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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(3)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478622

RESUMO

When facing an emerging virus outbreak such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a quick reaction time is key to control the spread. It takes time to develop antivirals and vaccines, and implement vaccination campaigns. Therefore, preventive measures such as rapid isolation of cases and identification and early quarantine of cases' close contacts-as well as masks, physical distancing, hand hygiene, surface disinfection and air control-are crucial to reduce the risk of transmission. In this context, disinfectants and antiseptics with proven efficacy against the outbreak virus should be used. However, biocidal formulations are quite complex and may include auxiliary substances such as surfactants or emollients in addition to active substances. In order to evaluate disinfectants' efficacy objectively, meaningful efficacy data are needed. Therefore, the European Committee for Standardisation technical committee 216 'Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics' Working Group 1 (medical area) has developed standards for efficacy testing. The European tiered approach grades the virucidal efficacy in three levels, with corresponding marker test viruses. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, disinfectants with proven activity against vaccinia virus, the marker virus for the European claim 'active against enveloped viruses', should be used to ensure effective hygiene procedures to control the pandemic.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/normas , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/normas , Medicina Preventiva/normas , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20202633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the use of 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol in skin antisepsis for neuraxial blocks. METHOD: this is a non-inferiority randomized clinical trial, with two parallel arms. Seventy patients who were candidates for neuraxial block were randomly allocated to group A (n = 35), in whom antisepsis was performed with 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine, or to group B (n = 35), in whom we used 70% hydrated ethyl alcohol. Swabs were harvested for culture at three times: before antisepsis, two minutes after application of the antiseptic, and immediately after puncture. The samples were sown in three culture media and the number of colony forming units (CFU) per cm² was counted. RESULTS: there was no difference between the groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, time to perform the block or type of block. There were no differences between groups in the CFU/cm² counts before antisepsis. There was less bacterial growth in group B two minutes after application of the antiseptic (p = 0.048), but there was no difference between the groups regarding the number of CFU/cm² at the end of the puncture. CONCLUSION: 70% alcohol was more effective in reducing the number of CFU/cm² after two minutes, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding skin colonization at the end of the procedure. These results suggest that 70% alcohol may be an option for skin antisepsis before neuraxial blocks. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02833376.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Antissepsia/métodos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Epidural , Raquianestesia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22910, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126347

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Using mobile phones for communication in emergency departments is a common practice; however, several studies have demonstrated that they may act as vectors for bacteria and viruses. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plastic wrapping in decreasing bacterial contamination on mobile phone surfaces. METHOD: We used culture dishes and a luminometer to detect bacterial colonies and contamination on the phone surfaces. RESULT: Our experiment showed that bacterial colonies exist on mobile phones before and after work. We found that wiping with 75% alcohol sanitizers effectively reduces the number of colonies on either a mobile phone or a temporary plastic covering. In addition, we found that bacterial colonies do not contaminate or adhere to plastic wrap any easier than to mobile phones. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated the effectiveness of plastic wrap for protecting mobile phone surfaces against bacterial colonization. In addition, applying a layer of plastic wrap protects the phone from potential damage due to the alcohol.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Telefone Celular , Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfecção/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares , Etanol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/microbiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Administração de Materiais no Hospital/métodos , Plásticos , Equipamentos de Proteção/microbiologia
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6935-6944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061360

