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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 453-455, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the diagnosis and treatment of an imported case of schistosomiasis haematobia. METHODS: The patient's medical records were collected, and the clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiological survey, diagnosis and treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: The patient had arrived to Sudan and Egypt for many times and had a history of contact with the infested water. After returning to China, the patient reported a gross hematuria with unknown causes. Cystoscopy showed neoplasms in the bladder, and pathologic examinations showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with infiltration of plenty of plasma cells, and parasite eggs. Serological test showed positive for the dipstick dye immunoassay, and the microscopic examination of urine sediment revealed Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Following praziquantel treatment for a month, S. haematobium eggs were still detected in the urine. The case was treated with praziquantel again and cured without adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Health education should be strengthened among China-aid-African workers to improve the awareness of self-protection. In addition, the diagnosis and treatment should be improved in medical professionals to achieve a timely definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose Urinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/urina , Humanos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/urina , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000371, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. Global advocacy organizations claim routine deworming has substantive health and societal effects beyond the removal of worms. In this update of the 2015 edition we included six new trials, additional data from included trials, and addressed comments and criticisms. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the effects of public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs on child growth, haemoglobin, cognition, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); reference lists; and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 19 September 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, height, haemoglobin, and formal tests of cognition. We also sought data on other measures of growth, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We stratified the analysis based on the background burden of STH infection. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 51 trials, including 10 cluster-RCTs, that met the inclusion criteria. One trial evaluating mortality included over one million children, and the remaining 50 trials included a total of 84,336 participants. Twenty-four trials were in populations categorized as high burden, including nine trials in children selected because they were helminth-stool positive; 18 with intermediate burden; and nine as low burden.First or single dose of deworming drugsFourteen trials reported on weight after a single dose of deworming drugs (4970 participants, 14 RCTs). The effects were variable. There was little or no effect in studies conducted in low and intermediate worm burden groups. In the high-burden group, there was little or no effect in most studies, except for a large effect detected from one study area in Kenya reported in two trials carried out over 30 years ago. These trials result in qualitative heterogeneity and uncertainty in the meta-analysis across all studies (I2 statistic = 90%), with GRADE assessment assessed as very low-certainty, which means we do not know if a first dose or single dose of deworming impacts on weight.For height, most studies showed little or no effect after a single dose, with one of the two trials in Kenya from 30 years ago showing a large average difference (2621 participants, 10 trials, low-certainty evidence). Single dose probably had no effect on average haemoglobin (MD 0.10 g/dL, 95% CI 0.03 lower to 0.22 higher; 1252 participants, five trials, moderate-certainty evidence), or on average cognition (1596 participants, five trials, low-certainty evidence). The data are insufficient to know if there is an effect on school attendance and performance (304 participants, one trial, low-certainty evidence), or on physical fitness (280 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on mortality.Multiple doses of deworming drugsThe effect of regularly treating children with deworming drugs given every three to six months on weight was reported in 18 trials, with follow-up times of between six months and three years; there was little or no effect on average weight in all but two trials, irrespective of worm prevalence-intensity. The two trials with large average weight gain included one in the high burden area in Kenya carried out over 30 years ago, and one study from India in a low prevalence area where subsequent studies in the same area did not show an effect. This heterogeneity causes uncertainty in any meta-analysis (I2 = 78%). Post-hoc analysis excluding trials published prior to 2000 gave an estimate of average difference in weight gain of 0.02 kg (95%CI from 0.04 kg loss to 0.08 gain, I2 = 0%). Thus we conclude that we do not know if repeated doses of deworming drugs impact on average weight, with a fewer older studies showing large gains, and studies since 2000 showing little or no average gain.Regular treatment probably had little or no effect on the following parameters: average height (MD 0.02 cm higher, 95% CI 0.09 lower to 0.13 cm higher; 13,700 participants, 13 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); average haemoglobin (MD 0.01 g/dL lower; 95% CI 0.05 g/dL lower to 0.07 g/dL higher; 5498 participants, nine trials, moderate-certainty evidence); formal tests of cognition (35,394 participants, 8 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); school performance (34,967 participants, four trials, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence assessing an effect on school attendance is inconsistent, and at risk of bias (mean attendance 2% higher, 95% CI 5% lower to 8% higher; 20,650 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on physical fitness. No effect was shown on mortality (1,005,135 participants, three trials, low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs do not appear to improve height, haemoglobin, cognition, school performance, or mortality. We do not know if there is an effect on school attendance, since the evidence is inconsistent and at risk of bias, and there is insufficient data on physical fitness. Studies conducted in two settings over 20 years ago showed large effects on weight gain, but this is not a finding in more recent, larger studies. We would caution against selecting only the evidence from these older studies as a rationale for contemporary mass treatment programmes as this ignores the recent studies that have not shown benefit.The conclusions of the 2015 edition have not changed in this update.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estado Nutricional , Solo/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso , Peso Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 319-322, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of transient elastography (Fibroscan) in detection of clonorchiasis, so as to provide new insights into the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of deworming. METHODS: The liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values were measured in parasitologically diagnosed clonorchiasis patients using FibroScan before and after deworming, and the patients'age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of raw fish consumption and total amount of raw fish consumption were collected for correlation analyses. RESULTS: The clonorchiasis patients'age, gender, BMI, duration of raw fish consumption and total amount of raw fish consumption had no associations with pre-treatment LSM values (r/rs = 0.189, 0.073, 0.180; 0.071, -0.098, 0.033; 0.166, 0.309, 0.172; 0.235, 0.247, 0.209; 0.164, 0.277, 0.088; all P values > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the LSM values from the seventh, eighth and ninth intercostal space prior to deworming (F = 3.259, P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected after deworming (F = 0.851, P > 0.05). The LSM values from the seventh, eighth and ninth intercostal space were significantly lower pre-deworming than post-deworming (t = 6.724, 5.603, 2.884; all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FibroScan is feasible to assess the therapuetic efficacy of deworming in patients with clonorchiasis; however, measurement at various sites affects the LSM value.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Clonorquíase/complicações , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/normas , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 40-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395203

