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1.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(2): 142-145, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793439

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists and patients have an inherent increased risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The human ocular surface expresses receptors and enzymes facilitating transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Personal protective equipment alone provides incomplete protection. Adjunctive topical ocular, nasal, and oral antisepsis with povidone iodine bolsters personal protective equipment in prevention of provider-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ophthalmology.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Desinfecção/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Administração Oftálmica , Humanos , Soluções Oftálmicas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Exame Físico
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 229-233, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate Kin Gingival (Laboratorios KIN) twice daily for 2 months. Gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices were assessed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of miswak and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in terms of gingivitis. The means of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices using miswak mouthwash were 1.2, 0.4, and 0.53, respectively, i.e. indicating lower effectiveness, than when 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash was used (0.87, 0.43, 0.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: Miswak mouthwash is a good oral hygiene agent especially for long-term use even if its efficacy is lower than chlorhexidine mouthwash.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(3): 196-205, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis patients with biofilms cultured from their sinonasal cavity have greater symptom burden and risk of recalcitrant disease. A number of non-antibiotic, 'anti-biofilm' treatments exist which show anti-biofilm properties in preclinical studies. There is little evidence evaluating their impact on clinical symptom scores in chronic rhinosinusitis. METHOD: A systematic review was performed to assess the literature regarding the efficacy of non-steroid, non-antibiotic, anti-biofilm specific topical therapies in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. The primary outcome assessed was change in validated patient reported outcome measures before and after anti-biofilm treatment. RESULTS: Thirteen studies assessing the effect of anti-biofilm therapies in chronic rhinosinusitis through validated patient-reported outcome measures were included. Seven different anti-biofilm specific therapies for chronic rhinosinusitis were identified. None of the seven anti-biofilm therapies was identified as being confidently efficacious beyond placebo. Only one therapy (intranasal xylitol) showed a statistically significant reduction in symptom scores compared with placebo in more than one trial. CONCLUSION: Robust evidence supporting the use of various anti-biofilm therapies in chronic rhinosinusitis is lacking. Further high quality, human, in vivo trials studying the effect of anti-biofilm therapies in chronic rhinosinusitis are needed to address the deficiencies of the current evidence base.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Rinite/microbiologia , Sinusite/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(2): 279-285, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517738

RESUMO

AIMS: Pin-site infection remains a significant problem for patients treated by external fixation. A randomized trial was undertaken to compare the weekly use of alcoholic chlorhexidine (CHX) for pin-site care with an emollient skin preparation in patients with a tibial fracture treated with a circular frame. METHODS: Patients were randomized to use either 0.5% CHX or Dermol (DML) 500 emollient pin-site care. A skin biopsy was taken from the tibia during surgery to measure the dermal and epidermal thickness and capillary, macrophage, and T-cell counts per high-powered field. The pH and hydration of the skin were measured preoperatively, at follow-up, and if pin-site infection occurred. Pin-site infection was defined using a validated clinical system. RESULTS: Out of 116 patients who were enrolled in the study, 23 patients (40%) in the CHX group and 26 (44%) in the DML group had at least one bad or ugly pin-site infection. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.71). There was no significant relationship between pH or hydration of the skin and pin-site infection. The epidermal thickness was found to be significantly greater in patients who had a pin-site infection compared with those who did not (p = 0.01). Skin irritation requiring a change of treatment occurred in four patients (7%) using CHX, and none using DML. CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in the incidence of pin-site infection between the CHX and DML treatment groups. Dermol appeared to offer a small but significant advantage in terms of tolerability. We did not find a significant association between patient or treatment related factors and pin-site infection. It is therefore difficult to make specific recommendations based upon these results. The use of either cleaning agent appears to be appropriate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):279-285.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Emolientes/uso terapêutico , Fixadores Externos/efeitos adversos , Fixação de Fratura/instrumentação , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(1): 103-105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Beneficial aspects of short and ultrashort antibiotic administration protocols could be clinically correlated to the reduced side effects on the gastrointestinal microflora. The aim of this Consensus Conference was to establish the necessity of an antibiotic prophylaxis and its dosage to reduce the risk of early implant failure in healthy (ASA 1 or 2), periodontally healthy patients, undergoing basic dental implant surgery (straightforward cases). Additionally, the need for an antiseptic protocol, used before and after the implant surgery, was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Active members of the Italian Academy of Osseointegration (IAO), together with several worldwide-recognized key opinion experts in the field of microbiology, implant dentistry, and infectious diseases, were participants at this Consensus Conference. Two