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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130831, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403999

RESUMO

This research aimed to apply nanotechnology for nanoformulation of Laurus nobilis essential oil (EO) by ultrasonic emulsification method and characterization of nano-form: particle size, viscosity, polydispersity index, thermodynamic stability, and surface tension. The antimicrobial activity of laurel EO nanoemulsion (LEON) and laurel EO was also investigated against a panel of ten food-borne pathogens and fish spoilage bacteria. The GC-MS analysis of EO revealed that 1,8-Cineole was the main volatile compound. According to disc-diffusion results, LEON was more effective against Gram-positive pathogen bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis than EO. Laurel oil demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect against fish spoilage bacteria (6.19 to 18.5 mm). The MICs values of LEON and laurel EO ranged from 6.25 to >25 mg/mL and from 1.56 to >25 mg/mL, respectively. Nanoemulsion and oil exhibited the best bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas luteola. Therefore, LEON can be developed as a natural antimicrobial agent in food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pseudomonas , Sesquiterpenos
2.
Food Chem ; 369: 130959, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469836

RESUMO

The huge economic loss of citrus fruit after harvest called for safe and efficient preservatives, as chemically synthesized agents threatened the environment and human health. Herein a biocontrol fungus Chaetomium globosum QY-1 near the orchard in riparian area was identified to have antimicrobial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activity, which meets the requirements of an ideal preservative. Metabolite profiling based on bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out, and eight polyketones were determined by MS and NMR. The most abundant CheA exhibited strong inhibition to Penicillium digitatum, the main pathogen caused citrus fruit rot. Among these metabolites, Epicoccone and Epicoccolide B showed higher antioxidant activity, while Epicoccone and CheA had higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity. All the activities were close to or even better than the positive control (Vc; glutathione; Vc and arbutin; Bellkute), implying that the metabolites of C. globosum had comprehensive effects as natural preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Chaetomium , Citrus , Humanos , Penicillium
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120273, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425316

RESUMO

Amphibians are a natural source of a large number of peptides with a wide range of functional activities. Here, a complex of spectroscopic methods including NMR-, FTIR-, CD-, and UV-spectroscopy was applied to characterize the structure and functional activity of megin-1, a peptide isolated from amphibian skin. The three-dimensional structure of two forms of the peptide was determined using solution NMR spectroscopy. Thermodynamic characteristics of the process of peptide transformation from linear to cyclic form were obtained. Antibacterial and antimycotic properties of the peptide, as well as its protease inhibitory activities, were analyzed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130784, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411864

RESUMO

Biodegradable and antimicrobial films without antibiotics are of great significance for the application associated with food packaging meanwhile minimizing the negative impact on environments. In this work, cellulose-based films with the surface tailor-constructed with ZnO nanopillars (ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films) were prepared via chemical crosslinking in conjunction with a hydrothermal process for in-situ growth of ZnO NPs. As a packaging material, ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films possess excellent mechanical properties, oxygen and water vapor barrier, food preservation, biodegradability and low Zn2+ migration. Moreover, ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films show remarkable antimicrobial activity, especially for Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria). The antimicrobial mechanism of ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films is studied using the controlled variable method, and results showed that the film without UV pretreatment killed bacterial cells mainly by mechanical rupture, while the film with UV pretreatment killed bacterial cells mainly via the synergistic effect of photocatalytic oxidation and mechanical rupture.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Celulose , Embalagem de Alimentos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
5.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 36-46, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374347

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem. Recently, the occurrence of CPE has increased globally, but epidemiological patterns vary across region. We report the trends in the genotypic distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of CPE isolated from rectal and clinical samples during a four-year period. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2019, 1,254 nonduplicated CPE isolates were obtained from four university hospitals in Korea. Carbapenemase genotypes were determined by multiplex real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was profiled using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO, USA) or MicroScan Walkaway-96 system (Siemens West Sacramento, CA, USA). The proportions of carbapenemase genotypes and nonsusceptibility were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,254 CPE isolates, 486 (38.8%), 371 (29.6%), 357 (28.5%), 8 (0.6%), 8 (0.6%), and 24 (1.9%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM), and multiple producers, respectively. The predominant species was K. pneumoniae (72.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (6.5%). More than 90% of the isolates harboring KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems. Conclusions: The impact of CPE is primarily due to KPC-, NDM-, and OXA-48-like-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Isolates carrying these carbapenemase are mostly multidrug-resistant. Control strategies based on these genotypic distributions and antimicrobial susceptibilities of CPE isolates are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , beta-Lactamases/genética
6.
Food Chem ; 366: 130606, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311233

RESUMO

A natamycin-based non-migratory antimicrobial packaging for extending shelf-life of yogurt drink (Doogh) was developed. Firstly, the surface of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) was modified with acrylic acid at different times of UV exposure (0-10 min) to produce carboxylic functional groups. Then, natamycin was applied to the UV-treated films to bind covalently with the pendent functional groups. The maximum grafting efficiency (81.96%) was obtained for the 6 min treated film. Moreover, surface properties of films were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antifungal activity of different treatments of natamycin grafted film was evaluated against two common spoilage yeasts of Doogh including Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that 6 min treated film provides maximum anti-yeast activity and can be applied to control fungal growth in Doogh. Natamycin-grafted film postponed the yeast spoilage in Doogh and prolonged its shelf-life to 23 days.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Natamicina , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Rhodotorula , Iogurte
7.
Food Chem ; 367: 130677, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343803