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanoparticle solutions have been studied to improve antimicrobial effect. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiseptic efficacy of 0.25% aqueous-based chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v). Methods: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v (2.5mg/mL) and free chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (FCN; same composition of NM-Cl without the molecule of chlorhexidine) were synthetized by the spontaneous emulsification method. Characterization analyses of physical and chemical properties were performed. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v was compared with chlorhexidine 0.5% alcohol base (CS-Cl 0.5%) in vitro studies (microdilution study and kill curve study), and in vivo study (antisepsis of rats dorsum). Kruskal-Wallis test was used between groups and inside the same group, at different sample times and the Mann-Whitney test was performed when difference was detected. Results: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented adequate physicochemical characteristics for a nanoemulsion, revealing a more basic pH than FCN and difference between zeta potential of NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and FCN. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5% solutions were more effective on Gram-positive than on Gram-negative bacteria (p≤0.05). NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented upper antiseptic effect in the microdilution study and residual antiseptic effect was maintained for a longer time when compared to CS-Cl 0.5% (kill curve study). The four-fold (minimal inhibitory concentration) of NM-Cl 0.25% were the formulations with most durable effect within those tested, presenting residual effect until T6 for both bacteria. In the in vivo study, both formulations (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5%) had a reduction of the microorganisms in the skin of the rats (p<0.0001) not revealing any difference between the formulations at different times, showing the antiseptic effect of NM-Cl (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that NM-Cl showed promising future as an antiseptic for cutaneous microbiota.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Clorexidina/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia
6.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 235-238, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effect of low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (IPMP) on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. METHODS: Low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing 0.05% CPC and 0.1% IPMP were fabricated. Non-viscous mouthrinses containing either CPC- or IPMP were used as controls. The antimicrobial activity (sterilization or exposure time) of mouthrinses was evaluated based on the bactericidal criterion of <10¹ viable cells in 0.1 mL of culture medium. RESULTS: The sterilization time of the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse was shorter than that of the high-viscosity mouthrinse. However, whereas a 10-minute exposure to the low-viscosity mouthrinse resulted in no viable cells of C. albicans, neither the CPC- or IPMP mouthrinses had an antimicrobial effect for the same exposure time. These findings show that the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing anodal CPC and neutral IPMP exhibited superior antimicrobial effects against pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria compared with the control mouthrinses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In Japan, the oral care with the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing CPC and IPMP as alternatives to those based on chlorhexidine are available for preventing the development of pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cresóis , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Viscosidade
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965370

RESUMO

An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desinfecção , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22218, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coated central venous catheters (CSS-CVC) may cause loss of antimicrobial efficacy due to friction between the CVC surface and sheer stress caused by the blood flow. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of CSS-CVC at various flow rates using a bloodstream model. METHODS: Each CVC was subjected to various flow rates (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 L/min) and wear-out times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours), and the optical density (OD) 600 after a Staphylococcus aureus incubation test was used to determine the antibacterial effect of CSS-CVC. RESULTS: In the 0.5 L/min group, there was no significant change in the OD600 value up to 120 hours compared with the baseline OD600 value for CSS-CVC (P > .467). However, the OD600 values of CSS-CVC in the 1 L/min (P < .001) and 2 L/min (P < .001) groups were significantly reduced up to 72 hours, while that in the 4 L/min (p < 0.001) group decreased rapidly up to 48 hours. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is a doubt whether sufficient antibacterial function can be maintained with prolonged duration of catheter placement.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/normas , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Projetos Piloto , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2116-2126, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959761

