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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457209

RESUMO

Polymer microgels, including those based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs), are currently vastly studied, and their practical applications are a matter of thriving research. In this work, we show the perspective for the use of polyelectrolyte IPN microgels either as scavengers or carriers of antiseptic substances. Here, we report that poly-N-isopropylacrylamide/polyacrylic acid IPN microgels can efficiently absorb the common bactericidal and virucidal compound benzalkonium chloride. The particles can form a stable aqueous colloidal suspension or be used as building blocks for soft free-standing films. Both materials showed antiseptic efficacy on the examples of Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus, which was approximately equal to the commercial antibiotic. Such polymer biocides can be used as liquid disinfectants, stable surface coatings, or parts of biomedical devices and can enhance the versatility of the possible practical applications of polymer microgels.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Microgéis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Polímeros , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5968, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396389

RESUMO

Skin antiseptics have important implications for public health and medicine. Although conventional antiseptics have considerable antimicrobial activity, skin toxicity and the development of resistance are common problems. Plasma-treated water has sterilization and tissue-regenerative effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify whether plasma-activated water (PAW) manufactured by our microwave plasma system can be used as a novel antiseptic solution for skin protection. PAW was produced by dissolving reactive nitrogen oxide gas using microwave plasma in deionized water. The antibacterial effects of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium and effective concentrations were investigated by a solid agar plate assay. The factors mediating the effects of PAW were evaluated by the addition of reactive species scavengers. Cytotoxicity and cell viability assays were performed to examine the protective effect of PAW on normal skin cells. PAW exhibited excellent sterilization and no toxicity in normal skin cells. Experiments also confirmed the potential of PAW as a sanitizer for SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the use of PAW as an effective skin disinfectant with good safety in the current situation of a global pandemic.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , COVID-19 , Desinfetantes , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água/farmacologia
3.
J Wound Care ; 31(Sup4): S31-S45, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the wound healing efficacy in second-degree burns in rats treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD)-a sulfonamide antibiotic. METHOD: This is a systematic literature review and meta-analysis performed according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes) strategy. RESULTS: The review found 100 studies in PubMed, Web of Science and other search engines. Of these, 70 studies were pre-selected after removing duplicates. After independent analysis by two reviewers, only seven studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. All studies except one showed faster wound closure by the application of silver sulfadiazine ointment. Using a random effects model, healing was faster in SSD-treated groups when compared to the control group on day 21, with a statistically significant mean difference of -2.72 days (95% confidence interval: -4.99, -0.45) between treatment and control groups (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis revealed that SSD aided in faster healing of second-degree burns.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Queimaduras , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pomadas , Ratos , Sulfadiazina de Prata/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0267221, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384711