systematic reviews were carried out, before the Consensus Conference, and their results discussed in order to give guidelines on the administration of an antibiotic/antiseptic prophylaxis in implant surgery. The systematic reviews covered the following topics: (1) the use of antibiotics to reduce both implant failure rate and peri-implant infections in healthy patients and (2) the use of chlorhexidine compositions capable of reducing complications in patients undergoing surgical interventions. RESULTS: The main statements reached by the assembly were as follows: (1) Rinsing with chlorhexidine is highly recommended before and after implant surgery to minimize the bacterial load. (2) A single dose of antibiotics in straightforward cases is recommended. (3) In complex cases (long surgical time, regeneration procedures), it is advisable to continue the antibiotic administration. CONCLUSION: This Consensus Conference advocates the administration of a unique dose of antibiotics in straightforward implant cases combined with the use of chlorhexidine.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Implantes Dentários , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Humanos , Itália , Osseointegração
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013099, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial folliculitis and boils are globally prevalent bacterial infections involving inflammation of the hair follicle and the perifollicular tissue. Some folliculitis may resolve spontaneously, but others may progress to boils without treatment. Boils, also known as furuncles, involve adjacent tissue and may progress to cellulitis or lymphadenitis. A systematic review of the best evidence on the available treatments was needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions (such as topical antibiotics, topical antiseptic agents, systemic antibiotics, phototherapy, and incision and drainage) for people with bacterial folliculitis and boils. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2020: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase. We also searched five trials registers up to June 2020. We checked the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews for further relevant trials.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed systemic antibiotics; topical antibiotics; topical antiseptics, such as topical benzoyl peroxide; phototherapy; and surgical interventions in participants with bacterial folliculitis or boils. Eligible comparators were active intervention, placebo, or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were 'clinical cure' and 'severe adverse events leading to withdrawal of treatment'; secondary outcomes were 'quality of life', 'recurrence of folliculitis or boil following completion of treatment', and 'minor adverse events not leading to withdrawal of treatment'. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs (1300 participants). The studies included more males (332) than females (221), although not all studies reported these data. Seventeen trials were conducted in hospitals, and one was conducted in clinics. The participants included both children and adults (0 to 99 years). The studies did not describe severity in detail; of the 232 participants with folliculitis, 36% were chronic. At least 61% of participants had furuncles or boils, of which at least 47% were incised. Duration of oral and topical treatments ranged from 3 days to 6 weeks, with duration of follow-up ranging from 3 days to 6 months. The study sites included Asia, Europe, and America. Only three trials reported funding, with two funded by industry. Ten studies were at high risk of 'performance bias', five at high risk of 'reporting bias', and three at high risk of 'detection bias'. We did not identify any RCTs comparing topical antibiotics against topical antiseptics, topical antibiotics against systemic antibiotics, or phototherapy against sham light. Eleven trials compared different oral antibiotics. We are uncertain as to whether cefadroxil compared to flucloxacillin (17/21 versus 18/20, risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 1.16; 41 participants; 1 study; 10 days of treatment) or azithromycin compared to cefaclor (8/15 versus 10/16, RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40; 31 participants; 2 studies; 7 days of treatment) differed in clinical cure (both very low-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference in clinical cure rate between cefdinir and cefalexin after 17 to 24 days (25/32 versus 32/42, RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.38; 74 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence), and there probably is little to no difference in clinical cure rate between cefditoren pivoxil and cefaclor after 7 days (24/46 versus 21/47, RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.78; 93 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence). For risk of severe adverse events leading to treatment withdrawal, there may be little to no difference between cefdinir versus cefalexin after 17 to 24 days (1/191 versus 1/200, RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.07 to 16.62; 391 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). There may be an increased risk with cefadroxil compared with flucloxacillin after 10 days (6/327 versus 2/324, RR 2.97, 95% CI 0.60 to 14.62; 651 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) and cefditoren pivoxil compared with cefaclor after 7 days (2/77 versus 0/73, RR 4.74, 95% CI 0.23 to 97.17; 150 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). However, for these three comparisons the 95% CI is very wide and includes the possibility of both increased and reduced risk of events. We are uncertain whether azithromycin affects the risk of severe adverse events leading to withdrawal of treatment compared to cefaclor (274 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence) as no events occurred in either group after seven days. For risk of minor adverse events, there is probably little to no difference between the following comparisons: cefadroxil versus flucloxacillin after 10 days (91/327 versus 116/324, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.98; 651 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence) or cefditoren pivoxil versus cefaclor after 7 days (8/77 versus 5/73, RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.52 to 4.42; 150 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of azithromycin versus cefaclor after seven days due to very low-certainty evidence (7/148 versus 4/126, RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.38 