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1.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 77, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns of inadvertent SARS-CoV-2 transmission to healthcare workers during routine procedures of the aerodigestive tract in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Current efforts to mitigate this risk focus on Personal Protective Equipment, including high-efficiency filtration as well as other measures. Because the reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 shedding is in the nasopharynx and nasal and oral cavities, the application of viricidal agents to these surfaces may reduce virus burden. Numerous studies have confirmed that povidone-iodine inactivates many common respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Povidone-iodine also has good profile for mucosal tolerance. Thus, we propose a prophylactic treatment protocol for the application of topical povidone-iodine to the upper aerodigestive tract. CONCLUSION: Such an approach represents a low-cost, low-morbidity measure that may reduce the risks associated with aerosol-generating procedures performed commonly in otorhinolaryngology operating rooms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Aerossóis , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Boca , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 751-752, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880300

RESUMO

In endeavouring to mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a concerning practice of spraying individuals with disinfectant via so-called 'disinfection tunnels' has come to light. The Allergy Society of South Africa supports the World Health Organization in strongly condemning all human spraying, owing to lack of efficacy and potential dangers, especially to patients with coexisting allergic conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Desinfecção/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Alergia e Imunologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , África do Sul , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22218, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coated central venous catheters (CSS-CVC) may cause loss of antimicrobial efficacy due to friction between the CVC surface and sheer stress caused by the blood flow. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of CSS-CVC at various flow rates using a bloodstream model. METHODS: Each CVC was subjected to various flow rates (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 L/min) and wear-out times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours), and the optical density (OD) 600 after a Staphylococcus aureus incubation test was used to determine the antibacterial effect of CSS-CVC. RESULTS: In the 0.5 L/min group, there was no significant change in the OD600 value up to 120 hours compared with the baseline OD600 value for CSS-CVC (P > .467). However, the OD600 values of CSS-CVC in the 1 L/min (P < .001) and 2 L/min (P < .001) groups were significantly reduced up to 72 hours, while that in the 4 L/min (p < 0.001) group decreased rapidly up to 48 hours. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is a doubt whether sufficient antibacterial function can be maintained with prolonged duration of catheter placement.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/normas , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Projetos Piloto , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 785, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1- To compare the effectiveness of 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline and a novel solution Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) in reducing intra-oral viral load in COVID-19 positive patients. 2- To determine the salivary cytokine profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL- 17 among COVID-19 patients subjected to 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline or Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) based gargles. TRIAL DESIGN: This will be a parallel group, quadruple blind-randomised controlled pilot trial with an add on laboratory based study. PARTICIPANTS: A non-probability, purposive sampling technique will be followed to identify participants for this study. The clinical trial will be carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. The viral PCR tests will be done at main AKUH clinical laboratories whereas the immunological tests (cytokine analysis) will be done at the Juma research laboratory of AKUH. The inclusion criteria are laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 positive patients, male or female, in the age range of 18-65 years, with mild to moderate disease, already admitted to the AKUH. Subjects with low Glasgow coma score, with a history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, who are more than 7 days past the onset of COVID- 19 symptoms, or intubated or edentulous patients will be excluded. Patients who are being treated with any form of oral or parenteral antiviral therapy will be excluded, as well as patients with known pre-existing chronic mucosal lesions such as lichen planus. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Group A (n=10) patients on 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 0.2% Povidone-Iodine (Betadiene® by Aviro Health Inc./ Pyodine® by Brooks Pharma Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group B (n=10) patients will be subjected to 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 1% Hydrogen peroxide (HP® by Karachi Chemicals Products Inc./ ActiveOxy® by Boumatic Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group C will comprised of (n=10) subjects on 10ml gargle and nasal lavage using Neem extract solution (Azardirachta indica) formulated by Karachi University (chemistry department laboratories) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group D (n=10) patients will use 2% hypertonic saline (Plabottle® by Otsuka Inc.) gargle and nasal lavage for a similar time period. Group E (n=10) will serve as positive controls. These will be given simple distilled water gargles and nasal lavage for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for six days. For nasal lavage, a special douche syringe will be provided to each participant. Its use will be thoroughly explained by the data collection officer. After each use, the patient is asked not to eat, drink, or rinse their mouth for the next 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the reduction in the intra-oral viral load confirmed with real time quantitative PCR. RANDOMISATION: The assignment to the study group/ allocation will be done using the sealed envelope method under the supervision of Clinical Trial Unit (CTU) of Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. The patients will be randomised to their respective study group (1:1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) immediately after the eligibility assessment and consent administration is done. BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be quadruple-blinded. Patients, intervention provider, outcome assessor and the data collection officer will be blinded. The groups will be labelled as A, B, C, D or E. The codes of the intervention will be kept in lock & key at the CTU and will only be revealed at the end of study or if the study is terminated prematurely. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no prior work on this research question, so no assumptions for the sample size calculation could be made. The present study will serve as a pilot trial. We intend to study 50 patients in five study groups with 10 patients in each study group. For details, please refer to Fig. 1 for details. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version is 7.0, approved by the department and institutional ethics committees and clinical trial unit of the university hospital. Recruitment is planned to start as soon as the funding is sanctioned. The total duration of the study is expected to be 6 months i.e. August 2020-January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov on 10 April 2020 NCT04341688 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). Fig. 1 Flow diagram of study-participants' timeline.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Lavagem Nasal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/métodos
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 301-308, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections are challenging complications of implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation. They pose a clinical challenge, with significant economic implications. One proposed solution is implant irrigation at the time of placement. There is no consensus on the optimal irrigant solution. METHODS: The authors tested the relative efficacy of 10% povidone-iodine, Clorpactin, Prontosan, triple-antibiotic solution, or normal saline (negative control) against two strains each of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Sterile, smooth silicone implant disks were immersed in irrigant solution, then incubated in suspensions of methicillin-resistant S. aureus or S. epidermidis overnight. The disks were rinsed and sonicated to displace adherent bacteria from the implant surface, and the displaced bacteria were quantified. Normalized values were calculated to characterize the relative efficacy of each irrigant. RESULTS: Povidone-iodine resulted in reductions of the bacterial load by a factor of 10 to 10 for all strains. Prontosan-treated smooth breast implant disks had a 10-fold reduction in bacterial counts for all but one methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain. In comparison to Prontosan, triple-antibiotic solution demonstrated a trend of greater reduction in methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacterial load and weaker activity against S. epidermidis strains. Clorpactin reduced the recovered colony-forming units for only a single strain of S. epidermidis. Povidone-iodine demonstrated the greatest efficacy against all four strains. However, Clorpactin, triple-antibiotic solution, and Prontosan demonstrated similar efficacies. CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine was the most efficacious of the irrigants at reducing methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis contamination. Given the recent lifting of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration moratorium, larger clinical studies of povidone-iodine as a breast implant irrigant solution are warranted. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Mama/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Bacitracina/administração & dosagem , Benzenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Implante Mamário/instrumentação , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Soluções , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1037-1041, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the serious consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the shortage of protective equipment for health personnel. N95 masks are considered one of the essential protective equipment in the management of patients with COVID-19. The shortage of N95 masks implies potential health risks for health personnel and significant economic losses for the health institution. The objective of this work was to investigate the disinfection of N95 masks artificially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 and ESKAPE bacteria by using hydrogen peroxide plasma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the disinfection capacity of hydrogen peroxide plasma against the SARS-CoV-2 and 2 members of the ESKAPE bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus) through a study of artificial contamination in situ of N95 masks. Amplification of specific genes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of SARS-CoV-2 and microbiological culture of ESKAPE bacteria was performed before and after the disinfection process. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in all assays using 5 different concentrations of the virus, and A baumannii and S aureus were not cultivable with inoculums of 102 to 106 CFU after disinfection tests of N95 masks with hydrogen peroxide plasma. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of N95 masks by using the hydrogen peroxide plasma technology can be an alternative for their reuse in a shortage situation. Implications for the use of disinfection technologies of N95 masks and the safety of health personnel are discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Máscaras/microbiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(5): 102618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574894