RESUMO

Decolonization with topical antimicrobials is frequently prescribed in health care and community settings to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, effects on commensal skin microbial communities remains largely unexplored. Within a household affected by recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), skin swabs were collected from the anterior nares, axillae, and inguinal folds of 14 participants at 1- to 3-month intervals over 24 months. Four household members experienced SSTI during the first 12-months (observational period) and were prescribed a 5-day decolonization regimen with intranasal mupirocin and bleach water baths at the 12-month study visit. We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 region and compared bacterial community characteristics between the pre- and post-intervention periods and between younger and older subjects. The median Shannon diversity index was stable during the 12-month observational period at all three body sites. Bacterial community characteristics (diversity, stability, and taxonomic composition) varied with age. Among all household members, not exclusively among the four performing decolonization, diversity was unstable throughout the year post-intervention. In the month after decolonization, bacterial communities were changed. Although communities largely returned to their baseline states, relative abundance of some taxa remained changed throughout the year following decolonization (e.g., more abundant Bacillus; less abundant Cutibacterium). This 5-day decolonization regimen caused disruption of skin bacteria, and effects differed in younger and older subjects. Some effects were observed throughout the year post-intervention, which emphasizes the need for better understanding of the collateral effects of decolonization for S. aureus eradication. IMPORTANCE Decolonization with topical antimicrobials is frequently prescribed to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection, but the effects on commensal skin bacteria are undetermined. We found that decolonization with mupirocin and bleach water baths leads to sustained disruption of bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Portador Sadio , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Mupirocina/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Água
5.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 101(2): 14-18, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study - evaluation of the antiseptic properties of the combination of chlorhexidine and bioflavonoid CITROX against P. gingivalis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of microbial cultures from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Virology of the Moscow State Medical University named after A.I. Evdokimov: P. gingivalis. Primary seeding of the studied material was carried out on nutrient media produced by Himedia Laboratories Pvt. Limited (India): Colombian agar with the addition of 5% defibrinated blood and a selective additive for the isolation of non-spore anaerobes. To conduct the experiment, a thermostatic rotary system - RTS-1 (Biosan, Latvia) was used, which performs a modern type of mixing due to the formation of a vortex-type diffusing effect. The interpretation of the results was carried out by changing the optical density index (the indicator in McFarland units) at a wavelength of λ = 850 nm. RESULTS: The combination of CITROX + chlorhexidine 0.05% more effectively suppresses the growth of periodotopathogenic bacteria than chlorhexidine 0.05%, prolonging the adaptive phase (lag phase) of the growth of P.gingivalis bacteria and can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine without additives. Prolongation of the lag phase increases the time until the first clinical symptoms appear, as a result, the body has more time to form an immune response. CONCLUSION: The combination of the complex of bioflavonoids CITROX and chlorhexidine bigluconate in concentrations of 0.05% and 0.2% is active against P. gingivalis and can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine without additives. The inclusion of CITROX in the rinse aid reduces the concentration of chlorhexidine in the rinse aid, which can lead to a decrease in the severity of undesirable effects and be considered as an alternative remedy in the treatment of periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Doenças Periodontais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Humanos
6.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022003, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 60% of all nosocomial infections are caused by microorganisms found in biofilms. Acinetobacter baumannii, as a pathogen of nosocomial infections, occur more frequently in surgical hospitals. The aim of the study was to study the in vitro formation of A. baumannii monotype biofilms under the influence of local anesthetics and antiseptics Materials and methods. The antimicrobial activity of local anesthetics (0.25-0.5%, bupivacaine, 2.0% lidocaine, 0.75% ropivacaine) and antiseptics (decamethoxine 0.1%, octenidine 0.1%, chlorhexidine 0.05%) ) against clinical strains of A. baumannii and studied their ability to produce biofilms. RESULTS: The bacteriostatic effect of local anesthetics on A. baumannii within the current concentrations of these drugs, which provide analgesic effect, has been proven. The given results indicate that A.baumanni cultures have a pronounced ability to form biofilms. Clinical strains of opportunistic microorganisms A. baumannii circulating in the hospital environment are highly sensitive to antiseptics decamethoxine and octenidine, chlorhexidine has a weak bactericidal effect against acinetobacteria. The results of studying the effect of local anesthetics on the process of formation of the strain "young" biofilms showed the presence of a dose-dependent effect. The greatest inhibitory activity against "young" biofilms was detected under the combined action of the antiseptic decamethoxine (in concentrations, not exceeding 3.9 µg / ml) and anesthetics (OD-0,199-0,223) (p <0,05). CONCLUSIONS: Scientific research on various aspects of the formation (or destruction) of bacterial biofilms is a relevant and promising area that will change approaches to the prophylaxis and treatment of a number of infections, including postoperative infectious complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 123: 67-73, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before some invasive procedures, such as injections, surgical incision or intravascular catheter insertions, alcoholic antiseptics (e.g., alcoholic povidone-iodine (PVP-I)) are widely used to prevent infection. AIM: This randomized, open-label study investigated the impact of mode of application (which includes both application technique and volume) on the antiseptic activity of 5% alcoholic PVP-I solution. METHODS: Alcoholic PVP-I was administered to the backs of healthy adults using four modes of application: (A) concentric circle method, 3 mL; (B) concentric circle method, 10 mL; (C) back-and-forth friction method, 3 mL; (D) back-and-forth friction method, 10 mL. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: antiseptic activity of alcoholic PVP-I, assessed via change from baseline in log10/cm2 colony-forming units (cfu) count for total aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Safety was monitored. FINDINGS: A total of 113 healthy participants were screened; 32 were randomized. Alcoholic PVP-I showed significant antiseptic activity with all modes of application (P<0.001 for each), providing an overall mean decrease from baseline in cfu count of >3 log10/cm2 (P<0.001). Significantly greater efficacy was seen with back-and-forth friction (modes C and D) versus concentric circles (modes A and B): covariate adjusted change in log10/cm2 cfu count 0.22; 90% confidence intervals: 0.07, 0.37 (P=0.017). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Alcoholic PVP-I demonstrated high antiseptic activity for all modes of application. Greater efficacy was achieved with back-and-forth friction versus concentric circles, showing that application technique may influence antiseptic activity; these findings suggest that when comparing the efficacy of antiseptic substances (e.g., alcoholic PVP-I and alcoholic chlorhexidine), comparable application techniques should be used.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Povidona-Iodo , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(10): e2115669119, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238667