to 4.17; 274 participants; 2 studies). The study comparing cefdinir versus cefalexin did not report data for total minor adverse events, but both groups experienced diarrhoea, nausea, and vaginal mycosis during 17 to 24 days of treatment. Additional adverse events reported in the other included studies were vomiting, rashes, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as stomach ache, with some events leading to study withdrawal. Three included studies assessed recurrence following completion of treatment, none of which evaluated our key comparisons, and no studies assessed quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs regarding the efficacy and safety of topical antibiotics versus antiseptics, topical versus systemic antibiotics, or phototherapy versus sham light for treating bacterial folliculitis or boils. Comparative trials have not identified important differences in efficacy or safety outcomes between different oral antibiotics for treating bacterial folliculitis or boils. Most of the included studies assessed participants with skin and soft tissue infection which included many disease types, whilst others focused specifically on folliculitis or boils. Antibiotic sensitivity data for causative organisms were often not reported. Future trials should incorporate culture and sensitivity information and consider comparing topical antibiotic with antiseptic, and topical versus systemic antibiotics or phototherapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Furunculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Viés , Carbúnculo/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e23626, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of adult patients affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) still remains high, mainly in the developing countries. However, only a few affected patients fail to experience oral lesions in the course of their experience with the virus. In particular, oral mucosa ulcers detected among HIV patients may be severe, which depictions may inhibit oral functioning and change patients' quality of life. Thus, it can result in considerable morbidity among this group of patients. To this end, the present study aims to examine the topical agent's clinical therapeutic efficacy among adult patients suffering from HIV-related oral mucosa ulcers. METHODS: For the investigation, only randomized controlled trials on any topical agent used to treat adult patients with HIV oral mucosa ulcers are to be explored from different databases: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, China Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and WanFang databases. All databases will be searched from their inceptions to October 2020. Additionally, 2 independent authors will evaluate the possibly eligible studies to be included in the study. They will also perform data's trial extraction and risk of bias assessment. Accordingly, all data will be analysed by means of the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: The present study seeks to evaluate the topical agents' clinical therapeutic efficacy to treat adult patients with HIV-related oral mucosa ulcers. CONCLUSION: The study can be applicable in providing evidence of any topical agents for treating adult patients with HIV-related oral mucosa ulcers for clinical practice. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/5CYR2 (https://osf.io/5cyr2/).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Úlceras Orais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Úlceras Orais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464122

RESUMO

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , /transmissão , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Sprays Nasais , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Infection ; 49(2): 305-311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the key approaches to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission would be to reduce the titres of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important in high-risk procedures like dental treatment. The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. METHODS: A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. The samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h. CONCLUSION: The effect of decreasing salivary load with CPC and PI mouth-rinsing was observed to be sustained at 6 h time point. Within the limitation of the current study, as number of the samples analyzed, the use of CPC and PI formulated that commercial mouth-rinses may be useful as a pre-procedural rinse to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. ISRCTN (ISRCTN95933274), 09/09/20, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Saliva/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , /transmissão , Cetilpiridínio/análise , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/análise , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Povidona-Iodo/análise , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Singapura , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 105-114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of 3 oral hygiene regimens: toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride, zinc lactate, and fluoride (CPC + Zn + F) in an alcohol-free base; toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing essential oils (EO) in an alcohol-free base; and toothbrushing with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush (control). METHODS: The participants (N = 120) were randomly assigned to study groups and followed the assigned regimens twice daily for 6 weeks. The participants were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness gingival index at baseline, week 4, and week 6. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indexes by means of analysis of variance, paired t test, and analysis of covariance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: At week 4, the CPC + Zn + F group presented additional reductions in dental plaque compared with EO and control groups of (21.4% [P < .001] and 31.4% [P < .001], respectively). After 6 weeks, these values were 26.7% (P < .001) and 44.8% (P < .001), respectively. For Löe-Silness gingival index, additional reduction in the CPC + Zn + F group compared with EO were 10.6% (P < .001) and 13.7% (P < .001) at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, these reductions were 13.6% (P < .001) and 17.8% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen including a mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F presented higher antiplaque and antigingivitis effects than EO and control regimens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F is an effective protocol for the control of dental plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactatos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Escovação Dentária , Zinco/uso terapêutico