RESUMO

In this study we evaluated the efficacy of trichlorfon against Haemonchus contortus, monitoring its influence on blood parameters and plasma enzymes of lambs with haemonchosis. A lamb group was orally treated with trichlorfon at 100 mg kg-1 while the other group was untreated. Split-plot design analysis was performed with the lamb groups defined as plots while the subplots were the four periods (weeks) of collection. The trichlorfon treatment promoted a significant and effective reduction of fecal egg counts after one week, with efficacies > 99%. After 21 days of treatment, detected blood parameters and serum levels of plasma enzymes were normal. Additionally, serum albumin and urea concentrations increased to normal values, which were not observed in untreated lambs. The treatment with this organophosphate, using a correct oral administration, may represent an effective therapeutic alternative for sheep infected with multi resistant strain of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Triclorfon/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Enzimas/sangue , Hemoncose/sangue , Haemonchus , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16985, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464947

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (AEM) in infants is a very rare but fatal disease. Utilization of genetic assay to detect the cerebral parasite plays an important role for the treatment of the infection. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two infants (<2 years) presented with cough, intermittent fever, mental fatigue, and poor diet. DIAGNOSIS: The patients were under clinical examination and laboratory test including cardiac ultrasound, chest X-ray, blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counting, serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from CSF. Due to hypereosinophils in patients' peripheral blood and CSF, and abundant DNA sequences from A cantonensis in CSF, the patients were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were treated with albendazole to deworm, and methylprednisolone to reduce inflammation. OUTCOME: The patients were completely recovered from AEM without relapse after 10-day treatment. LESSONS: ELISA and MRI are not sufficiently accurate for the diagnosis of AEM in infants. NGS can specify the infection by the cerebral parasite and offers a new effective approach for the early and precise diagnosis of AEM in infants.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/complicações , Meningoencefalite/complicações , Meningoencefalite/diagnóstico , Meningoencefalite/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
7.
Orv Hetil ; 160(24): 952-957, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433234