RESUMO

Observational data suggest maternal handwashing with soap prevents neonatal mortality. We tested the impact of a chlorhexidine-based waterless hand cleansing promotion on the behavior of mothers and other household members. In rural Bangladesh in 2014, we randomized consenting pregnant women to chlorhexidine provision and hand cleansing promotion or standard practices. We compared hand cleansing with chlorhexidine or handwashing with soap before baby care, among mothers and household members in the two groups, and measured chlorhexidine use in the intervention arm. Chlorhexidine was observed in the baby's sleep space in 97% of 130 intervention homes, versus soap in 59% of 128 control homes. Hand cleansing before baby care was observed 5.6 times more frequently among mothers in the intervention arm than in the controls (95% CI = 4.0-7.7). Hand cleansing was significantly more frequently observed in the intervention arm among women other than the mother (RR = 10.9) and girls (RR = 37.0). Men and boys in the intervention arm cleansed hands before 29% and 44% of baby care events, respectively, compared with 0% in the control arm. The median number of grams consumed during the neonatal period was 176 (IQR = 95-305 g), about 7.8 g/day (IQR = 4.2-13.8 g). Promotion of waterless chlorhexidine increased hand cleansing behavior among mothers and other household members. Discrepancy between observed use and measured chlorhexidine consumption suggested courtesy bias in structured observations. A waterless hand cleanser may represent one component of the multimodal strategies to prevent neonatal infections in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Bangladesh , Demografia , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Sabões
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(5)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the use of gentian violet in dermatology. DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search on gentian violet in dermatology practice was performed through PubMed. RESULTS: Gentian violet is effective in treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized skin lesions; mean number of days for complete eradication was 9.1 days. Gentian violet is almost as effective as ketoconazole and more effective than nystatin in the treatment of oral thrush in AIDS patients. In an in vitro study on cutaneous T cell lymphoma cell lines, there was no difference between nitrogen mustard and gentian violet in stimulating apoptosis. When comparing gentian violet to silver sulfadiazine dressings in healing burn wounds, the gentian violet treatment group reported less pain, fewer febrile episodes, and decreased bacterial growth compared to control. In atopic dermatitis subjects, gentian violet decreased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and improved disease severity in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. CONCLUSION: Studies have investigated gentian violet's antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-angiogenic, antitumor, and wound healing properties. Gentian violet is a low cost and well-tolerated topical agent with the potential for widespread applications in dermatology.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Violeta Genciana/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Dermatologia , Violeta Genciana/efeitos adversos , Violeta Genciana/farmacologia , Humanos
14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 99(9): 586-593, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Approaches to nasal and oral decontamination with povidone-iodine (PVP-I) have been published to reduce nosocomial spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The safety of PVP-I topically applied to the nasal and oral cavity is addressed by a literature review. The specific efficacy of PVP-I against coronaviruses and its potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is discussed. METHODS: A review was performed utilizing PubMed and Cochrane Databases. All citations in protocols for nasal and oral PVP-I use regarding COVID-19 were independently reviewed. RESULTS: Povidone-iodine has been safely administered for up to 5 months in the nasal cavity and 6 months in the oral cavity. Concentrations less than 2.5% in vitro do not reduce ciliary beat frequency or cause pathological changes in ciliated nasal epithelium, upper respiratory, or mucosal cells. Adverse events with oral use have not been reported in conscious adults or children. Allergy and contact sensitivity is rare. Chronic mucosal use up to 5% has not been shown to result in clinical thyroid disease. PVP-I is rapidly virucidal and inactivates coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine can safely be used in the nose at concentrations up to 1.25% and in the mouth at concentrations up to 2.5% for up to 5 months. Povidone-iodine rapidly inactivates coronaviruses, including SARS and MERS, when applied for as little as 15 seconds. There is optimism that PVP-I can inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but in vitro efficacy has not yet been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Boca , Cavidade Nasal , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seios Paranasais , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Povidona-Iodo/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico
15.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(7): 1553-1557, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412231

RESUMO

A novel virus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from Wuhan, China in late 2019. Since then, the virus has quickly spread worldwide, leading the World Health Organization to declare it as a pandemic; by the end of April 2020, the number of cases exceeded 3 million. Due to the high infectivity rate, SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to contain, making disinfectant protocols vital, especially for essential, highly trafficked areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, and delivery centers. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, best practices to slow the spread rely on good hand hygiene, including proper handwashing practices as well as the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. However, they provide warning against sanitizing products containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which has sparked concern in both the scientific community as well as the general public as BAC, a common quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), is ubiquitous in soaps and cleaning wipes as well as hospital sanitation kits. This viewpoint aims to highlight the outdated and incongruous data in the evaluation of BAC against the family of known coronaviruses and points to the need for further evaluation of the efficacy of QACs against coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saneamento/métodos , Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Lipídeos de Membrana , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(5): 299-302, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although indwelling catheters are increasingly used in modern medicine, they can be a source of microbial contamination and hard-to-treat biofilms, which jeopardize patient lives. At times 70% ethanol is used as a catheter-lock solution due to its bactericidal properties. However, high concentrations of ethanol can result in adverse effects and in malfunction of the catheters. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low concentrations of ethanol can prevent and treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Ethanol was tested at a concentration range of 0.625-80% against laboratory and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for various time periods (2-48 hours). The following parameters were evaluated following ethanol exposure: prevention of biofilm formation, reduction of biofilm metabolic activity, and inhibition of biofilm regrowth. RESULTS: Exposing P. aeruginosa to twofold ethanol gradients demonstrated a significant biofilm inhibition at concentrations as low as 2.5%. Treating pre-formed biofilms of P. aeruginosa with 20% ethanol for 4 hours caused a sharp decay in the metabolic activity of both the laboratory and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, treating mature biofilms with 20% ethanol prevented the regrowth of bacteria encased within it. CONCLUSIONS: Low ethanol concentrations (2.5%) can prevent in vitro biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Treatment of previously formed biofilms can be achieved using 20% ethanol, thereby keeping the catheters intact and avoiding complications that can result from high ethanol concentrations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107915, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461112