RESUMO

SignificanceSimilar to mammalian TLR4/MD-2, the Toll9/MD-2-like protein complex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, acts as an innate pattern-recognition receptor that recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induces LPS-stimulated expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cecropins. Here, we report that papiliocin, a cecropin-like insect antimicrobial peptide from the swallowtail butterfly, competitively inhibits the LPS-TLR4/MD-2 interaction by directly binding to human TLR4/MD-2. Structural elements in papiliocin, which are important in inhibiting TLR4 signaling via direct binding, are highly conserved among insect cecropins, indicating that its TLR4-antagonistic activity may be related to insect Toll9-mediated immune response against microbial infection. This study highlights the potential of papiliocin as a potent TLR4 antagonist and safe peptide antibiotic for treating gram-negative sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Borboletas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , /metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 87(1): 75-80, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274896

RESUMO

In connection with the pandemic of coronavirus infection, it is urgent to develop measures to prevent the intraoperative spread of coronavirus particles and infection of the operating room staff. OBJECTIVE: Generalization and analysis of available data concerning local antiseptic therapy for the prevention of coronavirus infection during endonasal interventions on the lacrimal tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The search for literature sources was carried out using MEDLINE search engines and the Russian Science Citation Index for queries with the keywords "COVID-19", "coronavirus infection", "antiseptics", "protocol for otorhinolaryngological operations", "dacryosurgical operations" and similar in various combinations. RESULTS: It has been shown that during endonasal operations on the lacrimal tract, the number of risk factors for infection increases, since these procedures are aerosol-generating, and contact occurs not only with the nasal mucosa, but also with the lacrimal fluid, in which the coronavirus is also replicated. The data on the effectiveness of various antiseptics are summarized, the analysis of the possibility of their use in preoperative preparation for endonasal interventions on the lacrimal tract from the point of view of efficacy and safety is carried out. Information is provided on the proprietary protocol for the use of antiseptics to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection during endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. It is shown that the preventive use of local disinfectants reduces the number of viral particles on the nasal mucosa, which leads to a decrease in contamination of the surrounding space. Among the available and studied antiseptics, the most suitable is povidone-iodine, which can be used in concentrations up to 1.25% to irrigate the nasal mucosa before surgery with an exposure of 30-60 sec. When performing operations on the lacrimal pathways, it is also advisable to carry out antiseptic treatment of the conjunctival cavity with a 5% solution of povidone-iodine and rinse the lacrimal pathways before the operation with povidone-iodine in a concentration of 0.4%. CONCLUSION: To date, information has been obtained that makes it advisable to use antiseptics before performing endonasal aerosol-generating interventions, in particular endonasal dacryocystorhinostomies and recanalization of the tear ducts.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , COVID-19 , Dacriocistorinostomia , Aparelho Lacrimal , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dacriocistorinostomia/métodos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(2): 80-84, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections in neonates with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) following circumcision due to Metzitzah Be'Peh (MBP) performed by a Mohel occur each year in small numbers. One solution to this problem is the use of a mucus extractor device instead of MBP, which has been authorized by some rabbis. Yet, using a mucus extractor remains controversial among ultra-Orthodox Jews; thus, creating a need for additional solutions. OBJECTIVES: To seek to reduce HSV-1 infection of neonates due to MBP. METHODS: We tested several oral rinse solutions for their ability to destroy virus infectivity following incubation for 30 seconds and using plaque reduction assays. RESULTS: Corsodyl, Decapinol, and Listerine® all destroyed plaques formation of spiked virus, while Gengigel and Tantum Verde were found to be less effective. We focused specifically on Listerine® due to its efficacy in eliminating contagious HSV-1 from saliva after a 30-second oral rinse. Five different products of Listerine® reduced the infectivity of a spiked virus by more than 4 orders of magnitude in 30 seconds. We also showed that Listerine (up to 7% v/v) can stay in the mouth but did not harm living cells and therefore will not cause any damage to the injured tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Significant reduction in cases of infection with HSV-1 due to MBP can be achieved if Mohalim consistently adopt the practice of careful mouth washing with Listerine® just before performing MBP.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Herpes Simples/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Circuncisão Masculina , Clero , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Judaísmo , Masculino , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Salicilatos/administração & dosagem , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Terpenos/administração & dosagem , Terpenos/farmacologia
11.
West Afr J Med ; 39(1): 83-89, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the role of sputum as a site of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) transmission. However, there is limited literature on the virucidal efficacy of oral antiseptics against SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigated the virucidal efficacy of three oral-antiseptics compared to a placebo-control in the sputum of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODOLOGY: A pilot study of adults with SARS-CoV-2 positive results, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of <7 days. The oral antiseptics investigated were: Hexetidine (0.1% w/v); Thymol (0.063% w/v) and H2O2(1.5%) compared to de-mineralized sterile water (Placebo-control). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of negative RT-PCR results at 15-mins, 30-mins, 1-hour, 2-hours and 4-hours After Oral antiseptics Interventions (AOI) compared to the placebo-control. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 15.0 software with p-values of <0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Data from a total of 66 participants that were RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive at baseline (0-min) was analysed. At 15-mins AOI, the highest proportion of negativation from sputum samples was observed in the Hexedine group, with 69.2% of the baseline PCR positive cases converting to negative compared to 46.7% in the placebo-control group. In addition, H2O2 demonstrated efficacy at 2-hours AOI compared to placebo-control (62.5% vs 37.5% respectively) and other oral-antiseptics. Across all time-points, the oral-antiseptic groups compared to the placebo-control group, there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of sputum samples which converted to a negative status (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings in this study suggest there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants who converted to a negative sputum status across the treatment groups at various time points. Future studies could compare the cycle threshold (ct) viral titre values of sputum samples to determine quantitative differences.