RESUMO

We report a case of a 41-year-old female patient presenting with watery diarrhoea and myalgia in the winter-season. Before her symptoms started she had participated in a pig slaughtering with her family. Some of the family members also became ill. On her physical examination periorbital odema and myalgia were found. Eosinophilia, hypalbuminaemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and creatin kinase levels were detected on laboratory investigations. The clinical picture, the laboratory findings and background epidemiological data implied the diagnosis of trichinellosis and albendazol was started. Serum gained on the 22nd post-infectious day turned out to be equivocal for trichinellosis. For this reason and because of the refractory fever a muscle-biopsy was done. Granulomatous myositis described by histology and Trichinella seropositivity from the repeated serum sample on the 62nd post-infectious day finally confirmed the diagnosis. During the course of the disease, we experienced elevation of troponin I suggesting myocarditis, but it was accompanied neither with abnormal ECG signs nor characteristic symptoms. Almost a century ago, a case report was published in Hungarian with a similar introduction. Trichinellosis in that epidemic setting led to the death of five people. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(24): 952-957.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Miosite/etiologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Miosite/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triquinelose/sangue , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107726, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299264

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate if the use of copper oxide wire particles, isolated or in association with closantel, in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus enhances the anthelmintic efficacy of closantel, as well as to evaluate the effects of treatment in hepatic energy metabolism, inflammatory markers and hematological and biochemical tests. The lambs were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals each), as follows: uninfected animals (Control); animals infected with H. contortus (HC); infected and treated with closantel (HC + CL); infected and treated with copper oxide wire particles (HC + Cu); and infected and treated with closantel plus copper oxide wire particles (HC + CL + Cu). The animals of infected groups were infected orally with H. contortus (5,000 L3 -larvae) and on day 14 post infection (p.i) the treatments were initiated. The egg per gram of feces (EPG), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities and hematological and biochemical tests were evaluated. Treatments with copper oxide (isolated and associated) were able to reduce the EPG count on days 28, 35, 42 and 49 p.i when compared to HC group, while closantel was able to reduce EPG only from day 35 p.i. Moreover, treatment with closantel (isolated or associated) was able to prevent the inhibition of hepatic AK and PK activities caused by H. contortus infection, which may contribute to efficient intracellular energetic communication in order to maintain the balance between cellular ATP consumption and production. Butyrylcholinesterase and MPO activities were higher in infected lambs compared to uninfected, while treated groups showed lower enzymatic activity compared to the group HC. The use of all therapeutic protocols was able to reduce the EPG count. Based on these evidences, the use of copper oxide plus closantel may be considered an alternative to treat lambs infected by H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Salicilanilidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Cápsulas , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/complicações , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Peroxidase/sangue , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Salicilanilidas/farmacologia , Salicilanilidas/uso terapêutico , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107728, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-infection with Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni may have significant consequences for disease progression, severity and subsequent transmission dynamics. Pentavalent antimonials and Praziquantel (PZQ) are used as first line of treatment for Leishmania and Schistosoma infections respectively. However, there is limited insight on how combined therapy with the standard drugs impacts the host in comorbidity. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of combined chemotherapy using Pentostam (P) and PZQ in murine model co-infected with L. major and S. mansoni. METHODS: A 3 × 4 factorial design with three parasite infection groups (Lm, Sm, Lm + Sm to represent L. major, S. mansoni and L. major + S. mansoni respectively) and four treatment regimens [P, PZQ, P + PZQ, and PBS designating Pentostam (GlaxoSmithKline UK), Praziquantel (Biltricide®, Bayer Ag. Leverkusen, Germany), Pentostam + Praziquantel and Phosphate buffered saline] as factors was applied. RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in the serum Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and Macrophage inflammatory protein-one alpha (MIP-1α) levels among various treatment groups between week 8 and week 10 (p < 0.05). There was increased IFN-γ in the L. major infected mice subjected to PZQ and PBS, and in L. major + S. mansoni infected BALB/c mice treated with P + PZQ. Subsequently, MIP-1α levels increased significantly in