RESUMO

SARS CoV 2 is very much homologous in structure to SARS CoV. Review of literature suggests the in-vitro virucidal action of povidone iodine in SARS CoV and MERS. The oropharynx and nasopharynx are target sites of SARS CoV 2. A significant proportion of COVID 19 sufferers are asymptomatic, but shedding these viral particles, PVP-I has been shown to be a safe therapy when used as a mouthwash or taken nasally or used during ophthalmic surgeries. AIMS: MATERIALS AND METHODS: 0.5% PVP-I solution is prepared from commercially available 10% PVP-I solution. Patients were instructed to put 0.5% PVP-I drops in nose and rinse mouth with gargle prior examinations for 30 s. For endoscopic procedure (nasal and throat) nasal douching and gargling to be started one day prior. Douching and rinsing to be repeated just before procedures. Nasal packing with 0.5% PVP-I along with 4% xylocaine/adrenaline solution, tolerability and any allergic reaction noted. RESULTS: The patient and health care workers tolerated the 0.5%. No allergy was noted. CONCLUSION: We propose the use of 0.5% PVP-I in healthcare workers and their patients to minimise the risk of spread of the disease in addition to the recommended PPE.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Otolaringologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1543-1547, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533621

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health crisis. The diagnostic and containment efforts for the disease have presented significant challenges for the global health-care community. In this brief report, we provide perspective on the potential use of salivary specimens for detection and serial monitoring of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), based on current literature. Oral health-care providers are at an elevated risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to their proximity to nasopharynx of patients, and the practice involving the use of aerosol-generating equipment. Here, we summarize the general guidelines for oral health-care specialists for prevention of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19, and provide specific recommendations for clinical care management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Saliva/virologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Odontólogos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Antissépticos Bucais , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(8): 1822-1825, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19), which causes coronavirus disease 2019, is highly contagious and a particularly popular problem in all around the world and also in all departments of every hospital. AIMS: Protecting the well-being of the aesthetic dermatologists while providing a sufficient workforce is vital for pandemic planning. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we will discuss this problem from an aesthetic dermatology aspect and we will review whether these procedures are safe or not.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Cosméticas , Dermatologia/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/normas , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatologistas/organização & administração , Dermatologistas/normas , Dermatologia/educação , Dermatologia/normas , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação Médica/normas , Estética , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas
14.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1497-1502, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415891

RESUMO

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in society experiencing unprecedented challenges for health care practitioners and facilities serving at the frontlines of this pandemic. With regard to oral cancer, there is a complete absence of literature regarding the long-term impact of pandemics on patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The objective of this article is to put forth an institutional multidisciplinary approach for the evaluation and management of OPMDs. METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach was put formalized within our institution to risk stratify patients based on need for in-person assessment vs telehealth assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: With judicious risk stratification of patients based on clinical features of their OPMD and with consideration of ongoing mitigation efforts and regional pandemic impact, providers are able to safely care for their patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has required health care practitioners to make novel decisions that are new to us with development of creative pathways of care that focused on patient safety, mitigation efforts, and clinical management of disease processes. The care of patients with OPMDs requires special considerations especially as patients at high risk for severe COVID-19 illness are also higher risk for the development of OPMDs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Administração Tópica , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Clínicos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Leucoplasia Oral , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Telemedicina
