable natural anthelmintic with high efficacy and less toxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Hymenolepis diminuta/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/genética , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Helmintos/antagonistas & inibidores , DNA de Helmintos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hymenolepis diminuta/genética , Hymenolepis diminuta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hymenolepis diminuta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Fitoterapia ; 146: 104651, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504655

RESUMO

Bark and leaves of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle are widely used in European folk medicine to treat intestinal worm infections. The study aimed to rationalize a potential anthelmintic effect of A. altissima extract against the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. A methanol-water (7:3, v/v) extract of the primary stem bark was tested on L4 larvae of C. elegans for induction of mortality and influence on reproduction. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed by chromatography on MCI-gel, preparative HPLC on RP18 stationary phase and fast-centrifugal-partition-chromatography. Structural elucidation of isolated quassinoids was performed by NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The sterilizing effect on C. elegans was investigated by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy of ultra-sections. Different GFP-tagged reporter strains were used to identify involved signaling pathways. A. altissima extract (1 mg/mL) irreversibly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans L4 larvae. This effect was dependent on the larval stage since L3 larvae and adults were less affected. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed the quassinoid ailanthone 1 as the major active compound (IC50 2.47 µM). The extract caused severe damages to germ cells and rachis, which led to none or only poorly developed oocytes. These damages led to activation of the transcription factor DAF-16, which plays a major role in the nematode's response to stress. A regulation via the respective DAF-2/insulin-like signaling pathway was not observed. The current findings support the traditional use of A. altissma in phytotherapy to treat helminth infections and provide a base for standardization of the herbal material.


Assuntos
Ailanthus/química , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quassinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Alemanha , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Quassinas/isolamento & purificação , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 393-399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401104

RESUMO

Context: A variety of Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen (Asteraceae) is used by the Mizo people of India and Myanmar for intestinal helminthiasis.Objective: To perform a chemical analysis of the plant extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and test the anthelmintic activity on intestinal parasites.Materials and methods: An extract of the aerial parts was prepared in hexane and analysed using GC-MS. Survival test was performed in vitro on the cestode, Taenia tetragona, and the nematode, Ascaridia perspicillum. Concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL, prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 1% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were tested. Negative control was maintained in PBS with DMSO, and albendazole was used as a reference drug. Each treatment consisted of six worms and was done until death was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to describe the structural changes.Results: Nineteen compounds were detected. The major compounds were fatty alcohols such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol and (9Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol. Important bioactive compounds including an alkylamide, N-isobutyl-(2E,4Z,8Z,10E)-dodecatetraenamide, and a triterpenoid, lupeol, were also confirmed. The lethal concentration (LC50) of the plant extract was 5128.61 ppm on T. tetragona and 8921.50 ppm on A. perspicillum. Tegumental shrinkage, erosion of microtriches, and distortion of the suckers were observed on the cestode. The nematode showed collapse of the lips and shrunk cuticle.Conclusions: Acmella oleracea contains important bioactive compounds, which are responsible for the broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity. Further study on the pharmacology of the compounds is warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Asteraceae , Cestoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Odontalgia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Cestoides/fisiologia , Índia/etnologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Odontalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Odontalgia/etnologia
9.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(2): 375-387, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During recent decades, the emergence of chemoresistance among synthetic anthelmintic drugs has increased the interest in screening novel natural anthelmintic compounds derived from plants. The current study is aimed to determine the chemical profile, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties of Mentha pulegium hydro-ethanolic extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two tests were used to assess the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract of M. pulegium against Haemonchus contortus; egg hatch assay (EHA) and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. M. pulegium extracts at the doses of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg were evaluated in vivo in mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The anthelmintic efficacy was monitored using faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). The antioxidant activity of M. pulegium extract was evaluated by testing the total antioxidant capacity and the DPPH free radical-scavenging ability. RESULTS: Chromatographic characterization of M. pulegium composition using RP-HPLC revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as syringic acid, ferulic acid and the presence of flavonoid compounds, such as isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. We observed 91.58% inhibition in the EHA at 8 mg/mL after 48 h of incubation (IC50=1.82 mg/mL). In the AWM assay, M. pulegium extract achieved 65.2% inhibition at 8 mg/mL after 8 h. The highest dose (4000 mg/kg) showed a significant nematicidal effect 7 days post-treatment by inducing 60.39% FECR and 71.6% TWCR. We also report strong in vivo antioxidant capacity of the extract, as revealed by a significant increase of the enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes in mice infected with H. polygyrus. CONCLUSION: Together, the results in this paper suggest that M. pulegium possesses anthelmintic properties and could be a potential source of novel compounds for the control of helminth parasites as well as its associated oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentha pulegium/química , Nematospiroides dubius/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Masculino , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/análise , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Tunísia
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112223, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553926