both the L. major infected mice under PZQ and PBS and in L. major + S. mansoni infected BALB/c mice undergoing concurrent chemotherapy with P + PZQ between 8 and 10 weeks (p < 0.05). In the comorbidity, simultaneous chemotherapy resulted in less severe histopathological effects in the liver. CONCLUSION: It was evident, combined first line of treatment is a more effective strategy in managing co-infection of L. major and S. mansoni. The findings denote simultaneous chemotherapy compliments immunomodulation in the helminth-protozoa comorbidity hence, less severe pathological effects following the parasites infection. Recent cases of increased incidences of polyparasitism in vertebrates call for better ways to manage co-infections. The findings presented necessitate intrinsic biological interest on examining optimal combined chemotherapeutic agents strategies in helminth-protozoa concomitance and the related infections abatement trends vis-a-vis host-parasite relationships.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/complicações , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/administração & dosagem , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CCL3/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Interferon gama/sangue , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/patologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 661, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis multilocularis (Hydatid Disease - HD) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus multilocularis (EM). The main sites for this zoonosis are the Middle East, China, India, Alaska, and Siberia. It is rather rare in Europe. In Poland, the Warmian-Masurian Province is the endemic region for Echinococcus multilocularis. The clinical manifestation of the disease is dependent on the location, the size of the cyst and the development stage of the parasite. Considering the uncommon character of echinococcosis in Central Europe, especially such located in the areas outside the liver and lungs, the authors would like to present a case of coexistence in one patient of two EM foci in the liver and the head of the pancreas. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a clinical case of a 32-year-old man who was diagnosed with a cystic lesion with septa and calcification in the sixth segment of the liver and a suspicious change in the head of the pancreas. ELISA Em 2 plus test was positive, Western Blot method - the P-5 pattern showed an image that is characteristic of an EM infection. The sixth liver segment with a tumour and a tumour from the head of pancreas were excised by means of laparotomy. On the 6th day after the surgery the patient was discharged from hospital without complications and in good condition. Currently, he is under the control of a parasitic and zoonotic clinic. He takes an 800 mg daily dosage of Albendazole. CONCLUSIONS: The presented clinical case shows that if we have a patient with cystic / tumour change in the pancreas and positive immunological tests, CT and MRI of the abdominal cavity are usually sufficient in order to fully diagnose and to qualify such a person for surgery. The most effective treatment is surgical treatment supplemented with pre- and postsurgical treatment with Albendazole.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/parasitologia , Pâncreas/parasitologia , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 383-388, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260204

RESUMO

Fish lice, ectoparasites of the genus Argulus, are branchurian crustaceans that can significantly impact fish health by causing mechanical damage to cutaneous barriers and increasing susceptibility to other infections. While many treatments have been reported in teleosts and invertebrates, there are no published treatments for elasmobranchs. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime and lufenuron in freshwater stingrays for treatment of Argulus spp. Seven juvenile Magdalena river stingrays (Potamotrygon magdalenae) and 10 juvenile smooth back river stingrays (Potamotrygon orbignyi) had severe infestations of Argulus spp. that were identified visually and microscopically. Animals were treated with milbemycin oxime and lufenuron (at 0.015 mg/L and 0.30 mg/L, respectively) in a 6-hr immersion once weekly for two treatments. They were visually examined for skin lesions as well as behavior and appetite daily by animal care staff. A subset of animals was euthanized and necropsied on days 8, 9, 43, and 78 after treatment initiation. There were no Argulus spp. detected at the time of the second treatment. Complete gross and histologic evaluations were completed for all animals. At all time points, no gross abnormalities were detected with the exception of thin body condition in some animals; no Argulus spp. were noted. Histologic lesions were all attributed to poor nutritional state at the time of acquisition. No histologic evidence of acute or chronic toxicosis was detected. The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime and lufenuron, applied at the dose and for the exposure time used in this study, effectively eradicated Argulus spp. in a population of juvenile P. magdalenae and P. orbignyi, and did not cause mortality or clinical gross or histologic evidence of acute or chronic toxicity.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Copépodes , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Raias
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 31-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303200