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
15.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(3): 166-173, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980829

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a new mouth wash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine and chitosan on dental plaque and its reduction to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial with a parallel group design of 3 months duration. Patients (20-40 years) who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned equally to group 1: chlorhexidine (0.2%), group 2: chitosan (0.5%) or group 3: chlorhexidine - chitosan combination group. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 6weeks and at 3months. All patients received thorough oral prophylaxis and were instructed to rinse with 10ml of mouthwash twice daily for 1 minute. RESULTS: The combination of chitosan and chlorhexidine showed a statistically significant reduction (p less than0.05) in plaque indices from baseline at all time intervals when compared to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that by unifying the properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine may result in a superior antiplaque effect than that of chlorhexidine alone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Quitosana , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(5): e608-e615, sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With greater number of implants being placed in clinical practice, incidence of peri-implant diseases are on the rise. It is not known whether chlorhexidine (CHX) improves outcomes in the management of peri-implant diseases. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the role of CHX in improving outcomes with non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases up to 1st August 2019 was carried out to search for studies evaluating the efficacy of CHX for non-surgical management of peri-implant diseases. RESULTS: Seven studies were included. Four studies evaluated the role of CHX in peri-implant mucositis and three in peri-implantitis. Oral prophylaxis with mechanical cleansing of implant surface prior to CHX use was carried out in all seven studies. Meta-analysis indicated that use of CHX did not improve probing depths in peri-implant mucositis (SMD = 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.38; p = 0.42, I2= 0%). Similarly, CHX did not significantly reduce probing depths in patients with peri-implantitis (MD= 1.57; 95% CI: -0.88 to 4.0; p = 0.21, I2 = 98%). Results on the efficacy of CHX in reducing BOP in peri-implantitis are conflicting. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study indicate that adjunctive therapy with CHX may not improve outcomes with non-surgical management of periimplant mucositis. Conclusions with regards to its role in non-surgical management of periimplantitis cannot be drawn. There is a need for more homogenous RCTs with large sample size to define the role of CHX in non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Higiene Bucal/métodos
18.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 490-496, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755523

RESUMO

Myiasis is defined as follows; some flies lay their eggs and larvae on live organs and tissues or on cavities of nose, eye, ear and etc of humans or animals and the larvae develop there and cause pathological disorders. One of the rare types of myiasis is the urogenital myiasis. This condition has been associated with covering urogenital area with clothes in almost all populations and therefore, less chance for flies to reach this site and lay their eggs. Low socio-cultural level and poor hygiene conditions are stated as the most important risk factors of myiasis. On the other hand, toilets within the human living spaces are ideal environments for fly larvae that are fed on bacteria as they contain moisture and a microbial environment. It is stated that especially in case of the presence of an underlying infection, flies are more prone to lay their eggs or larvae on this area due to the bad smell. In this case report, a patient with a moderate sociocultural level with no underlying chronic disease, no open wound in the genital area and no urinary tract infection was presented. A 53-year-old female patient living with her family in an apartment flat in the city center of Konya admitted to the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases with the complaint of moving worms in her urine. The patient stated that she had seen maggots while urinating for two weeks and that she passed her urine into a container to be sure that the maggots were coming from her urine, upon seeing the maggots there she has admitted to the hospital. The Larvae were defined as the fourth stage larvae of Psychoda spp. No open lesions or wounds were seen in genitourinary area of the patient who had no complaints other than mild urinary burning. Complete blood count test results of the patient were normal and there was no growth in her urine culture. It was stated that other family members whom she lived with did not have similar complaints. The patient was diagnosed as genitourinary myiasis caused byPsychoda spp. and informed about the relationship between hygiene and the disease. And urinary antiseptics were initiated as the treatment for the patient. After the treatment, no larvae were seen in the urine of the patient. In conclusion, many regions are suitable for Psychoda type of adult flies to live in our country due to the climate conditions. It is considered that infestation may develop in patients with less risk factors in terms of urogenital myiasis, that larvae may increase in number of patients who are not treated or followed up and that the infestation may become chronic and results in more serious clinical conditions. The necessary treatment and follow-up must be performed in such cases and the patients should be educated about the relationship between infestation and hygiene.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas , Miíase , Psychodidae , Sistema Urogenital , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/diagnóstico , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Miíase/urina , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistema Urogenital/parasitologia
19.