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arecae semen has been used as vermifuge and digestant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than one thousand years. However, the toxicity effect of areca semen and its underlying mechanism are still unclear. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the toxicity of arecae semen and to explore its mechanisms by serum metabolomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and treated group (n = 6 in each group), which were given by gavage with distill water or arecae semen aqueous extract (ASAE) once a day for 30 days, respectively. Serum samples were collected from all the rats after treatment of 7-day, 14-day and 30-day for metabolomics analysis. Moreover, biochemistry analysis and histopathological examination were performed at the end of study. RESULTS: The phenomenon of diarrhea, less physical activity, tremors and body curl up were observed in the treated group. Additionally, the body weights of treated rats were significantly decreased compared with control rats from the 8th day after oral administration. Except the level of creatinekinase (CK) in the treated group significantly increased compared with the control group, there were no differences on biochemistry parameters and histopathological test in the two groups. Combined with the methods of principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projection to latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and available databases, the treated and control rats were clearly distinguished from each other and 19 metabolites were identified as the potential biomarkers in the arecae semen treated rats. The identified biomarkers indicated that there were perturbations of the phospholipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and fat acid metabolism in the treated group. CONCLUSIONS: This indicated that arecae semen possessed certain cardiotoxicity and inhibited the normal growth in Wistar male rats. In addition, the metabolomics approach is a useful tool to study the toxicity in TCM.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/toxicidade , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/química
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 533-543, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100255

RESUMO

The livestock sector is continuously facing problems in controlling parasitic diseases especially Haemonchosis due to emergence of anthelminthic resistance and failure in vaccination control programmes. Therefore, to increase milk and meat production and emerging demand of meat free from drug residues development of new alternative approaches are appealing for prevention and control of Haemonchosis in small ruminants. Among alternatives, plants driven essentials oils have shown promising results in control of Haemonchus contortus infection at various concentrations by different assays including egg hatch assay, larval development assay, larval exsheathment assay and adult motility assay. Essential oils are complex mixtures of various impulsive or volatile compounds which have potential to control Haemonchosis. The current study reviews the therapeutic effects of essential oils of plants against Haemonchus contortus and to be used them against Haemonchus contortus for future perspectives.


El sector ganadero enfrenta continuamente problemas para controlar las enfermedades parasitarias, especialmente la hemoncosis, debido a la aparición de resistencia antihelmíntica y al fracaso en los programas de control de vacunación. Por lo tanto, para aumentar la producción de leche y carne, y la demanda emergente de carne libre de residuos de medicamentos, el desarrollo de nuevos enfoques alternativos es atractivo para la prevención y el control de la hemoncosis en pequeños rumiantes. Entre las alternativas, los aceites esenciales producidos por las plantas han mostrado resultados prometedores en el control de la infección por Haemonchus contortus a diversas concentraciones mediante diferentes ensayos, incluido el análisis de eclosión de huevos, el desarrollo de larvas, el análisis de vaciado de larvas y el ensayo de motilidad en adultos. Los aceites esenciales son mezclas complejas de varios compuestos impulsivos o volátiles que tienen potencial para controlar la hemonchosis. Este estudio revisa los efectos terapéuticos de los aceites esenciales de las plantas contra Haemonchus contortus y evalúa sus perspectivas futuras como agentes para combatir las enfermedades causadas por este parásito.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas/química , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000485, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622335