RESUMO

The recovery of fenbendazole efficacy against Haemonchus contortus was attempted in a sheep intensive production system, using a strategy of population replacement in which the initial absolute efficacy of fenbendazole was 0%. The strategy was based on managing the parasite populations in refugia. Firstly, the resistant parasite population was reduced by means of anthelmintic treatments with efficacious drugs (Phase I), then a new, susceptible population was introduced in summer by way of artificially infected lambs at weaning, which were left to graze on the experimental pasture for eleven months (Phase II). Lastly, the impact of the replacement strategy, in terms of benzimidazole efficacy, was measured (Phase III). Faecal egg counts from permanent lambs and worm burdens as a measure of pasture infectivity from tracer lambs were determined throughout the study. During Phase I, faecal egg counts diminished from a peak of 2968 (300-7740) epg to 0 epg at the end, while adult worm burdens of H. contortus were reduced from 2625 (800-5100) to 0, which showed that the treatment strategy used in Phase I was effective in reducing the resistant population. These parameters also showed that good levels of pasture contamination and infectivity were achieved in Phase II, as faecal egg counts of up to 7275 (3240-13080) epg and adult worm burdens of 500 (200-800) H. contortus were reached. The absolute benzimidazole efficacy on H. contortus estimated at 16 months post-population replacement (Phase III) was 97.58%. The results lead to the conclusion that the recovery of anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole against a resistant population of H. contortus may be achieved by means of a strategy based on management of refugia and a subsequent introduction of a susceptible population. This strategy might be translatable to other resistant nematode genera.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Ovinos
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 353, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faecal egg counts (FEC) and the FEC reduction test (FECRT) for assessing gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection and efficacy of anthelmintics are rarely carried out on ruminant farms because of the cost of individual analyses. The use of pooled faecal samples is a promising method to reduce time and costs, but few studies are available for cattle, especially on the evaluation of different pool sizes and FECRT application. METHODS: A study was conducted to assess FEC strategies based on pooled faecal samples using different pool sizes and to evaluate the pen-side use of a portable FEC-kit for the assessment of FEC on cattle farms. A total of 19 farms representing 29 groups of cattle were investigated in Italy and France. On each farm, individual faecal samples from heifers were collected before (D0) and two weeks after (D14) anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin or benzimidazoles. FEC were determined individually and as pooled samples using the Mini-FLOTAC technique. Four different pool sizes were used: 5 individual samples, 10 individual samples, global and global on-farm. Correlations and agreements between individual and pooled results were estimated with Spearman's correlation coefficient and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients, respectively. RESULTS: High correlation and agreement coefficients were found between the mean of individual FEC and the mean of FEC of the different pool sizes when considering all FEC obtained at D0 and D14. However, these parameters were lower for FECR calculation due to a poorer estimate of FEC at D14 from the faecal pools. When using FEC from pooled samples only at D0, higher correlation and agreement coefficients were found between FECR data, the better results being obtained with pools of 5 samples. Interestingly, FEC obtained on pooled samples by the portable FEC-kit on-farm showed high correlation and agreement with FEC obtained on individual samples in the laboratory. This field approach has to be validated on a larger scale to assess its feasibility and reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights that the pooling strategy and the use of portable FEC-kits on-farm are rapid and cost-effective procedures for the assessment of GIN egg excretion and can be used cautiously for FECR calculation following the administration of anthelmintics in cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , França , Itália , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/instrumentação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180229, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340353

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem chronic inflammatory disease in children. We present a case of a five-year-old child with clinical features mimicking several diseases, including tuberculosis. After failure of treatment based on the suspected diagnosis, an axillary lymph node biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis and appropriate treatment was then started.