CONTEXTE: Des études ont démontré le rôle des expectorations comme un site de transmission du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère-coronavirus- 2 (SRAS-CoV-2). Cependant, il existe peu de documentation sur l'efficacité virucide des antiseptiques oraux contre le virus du SRASCoV-2. Cette étude a examiné l'efficacité virucide de trois antiseptiques oraux par rapport à un contrôle placebo dans les expectorations de personnes infectées par le SRAS-CoV-2. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Une étude pilote menée auprès d'adultes dont les résultats sont positifs pour le SRAS-CoV-2, tels que déterminés par la réaction en chaîne de la polymérase par transcription inverse (RT-PCR) pendant 7 jours. Les antiseptiques oraux étudiés étaient : Hexetidine (0,1% p/v) ; Thymol (0,063% p/v) et H2O2 (1,5%) par rapport à l'eau stérile déminéralisée (Placebo-contrôle). Le principal critère d'évaluation était la proportion de résultats RT-PCR négatifs 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 heure, 2 heures et 4 heures après les interventions antiseptiques orales (AOI) par rapport au contrôle placebo. L'analyse statistique a été réalisée à l'aide du logiciel STATA 15.0, les valeurs p de <0,05 étant considérées comme statistiquement significatives. RÉSULTATS: Les données d'un total de 66 participants qui étaient positifs à la RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 au départ (0 minute) ont été analysées. Au bout de 15 minutes, la plus forte proportion de négativation des échantillons d'expectoration a été observée dans le groupe Hexedine, 69,2 % des cas positifs au départ par PCR devenant négatifs, contre 46,7 % dans le groupe témoin placebo. En outre, l'H2O2 a démontré son efficacité à 2 heures après l'apparition de la maladie par rapport au groupe placebo (62,5 % contre 37,5 % respectivement) et aux autres antiseptiques oraux. Pour tous les points temporels, les groupes d'antiseptiques oraux comparés au groupe placebo n'ont pas présenté de différence statistiquement significative dans la proportion d'échantillons d'expectoration qui sont devenus négatifs (p>0,05). CONCLUSION: Les résultats de cette étude suggèrent qu'il n'y a pas de différence significative dans la proportion de participants qui sont passés à un statut négatif d'expectoration dans les groupes de traitement à différents moments. Les études futures pourraient comparer les valeurs du titre viral au seuil de cycle (ct) des échantillons d'expectoration afin de déterminer les différences quantitatives. MOTS CLÉS: SRAS-CoV-2, antiseptiques oraux, hexétidine, peroxyde d'hydrogène.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , COVID-19 , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Hexitidina , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Boca , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Timol
12.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 561-573, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156501