RESUMO

Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect over 200 million people, causing the neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. A single drug, praziquantel, is used to treat schistosome infection. Limitations in mass drug administration programs and the emergence of schistosomiasis in nontropical areas indicate the need for new strategies to prevent infection. It has been known for several decades that rotifers colonizing the schistosome's snail intermediate host produce a water-soluble factor that paralyzes cercariae, the life cycle stage infecting humans. In spite of its potential for preventing infection, the nature of this factor has remained obscure. Here, we report the purification and chemical characterization of Schistosome Paralysis Factor (SPF), a novel tetracyclic alkaloid produced by the rotifer Rotaria rotatoria. We show that this compound paralyzes schistosome cercariae and prevents infection and does so more effectively than analogous compounds. This molecule provides new directions for understanding cercariae motility and new strategies for preventing schistosome infection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cercárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotíferos/química , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Cercárias/patogenicidade , Cercárias/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 360, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paramphistomosis is a pathogenic disease of domesticated ruminants, causing great economic loss in dairy industry and meat production. It is considered as a neglected tropical disease with highest prevalence throughout tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia. There are few trematocidal drugs available in the market. Most are resistant and have elevated side effects. Therefore, alternative trematocidal drugs need to discover. This study was conducted to evaluate three plants leaf extracts (from Senna alata, S. alexandrina, and S. occidentalis) as effective remedies against gastrointestinal trematode parasite (Paramphistomum gracile) of ruminants. Live adult parasites were collected in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) from fresh autopsied goat's rumen. Parasites were incubated in leaf extracts of S. alata, S. alexandrina and, S. occidentalis individually and in combination (1:1) ratio at 37 ± 1°C. Treatment media contain extracts at different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) in 10 mL of 0.1 M PBS with 1% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Parasites in control group were incubated in PBS without extract. The efficacy of three Senna extracts was evaluated on the basis of dose-dependent motility and mortality of the trematode. Immediately after paralysis, all treated parasites were collected for histology, SEM and biochemical study. RESULTS: Dose-dependent efficacy was observed in terms of motility and time of mortality in all treated parasites after exposure in various concentrations of the Senna plant extracts. S. occidentalis and S. alexandrina showed better efficacy in combination than comparing with individual treatment groups. Histological study and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed conspicuous deformity of surface architecture in all treated parasites. Scanning electron micrographs also revealed shrinkage, vacuolization, infoldings and blebbings on the body surface of treated worms. Activities of tegumental enzymes were inhibited in all treatment groups compared to control. CONCLUSION: The overall findings from this study revealed that all three Senna leaf extracts individually and in combination showed potential antitrematocidal activity against Paramphistomum gracile by damaging body tegument and neural propagation. Thus, this study confirmed that all three Senna extracts can be considered as a potential drug-like candidate in indigenous system of traditional medicine against trematode infections in livestock.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Paramphistomatidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia , Cabras , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Paramphistomatidae/ultraestrutura , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rúmen/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
14.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470508

RESUMO

Viola betonicifolia (Violaceae) is commonly recognized as "Banafsha" and widely distributed throughout the globe. This plant is of great interest because of its traditional, pharmacological uses. This review mainly emphases on morphology, nutritional composition, and several therapeutic uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose plant. Different vegetative parts of this plant (roots, leaves, petioles, and flowers) contained a good profile of essential micro- and macronutrients and are rich source of fat, protein, carbohydrates, and vitamin C. The plant is well known for its pharmacological properties, e.g., antioxidant, antihelminthic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and has been reported in the treatment of various neurological diseases. This plant is of high economic value. The plant has potential role in cosmetic industry. This review suggests that V. betonicifolia is a promising source of pharmaceutical agents. This plant is also of significance as ornamental plant, however further studies needed to explore its phytoconstituents and their pharmacological potential. Furthermore, clinical studies are needed to use this plant for benefits of human beings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antidepressivos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Viola/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/isolamento & purificação , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Micronutrientes/classificação , Micronutrientes/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Nutrientes/classificação , Nutrientes/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia/métodos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/anatomia & histologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais , Viola/anatomia & histologia
15.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(22): 2032-2040, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) from snake venoms have a broad potential as pharmacological tools on medicine. In this context, strongyloidiasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Strongyloides. Currently, ivermectin is the drug of choice for treatment, however, besides its notable toxicity, therapeutic failures and cases of drug resistance have been reported. BnSP-6, from Bothorps pauloensis snake venom, is a PLA2 with depth biochemical characterization, reporting effects against tumor cells and bacteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to demonstrate for the first time the action of the PLA2 on Strongyloides venezuelensis. METHODS: After 72 hours of treatment with BnSP-6 mortality of the infective larvae was assessed by motility assay. Cell and parasite viability was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, autophagic vacuoles were labeled with Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and nuclei of apoptotic cells were labeled with Propidium Iodide (PI). Tissue degeneration of the parasite was highlighted by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: The mortality index demonstrated that BnSP-6 abolishes the motility of the parasite. In addition, the MTT assay attested the cytotoxicity of BnSP-6 at lower concentrations when compared with ivermectin, while autophagic and apoptosis processes were confirmed. Moreover, the anthelmintic effect was demonstrated by tissue degeneration observed by TEM. Furthermore, we report that BnSP-6 showed low cytotoxicity on human intestinal cells (Caco-2). CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results shed light on the potential of BNSP-6 as an anthelmintic agent, which can lead to further investigations as a tool for pharmaceutical discoveries.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/farmacologia , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Strongyloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Bothrops , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Venenos de Crotalídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Fosfolipases A2/química , Fosfolipases A2/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides/parasitologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104239, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201886

RESUMO

In the search for bioactive natural products from the African flora, three previously undescribed compounds including one stilbene-coumarin derivative (1), one coumarin-carbinol (2) and one fatty glycoside (3) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Monotes kerstingii, together with sixteen known compounds (4-19). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their NMR and MS spectroscopic data and by comparison of these data with those previously reported in the literature. Compounds 1-19 were screened for anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity. None of the compounds exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. However, compounds 4, 5, 8 and 14 displayed interesting antibacterial activity against B. subtilis at a concentration of 100 µM with respective inhibition percentages of 99, 79, 71 and 100%, respectively, compared to erythromycin used as positive control. In addition, at the same concentration, compound 6 showed remarkable antifungal activity against Septoria tritici with 93.6% growth inhibition and was found to be more active than the positive controls epoconazole and terbinafine displaying 76.6 and 84.3%, respectively .