Assuntos
Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Tiabendazol/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 526, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food-borne trematodiases are an important group of neglected global diseases. Affected patients in regions with low prevalence usually experience delayed diagnosis, especially when presenting with atypical clinical symptoms. Here, we presented a rare case of a Chinese patient infected with three food-borne trematodiases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man presented with diarrhea, lower extremity edema, and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction. He had a history of intermittent consumption of raw freshwater fishes for 6-7 years. Upon evaluation, he had eosinophilia, anemia, intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a growing space-occupying lesion in the left atrium. The patient underwent a cardiac surgery which revealed an endocardial hematoma due to mechanical injuries. Imaging investigations also revealed intracranial and pulmonary lesions. A total of three trematodiases were diagnosed based upon microscopic stool examination, from which eggs of Clonorchis sinensis, Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae were identified. Deposition of Clonorchis sinensis eggs was also observed from ileocecal squash slides. The patient was successfully treated with three cycles of praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS: Food-borne trematodiases may present with systemic involvement. Patients with dietary history of high risk or atypical ingestions should be evaluated for parasitic infection, even in non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/patologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/patologia
17.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e6, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170783

RESUMO

African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is caused by several species of the genus Trypanosoma, a parasitic protozoan infecting domestic and wild animals. One of the major effects of infection with pathogenic trypanosome is anaemia. Currently, the control policies for tsetse and trypanosomosis are less effective in South Africa. The only response was to block treat all infected herds and change the dip chemical to one which controls tsetse flies during severe outbreaks. This policy proved to be less effective as demonstrated by the current high level of trypanosome infections in cattle. Our objective was to study the impacts of AAT (nagana) on animal productivity by monitoring the health of cattle herds kept in tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic areas before and after an intervention that reduces the incidence of the disease. The study was conducted on a farm in northern KwaZulu-Natal which kept a commercial cattle herd. There was no history of any cattle treatment for trypanosome. All cattle were generally in poor health condition at the start of the study though the herd received regular anthelminthic treatment. A treatment strategy using two drugs, homidium bromide (ethidium) and homidium chloride (novidium), was implemented. Cattle were monitored regularly for 13 months for herd trypanosomosis prevalence (HP), herd average packed cell volume (H-PCV) and the percentage of the herd that was anaemic (HA). A total of six odour-baited H-traps were deployed where cattle grazed from January 2006 to August 2007 to monitor the tsetse population. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were collected continuously for the entire study period. High trypanosomes HP (44%), low average H-PCV (29.5) and HA (24%) were rerecorded in the baseline survey. All cattle in the herd received their first treatment with ethidium bromide. Regular monthly sampling of cattle for the next 142 days showed a decline in HP of 2.2% - 2.8%. However, an HP of 20% was recorded by day 220 and the herd received the second treatment using novidium chloride. The HP dropped to 0.0% and HA to 0.0% by day 116 after the second treatment. The cow group was treated again by day 160 when the HP and HA were 27.3% and 11%, respectively. The same strategy was applied to the other two groups of weaners and the calves at the time when their HP reached 20%. Ethidium and novidium treatment protected cattle, that were under continuous tsetse and trypanosomosis challenge, for up to 6 months. Two to three treatments per year may be sufficient for extended protection. However, this strategy would need to be included into an integrated pest management approach combining vector control for it to be sustainable.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Insetos , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Esquema de Medicação/veterinária , Fazendas , Insetos Vetores , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripanossomíase Africana/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomíase Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 7-12, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213242