RESUMO

Dental caries is a biofilm-related preventable infectious disease caused by interactions between the oral bacteria and the host's dietary sugars. As the microenvironments in cariogenic biofilms are often acidic, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems have become innovative materials for dental caries prevention in recent years. In the present study, poly(DMAEMA-co-HEMA) was used as a pH-sensitive carrier to synthesize a chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded nanomaterial (p(DH)@CHX). In vitro, p(DH)@CHX exhibited good pH sensitivity and a sustained and high CHX release rate in the acidic environment. It also exhibited lower cytotoxicity against human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) compared to free CHX. Besides, compared with free CHX, p(DH)@CHX showed the same antibacterial effects on S. mutans biofilms. In addition, it had no effect on eradicating healthy saliva-derived biofilm, while free CHX exhibited an inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the 16s rDNA sequencing results showed that p(DH)@CHX had the potential to alter oral microbiota composition and possibly reduce caries risk. In conclusion, the present study presents an alternative option to design an intelligent material to prevent and treat dental caries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Farmacêutica , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metacrilatos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Saliva , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Acta Trop ; 228: 106332, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092728

RESUMO

A wide range of parasites can infest open wounds, or cause wounds due to the effects of the infestation. Parasitic infestations can involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues, with various clinical manifestations. In case of cutaneous wounds related to infestations, protozoa, helminths and arthropods are the main groups of parasites involved and emerging new aspects have been recently reported. Treating the wound correctly is fundamental in these patients in order to reduce the development of pathological scars and prevent complications. In particular, a gentle debridement for devitalized/infested tissue removal, the appropriate use of topical antiseptics and dressings such as hydrogel, hydrocolloids and antimicrobial dressings can be useful to control superinfections, moisture balance, inflammation and to promote edge proliferation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Parasitos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bandagens , Humanos , Pele , Cicatrização
14.
Orthopedics ; 45(2): 122-127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978511

RESUMO

Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most devastating complications after joint replacement. There is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions in reducing planktonic microorganism burden. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant planktonic microorganisms. We designed an experiment examining the efficacy of several antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant planktonic microorganisms in vitro. Regarding planktonic microorganisms, povidone-iodine had 99.9% or greater reduction for all microorganisms tested except for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which was reduced by 60.44%. Irrisept (Irrimax Corp) had 99.9% or greater reduction for all microorganisms except Staphylococcus epidermidis (98.31%) and Enterococcus faecalis (48.61%). Bactisure (Zimmer Surgical Inc) had 99.9% or greater reduction for all microorganisms tested. Various measures exist for PJI prevention, one of which is intraoperative irrigation. We tested irrigants against clinically relevant planktonic microorganisms in vitro and found significant differences in efficacy among them. Further clinical outcome data are necessary to determine whether these solutions can impact PJI in vivo. [Orthopedics. 2022;45(2):122-127.].


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Humanos , Plâncton , Povidona-Iodo
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 14, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical Plaque control by antimicrobial agent application can defend the teeth against caries. S. mutans is considered the main etiologic factor for caries. This was an in vitro study to compare between the efficacy of chlorhexidine diaceteate varnish, and an organoselenium sealant, to prevent S. mutans biofilm formation on human teeth. METHODS: Fourty five premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. One control group and two test groups, chlorhexidine diaceteate varnish and an organoselenium sealant. The teeth were autoclaved before S. mutans biofilm was induced on to each in their respective groups. The reading T1 was taken for each tooth to assess the number of S. mutans attached in order to compare for differences in surface area among the 3 groups. The respective test materials were applied onto the teeth and biofilm induced onto them in their respective groups. The reading T2 was taken for the 2 test groups. The 3 groups were then subjected to aging for a period equivalent to 5 months before the biofilm was induced to take the reading T3 for the number of S. mutans. We used vortexing of the teeth to disrupt the biofilm at time points T1, T2 and T3. S. mutans count was then done using PCR. RESULTS: There were significantly lower S. mutans counts in the control group as compared to the chlorhexidine diacetate group at T3.There were no other statistically significant differences found. CONCLUSION: Both organoselenium and Chlorhexidine diacetate do not inhibit S. mutans biofilm attachment onto the teeth.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 349-362, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048278

RESUMO

Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antiseptic frequently used in hospitals to prevent healthcare-related infections. It is used in different formulations for skin antisepsis, oral care, patient bathing, and hand hygiene. Also, CHG impregnated vascular catheters and wound dressings contribute to increased exposure of hospital germs to this biocide. In the last decade, concerns are rising about decreasing susceptibility of microorganisms to CHG and its potential cross-resistance with antibiotics. This study reviewed the published data regarding the evidence of reduced CHG susceptibility, the cross-resistance with antibiotics, and the implications for infection control for S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa. Despite incongruity in definitions of "resistance," increased CHG minimal inhibitory values of these pathogens have been described, and different mutations encoding for CHG efflux pumps have been identified. Clinical relevance of species with reduced susceptibility to CHG is debatable and cross-resistance with antibiotics remains controversial. However, some studies link the increased usage of CHG to multidrug resistance, and the potential cross-resistance with colistin for K. pneumoniae is of major concern. More research in this matter is necessary. For infection control, it is advisable to use CHG applications only for indications with a clear patient benefit. It is important to follow manufacturer's instructions, and exposure of microorganisms to sub-lethal CHG concentrations should be avoided.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Infecção Hospitalar , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
J Inorg Biochem ; 229: 111724, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093778