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii is an opportunistic protozoan responsible for serious human infections including Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and supportive care, infections due to Acanthamoeba are a major public concern. Current methods of treatment are not fully effective against both the trophozoite and cyst forms of A. castellanii and are often associated with severe adverse effects, host cell cytotoxicity and recurrence of infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment and management of Acanthamoebic infections. Repurposing of clinically approved drugs is a viable avenue for exploration and is particularly useful for neglected and rare diseases where there is limited interest by pharmaceutical companies. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems offer promising approaches in the biomedical field, particularly in diagnosis and drug delivery. Herein, we conjugated an antihyperglycemic drug, metformin with silver nanoparticles and assessed its anti-acanthamoebic properties. Characterization by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy showed successful formation of metformin-coated silver nanoparticles. Amoebicidal and amoebistatic assays revealed that metformin-coated silver nanoparticles reduced the viability and inhibited the growth of A. castellanii significantly more than metformin and silver nanoparticles alone at both 5 and 10 µM after 24 h incubation. Metformin-coated silver nanoparticles also blocked encystation and inhibited the excystation in Acanthamoeba after 72 h incubation. Overall, the conjugation of metformin with silver nanoparticles was found to enhance its antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii. Furthermore, the pretreatment of A. castellanii with metformin and metformin-coated silver nanoparticles for 2 h also reduced the amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity after 24 h incubation from 73% to 10% at 10 µM, indicating that the drug-conjugated silver nanoparticles confer protection to human cells. These findings suggest that metformin-coated silver nanoparticles hold promise in the improved treatment and management of Acanthamoeba infections.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Encefalite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Infecciosa/parasitologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Encistamento de Parasitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Pharm Res ; 37(6): 104, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451736

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted an important role for drug repurposing. Quaternary ammonium compounds such as ammonium chloride, cetylpyridinium and miramistin represent widely accessible antiseptic molecules with well-known broad-spectrum antiviral activities and represent a repurposing opportunity as therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Sprays Nasais
19.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13627, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436262

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has made various challenges for communications all over the world. Nowadays hand hygiene practices with alcohol sanitizers are an unavoidable reality for many people, which cause skin dryness and flaking. The current short communication has been explained about monitoring the quality control of alcohol concentrations and hand rub formulation, which needs more attention and should consider meticulous in this crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Etanol/farmacologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent skin abscesses are often associated with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of S. aureus (PVL-SA). Decolonization measures are required along with treatment of active infections to prevent re-infection and spreading. Even though most PVL-SA patients are treated as outpatients, there are few studies that assess the effectiveness of outpatient topical decolonization in PVL-SA patients. METHODS: We assessed the results of topical decolonization of PVL-SA in a retrospective review of patient files and personal interviews. Successful decolonization was defined as the absence of any skin abscesses for at least 6 months after completion of the final decolonization treatment. Clinical and demographic data was assessed. An intention-to-treat protocol was used. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 115 symptomatic patients, 66% from PVL-positive MSSA and 19% from PVL-positive MRSA. The remaining 16% consisted of symptomatic patients with close contact to PVL-SA positive index patients but without detection of PVL-SA. The majority of patients were female (66%). The median age was 29.87% of the patients lived in multiple person households. Our results showed a 48% reduction in symptomatic PVL-SA cases after the first decolonization treatment. The results also showed that the decrease continued with each repeated decolonization treatment and reached 89% following the 5th treatment. A built multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model showed that the absence of PVL-SA detection (OR 2.0) and living in single person households (OR 2.4) were associated with an independently increased chance of successful decolonization. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, topical decolonization was a successful preventive measure for reducing the risk of PVL-SA skin abscesses in the outpatient setting. Special attention should be given to patients living in multiple person households because these settings could confer a risk that decolonization will not be successful.


Assuntos
Abscesso/terapia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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