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of variability in Parascaris spp. and strongyle faecal egg counts (FEC) from foals on treatment decision-making and detection of a patent infection. A single faecal sample was collected once daily for three days from 53 foals and a FEC was performed on three separate portions of each sample (total of nine egg counts per foal). Differences in the decision to administer an anthelmintic using the results of a single count (C1), the mean of three (X¯1-3) or nine counts (X¯1-9) and the upper 5% confidence limit of the gamma confidence interval (CI) of the estimate of the distribution mean (µ) from three (UCL1-3) and nine counts (UCL1-9) were determined for a range of egg count thresholds. The UCL1-9 was used as the best estimate of µ, hypothesis testing for treatment and the comparison of treatment decision-making using C1, X¯1-3, X¯1-9 and UCL1-3. The results of this study demonstrated that a point estimate (C1 or X¯1-3) was of limited value for estimating the distribution mean of egg counts in faeces and there was overall poor agreement in treatment decision-making for individual foals using C1 compared with UCL1-9. Of the foals with C1 of zero eggs per gram, 54% and 47% had Parascaris and strongyle eggs in subsequent counts, respectively. The egg density in faeces is inhomogeneous, resulting in considerable variability in egg count results for an individual foal: between faecal piles, different portions of a faecal pile and days. The use of the negative binomial distribution CI for µ takes this variability into account and is recommended for use when interpreting FEC data from horses.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaridoidea , Cavalos
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintics in goats raised under mountain farming conditions in northern Italy. On 8 goat farms (n = 143 animals), a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was done after farmers conducted their routine anthelmintic treatments. Furthermore, on 5 goat farms (n = 135 animals) a FECR test was done under controlled conditions applying oral formulations of a macrocyclic lactone (ML), benzimidazole (BZ) (partly in combination with salicylanilide (SA)) or a combination of imidazothiazole (IT) and SA on the same farm. AR was assumed if FECR and the upper confidence interval (CI) was < 95% and the lower 95% CI was < 90%. RESULTS: Underdosing was found in 6 of the 8 farms tested after routine treatments. Out of the 6 routinely ML-treated goat flocks, only three were found where ML showed adequate efficacy. FECR in all others ranged between 64 and 93%. In one flock Trichostrongylus spp. and in one Haemonchus spp. larvae were identified after treatment. BZ-treated flocks had an efficacy of 99 and 37%. Larvae identified after treatment were Trichostrongylus spp. in one and Haemonchus spp. in the other flock. Under controlled conditions, ML had an adequate efficacy on 4 farms and a FECR of 88% on another one. BZ was effective on all farms. The combination of BZ and SA had a FECR of 99% on the farm it was tested. IT + SA in combination was effective on 2 farms and had a FECR of 91% on a third farm. Larvae identified after treatment were composed of Haemonchus spp. (ML and BZ), Trichostrongylus spp. (BZ) and Teladorsagia spp. (BZ and SA). CONCLUSIONS: This first report on the prevalence of AR in goats in the mountainous region of South Tyrol reveals a low efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics after routine treatments. This might be explained by a high level of underdosing as observed in the farms. However, results from the controlled FECR tests suggest that the observed level of AR was lower but cannot be solely explained by underdosing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
20.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(2): 99-101, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204466

RESUMO

Hydatid disease is a parasitic disease. Although the disease causes many organ involvement, intracranial involvement is rarely seen. Clinical findings vary according to the number, size, localization of the cyst and the immune status of the patient. We aimed to present a rare case with intracranial hydatid cyst. A 8-year-old male patient presented with headache and vomiting. Physical examination revealed papillary edema. Brain computerized tomography imaging revealed a 13x13 cm cystic formation in the brain. The patient's echinococcal indirect hemagglutination test result was positive. The patient was started on oral albendazole therapy for intracranial hydatid cyst and was operated by brain surgery. Pathologic examination of the cyst was compatible with hydatid cyst. Although cysts are detected in the liver and lungs, cysts may be seen in atypically located areas. It should be kept in mind in clinically suspected patients that the disease can develop in rare organs, especially in patients with endemic areas. In patients with hydatid disease, advanced radiological examinations such as lung X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiographic examination should be performed for other organ involvement.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/parasitologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Administração Oral , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Criança , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/cirurgia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Cefaleia , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vômito
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