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 113.e1-113.e11, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections after cesarean delivery are a cause of maternal morbidity and are typically caused by skin microbial flora. Preadmission application of chlorhexidine gluconate using impregnated cloths may decrease surgical site infections by decreasing the abundance of microbial flora. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the application of chlorhexidine gluconate cloths the night before and the morning of scheduled cesarean delivery decreases the risk of surgical site infections by 6 weeks postoperatively compared with placebo. STUDY DESIGN: In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either Sage 2% chlorhexidine cloths or Sage Comfort Bath fragrance-free cloths (placebo) to apply to 6 skin sites on the body (neck, shoulders and chest, armpits, arm and hands, abdomen and groin, left leg and foot, right leg and foot, back and buttocks) the night before and after a shower the morning of scheduled cesarean delivery. Routine clinical and operative procedures were followed. The primary outcome was surgical site infections (superficial or deep incisional with or without organ space endometritis) by 6 weeks after cesarean delivery. The secondary outcomes were surgical site infections by 2 weeks and other wound-related complications by 2 and 6 weeks after cesarean delivery. RESULTS: From April 2015 to August 2019, 1356 patients were enrolled: 682 were assigned to the chlorhexidine group and 674 to the placebo group. The groups were similar in demographic and medical characteristics. A total of 14 patients were lost to follow-up before cesarean delivery (10 in chlorhexidine and 4 in placebo) and 33 were lost to follow-up after cesarean delivery (10 in chlorhexidine and 23 in placebo). Among the remaining 1309 (97%), no difference was found in surgical site infections by 6 weeks between the 2 groups (2.6% in chlorhexidine vs 3.7% in placebo; P=.24). There were no differences in secondary outcomes at 2 or 6 weeks and no differences in primary outcome in a per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSION: Preadmission use of chlorhexidine gluconate cloths compared with placebo does not reduce the risk of surgical site infection after scheduled cesarean deliveries. Following the standard of care guidelines results in a low risk of surgical site infections in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cesárea , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(5): 299-302, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although indwelling catheters are increasingly used in modern medicine, they can be a source of microbial contamination and hard-to-treat biofilms, which jeopardize patient lives. At times 70% ethanol is used as a catheter-lock solution due to its bactericidal properties. However, high concentrations of ethanol can result in adverse effects and in malfunction of the catheters. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low concentrations of ethanol can prevent and treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Ethanol was tested at a concentration range of 0.625-80% against laboratory and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for various time periods (2-48 hours). The following parameters were evaluated following ethanol exposure: prevention of biofilm formation, reduction of biofilm metabolic activity, and inhibition of biofilm regrowth. RESULTS: Exposing P. aeruginosa to twofold ethanol gradients demonstrated a significant biofilm inhibition at concentrations as low as 2.5%. Treating pre-formed biofilms of P. aeruginosa with 20% ethanol for 4 hours caused a sharp decay in the metabolic activity of both the laboratory and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, treating mature biofilms with 20% ethanol prevented the regrowth of bacteria encased within it. CONCLUSIONS: Low ethanol concentrations (2.5%) can prevent in vitro biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Treatment of previously formed biofilms can be achieved using 20% ethanol, thereby keeping the catheters intact and avoiding complications that can result from high ethanol concentrations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in hospitalized patients reduces healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms. Achieving compliance with bathing protocols is challenging. This non-intensive care unit multicenter project evaluated the impact of organizational context on implementation of CHG and assessed compliance with and healthcare workers' perceptions of the intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multiple case study based on the SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety. The four sites included an adult cardiovascular unit in a community hospital, a medical-surgical unit in an academic teaching pediatric hospital, an adult medical-surgical acute care unit and an adult neuroscience acute care unit in another academic teaching hospital. Complementary data collection methods included focus groups and interviews with healthcare workers (HCWs) and leaders, and direct observations of the CHG treatment process and skin swabs. RESULTS: We collected 389 bathing observations and 110 skin swabs, conducted four focus groups with frontline workers and interviewed leaders. We found variation across cases in CHG compliance, skin swab data and implementation practices. Mean compliance with the bathing process ranged from 64% to 83%. Low detectable CHG on the skin was related to immediate rinsing of CHG from the skin. Variation in the implementation of CHG treatments was related to differences in organizational education and training practices, feedback and monitoring practices, patient education or information about CHG treatments, patient preferences and general unit patient population differences. CONCLUSION: Organizations planning to implement CHG treatments in non-ICU settings should ensure organizational readiness and buy-in and consider delivering systematic and ongoing training. Clear and systematic implementation policies across patients and units may help reduce potential confusion about treatment practices and variation across HCWs. Patient populations and unit factors need to be carefully considered and procedures developed to manage unique challenges.