Orthopade ; 49(8): 714-723, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study situation regarding the duration of systemic antibiotic treatment for spondylodiscitis is inhomogeneous and varies between 4-12 weeks. Due to the many undesirable side effects the aim is to achieve complete healing without recurrence or hematogenous scatter within the shortest possible period of time. The present pilot study investigated whether the additional application of a local antibiotic carrier to the surgically treated intervertebral disc space can contribute to a further reduction of treatment duration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the pilot study 20 patients with acute spondylodiscitis and indications for surgical intervention were included. Surgical treatment was carried out by dorsal instrumentation, radical debridement of the site of infection, and cage interposition in the affected disc space. The remaining disc space was filled with homologous cancellous bone and antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate hydroxyapatite pellets. A classification into a long-term and a short-term antibiotic group was performed. Both groups initially received a 10-day parenteral antibiotic administration. This was followed by oral antibiotics for 2 or 12 weeks, depending on the group. During the 12-month follow-up inflammation parameters, the local infection situation as well as the bony fusion and antibiotic tolerance were regularly checked. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 66.7 ± 11.2 years. Intraoperative detection of pathogens was successful in 65%. In 60% the antibiotic carrier was loaded with gentamicin, in 40% with vancomycin. At follow-up, all patients except one in the short-term antibiotic group had inflammation parameters within the normal range after 3 months. In the long-term antibiosis group, two patients still showed elevated infection values after 3 months, otherwise the values were within the normal range. After 12 months a complete cure of the infection was achieved in all patients. Antibiotic treatment intolerance occurred in 10% of the short-term antibiotic group and in 50% of the long-term group. CONCLUSION: The results of the present pilot study show that with the additional use of absorbable local antibiotic carriers in the surgical treatment of bacterial spondylodiscitis it is possible to shorten the duration of systemic antibiotic treatment to 3 weeks. This can reduce the side effects and incompatibility of treatment and still achieve similar healing results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Discite/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 198, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review of randomized clinical trials aimed to evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy of propolis-based mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 2019. Clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of propolis mouthwashes compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) were included. The primary outcomes comprised dental plaque and/or gingival inflammation. Two authors assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Due to marked heterogeneity of the available data, studies were assessed qualitatively, and no metaanalysis was performed. RESULTS: Nine clinical trials, comprising 333 subjects, fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of the included studies showed high risk of bias. Overall, propolis mouthwashes showed good efficacy on plaque and gingivitis in all of the included studies. Out of the eight studies that reported on plaque index, 5 studies found equal efficacy of propolis and CHX in reducing plaque, two studies found superior efficacy in favor of CHX, while one study found superior efficacy in favor of propolis. Six studies assessed gingival inflammation outcome, four of which reported better results with propolis, while two studies reported comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that propolis-based mouthwashes have potential benefits in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation. However, methodological limitations along with small sample sizes in some of the included studies weaken the strength of the evidence. Therefore, further well-designed clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow-up period are recommended to discern the efficacy of propolis mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Método Simples-Cego
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