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dipterocarpaceae/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camarões , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 13-19, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213236

RESUMO

Small ruminants browsing in tropical forests readily consume the foliage of Senegalia gaumeri. A S. gaumeri methanol:water extract was recently shown to have ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus eggs in vitro. In the present study, the fraction of a S. gaumeri methanol:water extract with ovicidal activity against H. contortus eggs and the metabolites potentially involved in this activity were identified. Bio-guided fractionation of the S. gaumeri methanol:water extract identified high ovicidal activity (80.29%, EC50 = 58.9 µg/mL) in the non-polar sub-fraction P1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified several fatty acids: pentacosane (18.05%), heneicosane (18.05%), triacontane (30.94%), octacosane (18.05%), and hexanedioic acid bis-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (32.72%). Purification of the polar components of sub-fraction P1 led to the identification of p-coumaric acid as a major constituent. In egg hatch tests, 400 µg/mL p-coumaric acid resulted in an ovicidal effect of 8.7%, a larvae failing eclosion effect of 2.9%, and of the emerged larvae (88.4%), many were damaged. In conclusion, the low AH activity of p-coumaric acid against H. contortus eggs indicates that it is not solely responsible for the ovicidal activity of sub-fraction P1 but might act in synergy with other compounds in this fraction. However, p-coumaric acid showed potential anthelmintic effects against the larval stage of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Parasitology ; 146(10): 1233-1246, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104640

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) stand out as an important cause of disease in small ruminant, especially on goat farm. Widespread resistance to synthetic anthelminthics has stimulated the research for alternative strategies of parasite control, including the use of medicinal plants. The present work summarizes the in vitro and in vivo studies of plants with activity against GIN of goats, focusing on the description of chemical constituents related to this effect. This review retrieved 56 scientific articles from 2008 to 2018 describing more than 100 different plant species. The most frequently investigated family was Fabaceae (30.7%). Most in vitro studies on the activity of plant extracts and fractions were carried out with of free-living stages nematodes. In vivo studies were conducted mainly with the use of plants in animal feed and generally showed lower effectiveness compared to in vitro assays. The main plant secondary metabolites associated with anthelmintic effect are condensed tannins, saponin and flavonoids. However, the studies with compounds isolated from plants and elucidation of their mechanisms of action are scarce. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective anthelmintic agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060200

RESUMO

Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale (Leeaceae) is found in tropical and subtropical countries and has historically been used as a traditional medicine in local healthcare systems. Although L. asiatica extracts have been found to possess anthelmintic and antioxidant-related nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects, little attention has been paid toward the investigation of phytochemical constituents of this plant. In the current study, phytochemical analysis of isolates from L. asiatica led to the identification of 24 compounds, including a novel phenolic glucoside, seven triterpenoids, eight flavonoids, two phenolic glycosides, four diglycosidic compounds, and two miscellaneous compounds. The phytochemical structures of the isolates from L. asiatica were elucidated using spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR and ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The presence of triterpenoids and flavonoids supports the evidence for anthelmintic and antioxidative effects of L. asiatica.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Vitaceae/química , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965575

RESUMO

Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata is one of the most frequently used ethnomedicinal plants by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of O. rugosa leaves (EEOR). The leaves were extracted with ethanol and subjected to in vivo antidiarrheal screening using the castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit models. Anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using the histamine-induced paw edema test. In parallel, in vitro anthelmintic and antibacterial activities were evaluated using the aquatic worm and disc diffusion assays respectively. In all three diarrheal models, EEOR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed obvious inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency, reduction of the volume and weight of the intestinal contents, and significant inhibition of intestinal motility. Also, EEOR manifested dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Anthelmintic action was deemed significant (P < 0.001) with respect to the onset of paralysis and helminth death. EEOR also resulted in strong zones of inhibition when tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GC-MS analysis identified 30 compounds within EEOR, and of these, 13 compounds documented as bioactive showed good binding affinities to M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, 5-HT3, tubulin and GlcN-6-P synthase protein targets in molecular docking experiments. Additionally, ADME/T and PASS analyses revealed their drug-likeness, likely safety upon consumption and possible pharmacological activities. In conclusion, our findings scientifically support the ethnomedicinal use and value of this plant, which may provide a potential source for future development of medicines.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Rubiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...