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Banhos/métodos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD007892, 2020 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by obstetricians. Infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery can have a tremendous impact on the postpartum woman's return to normal function and her ability to care for her baby. Despite the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative infectious morbidity still complicates cesarean deliveries. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2010 and subsequently updated in 2012, twice in 2014, in 2017 and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To determine if cleansing the vagina with an antiseptic solution before a cesarean delivery decreases the risk of maternal infectious morbidities, including endometritis and wound complications. We also assessed the side effects of vaginal cleansing solutions to determine adverse events associated with the intervention. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the impact of vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery with any type of antiseptic solution versus a placebo solution/standard of care on post-cesarean infectious morbidity. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion, but we did not identify any. We excluded trials that utilized vaginal preparation during labor or that did not use antibiotic surgical prophylaxis. We also excluded any trials using a cross-over design. We included trials published in abstract form only if sufficient information was present in the abstract on methods and outcomes to analyze. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least three of the review authors independently assessed eligibility of the studies. Two review authors were assigned to extract study characteristics, quality assessments, and data from eligible studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 trials, reporting results for 7038 women evaluating the effects of vaginal cleansing (17 using povidone-iodine, 3 chlorhexidine, 1 benzalkonium chloride) on post-cesarean infectious morbidity. Trials used vaginal preparations administered by sponge sticks, douches, or soaked gauze wipes. The control groups were typically no vaginal preparation (17 trials) or the use of a saline vaginal preparation (4 trials). One trial did not report on any outcomes of interest. Trials were performed in 10 different countries (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Egypt, UK, Kenya and India). The overall risk of bias was low for areas of attrition, reporting, and other bias. About half of the trials had low risk of selection bias, with most of the remainder rated as unclear. Due to lack of blinding, we rated performance bias as high risk in nearly one-third of the trials, low risk in one-third, and unclear in one-third. Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution immediately before cesarean delivery probably reduces the incidence of post-cesarean endometritis from 7.1% in control groups to 3.1% in vaginal cleansing groups (average risk ratio (aRR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; 20 trials, 6918 women; moderate-certainty evidence). This reduction in endometritis was seen for both iodine-based solutions and chlorhexidine-based solutions. Risks of postoperative fever and postoperative wound infection are also probably reduced by vaginal antiseptic preparation (fever: aRR 0.64, 0.50 to 0.82; 16 trials, 6163 women; and wound infection: RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77; 18 trials, 6385 women; both moderate-certainty evidence). Two trials found that there may be a lower risk of a composite outcome of wound complication or endometritis in women receiving preoperative vaginal preparation (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.82; 2 trials, 499 women; low-certainty evidence). No adverse effects were reported with either the povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine vaginal cleansing. Subgroup analysis suggested a greater effect with vaginal preparations for those women in labour versus those not in labour for four out of five outcomes examined (post-cesarean endometritis; postoperative fever; postoperative wound infection; composite wound complication or endometritis). This apparent difference needs to be investigated further in future trials. We did not observe any subgroup differences between women with ruptured membranes and women with intact membranes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine solution compared to saline or not cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery probably reduces the risk of post-cesarean endometritis, postoperative fever, and postoperative wound infection. Subgroup analysis found that these benefits were typically present whether iodine-based or chlorhexidine-based solutions were used and when women were in labor before the cesarean. The suggested benefit in women in labor needs further investigation in future trials. There was moderate-certainty evidence using GRADE for all reported outcomes, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design or imprecision. As a simple intervention, providers may consider implementing preoperative vaginal cleansing with povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine before performing cesarean deliveries. Future research on this intervention being incorporated into bundles of care plans for women receiving cesarean delivery will be needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Desinfecção/métodos , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravaginal , Compostos de Benzalcônio/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Febre/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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