RESUMO

Antibacterial materials have been rapidly emerging as a primary component in the mitigation of bacterial pathogens, and green functional materials play a vital role in the antibacterial field. In this study, biocompatible hydroxyapatite nanowires (HANW) was used as a carrier, a coral rod-like nanowires hybrid of MoS2 and HANW (CR-MoS2@HANW) was synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. After being characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the antibacterial activity and environmental compatibility were assessed. It was found that MoS2 nanosheets were in-situ assembled onto surface of HA nanowires, and the obtained nanohybrid exhibited excellent stability. CR-MoS2@HANW endowed a desirable long-term antibacterial activity against both gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus. It was sufficient to inhibit the growth of bacteria within 72 h, and nanohybrids effectively promoted the growth of plants. In summary, the combination of MoS2 and HANW created a novel eco-friendly nanohybrids that could be applied as a promising multi-functional green antisepsis. And the CR-MoS2@HANW possessed enormous potential for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Durapatita/farmacologia , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Nanofios/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/síntese química , Dissulfetos/síntese química , Durapatita/síntese química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(3): 254-261, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085476

RESUMO

Background: This study presents the effectiveness of a combined silver carboxylate (AgCar) and chlorohexidine gluconate (AgCar:CHG) chemistry assessed against two commonly encountered nosocomial pathogens, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Cutibacterium acnes, within the context of surgical antisepsis and wound care. Methods: Through an Institutional Review Board- and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-approved protocol, AgCar:CHG was applied to live Yucatan porcine skin and visualized by fast red and green staining to assess level of skin penetration. Dose response curves for Cutibacterium acnes and MRSA were generated to determine the optimal therapeutic ratio of AgCar to CHG. Coatings were applied to two different clinically available sutures and antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated at 24-hour intervals using Kirby-Bauer (KB) assays. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure AgCar elution from sutures over time. Results: Synergistic application of AgCar:CHG demonstrated deep pilosebaceous gland penetration on Yucatan pig skin. The therapeutic concentration range of AgCar was determined to be between 120 × -150 × and 30 × -60 × dopage for MRSA and Cutibacterium acnes, respectively. A 1:1 therapeutic ratio of AgCar to CHG was found to have 100% bactericidal activity against both pathogens. Sutures coated with AgCar:CHG showed sustained antimicrobial activity against MRSA and Cutibacterium acnes, and were significantly more efficacious than antimicrobial sutures over the three- to four-day period (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This AgCar:CHG chemistry demonstrates deep skin penetration, extended elution, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity compared with commercially available options. This chemistry shows promise as an additional tool for the prophylaxis of surgical site infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Prata/farmacologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Suínos
20.
J Surg Res ; 270: 203-207, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the easily available option for surgeons to soak their suture in antibiotic irrigation solution intraoperatively in mind, this study was designed to evaluate the ability of suture soaked in bacitracin irrigation solution to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using standard experimental procedure, sterile suture was soaked in Bacitracin, and dried for 10 min or 6 h, incubated for 24 h on inoculated plates, and examined for zone of inhibition around the suture. This was compared to control unsoaked suture and antimicrobial suture (AMS) currently on the market to determine if the minor intraoperative procedural change of placing suture in antibiotic irrigation solution instead of on the sterile table could confer comparable antimicrobial activity. RESULTS: The study found the Bacitracin-soaked suture (BSS) consistently inhibited the growth of the test organisms. For both organisms, the BSS exhibited a significantly larger zone of inhibition compared to the unsoaked control suture (P < 0.0001). However, both the AMS currently on the market, and a bacitracin aliquot, exhibited significantly larger zones of inhibition compared to both drying times of the BSS (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Placing sutures in a bacitracin irrigation solution intraoperatively instead of directly on the sterile table can achieve some of the in vitro antimicrobial effect seen from AMS currently on the market. This may result in reduced rates of surgical site infections and associated costs without major procedural change and at reduced overhead.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Triclosan , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Suturas , Triclosan/farmacologia
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