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical properties and 3D structure of Macadamia integrifolia antimicrobial protein 2 (MiAMP2) and its interaction with palmitoleic acid (POA) or oleic acid (OA) in macadamia oil. The 3D structure of MiAMP2 was constructed for the first time by ab initio modelling using the TrRosetta server. The results showed that MiAMP2 was highly hydrophilic and had seven disulfide bonds and higher α-helix and ß-sheet/turn contents. Molecular simulation showed that the hydrophobic pocket of MiAMP2 created a favourable environment for the binding of POA and OA. Free energy landscape and independent gradient model (IGM) analyses revealed that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the major driving forces stabilizing complexes formed by MiAMP2 and POA or OA. The present study provides a theoretical basis and new insight for the future development and utilization of macadamia nut protein in the food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Macadamia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Ácido Oleico
8.
Food Chem ; 367: 130671, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343816

RESUMO

Due to environmental issues caused by plastic packaging and growing consumer demand for fresh and safe food, there is a growing interest in antibacterial active food packaging films/coatings containing plant essential oils (EO). For the effective use of EO-incorporated active films/coatings, EO must be effectively integrated encapsulated in active films/coatings, and the integrated encapsulated EO must be released from active films/coatings slowly during storage to exhibit antibacterial effects more durable. Recently, several promising strategies have been proposed to improve the sustained release and retention enhancement of EO in active films/coatings, including particle encapsulation, nanoemulsion, Pickering emulsions, multilayer system, and electrospinning technology. This article reviewed the latest technologies of sustained release and retention enhancement strategies for encapsulating EO in active films/coatings. The advantages and disadvantages of these sustained release and retention enhancement strategies and their practical applications in food preservation are also introduced.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos
9.
Food Chem ; 366: 130608, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454799

RESUMO

Hydrochar of waste walnut shells (WSH) was synthesized in the eco-friendly subcritical water medium (SWM) and its potential to fight against Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) was investigated. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the WSH were 3.01 g/mL, 2.06 g/mL, 1.95 g/mL, and 3.12 g/mL for K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively. Survival of the pathogens was investigated by 3 min surface disinfection test exposure to WSH. While the highest inhibition was seen for C. parapsilosis (96.67%) on paper surface with 0.3 g/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the lowest inhibition was determined for C. albicans (6.44%) on the plastic glass surface with 3 g/mL of BSA. An increase in protein, DNA, and potassium ion (K+) leakage was observed after microorganisms were incubated with WSH. This study provided an experimental basis for the practical application of WSH as a natural sanitizer agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Juglans , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109463, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742143

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds contained in propolis and to evaluate the effect of propolis and its extracts on the antifungal activity, pH, color, and sensory analysis of creamy cheese with thyme (thyme labneh). Ethanolic and water extracts of propolis were evaluated to determine its phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds in propolis were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antifungal activities, color, pH, and sensory evaluation of propolis and its extracts (water and ethanolic) were investigated at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%. The results showed 11 phenolic compounds in the propolis extract. Our findings revealed a significant difference in phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of propolis when compared with the water extract (P < 0.05). Microbial counts in thyme labneh treated with propolis powder and its extracts (ethanolic and water) showed significant differences compared with the control at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%). Propolis powder and ethanolic extracts at concentrations of 1% and 1.5% were limited the rapid growth of mold and yeast, so the results showed no significant difference between 14 and 21 days for these samples. In addition, the 1.5% water extract did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05) between Days 14 and 21. The sensory panel did not detect a significant difference in any sensory attribute in the thyme labneh treated with propolis extracts. This study identified the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial effectiveness of using propolis in dairy products, suggesting its potential as a natural preservative.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Própole , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109444, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749186

RESUMO

"Torta del Casar" is a Spanish soft-ripened cheese made with sheep's raw milk and subjected to a short ripening process, which favors the growth of pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. The development of strategies to control pathogens and minimize health risks associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes in these products is of great interest. In this regard, the anti-Listeria activity of a whey protein hydrolysate (ProH) alone or combined with six lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cheese was evaluated in this study as a biocontrol strategy using a "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium. The most active combinations of lactic acid bacteria assayed induced a reduction higher than two logarithmic units in the growth of L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b) compared to their respective control when they were co-inoculated in "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium at 7 °C for 7 days. In addition, the observed downregulation of some key virulence genes of L. monocytogenes suggests that the strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum B2 alone and combined with the strain Lactiplantibacillus spp. B4 are good candidates to be used as biocontrol agents against L. monocytogenes growth in traditional soft cheeses based on raw milk during their storage at refrigeration temperatures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Queijo/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Ovinos , Virulência , Soro do Leite
12.
Food Chem ; 370: 131032, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500294

RESUMO

Both microbiological and chemical food spoilages remain to be the major challenges in the food industry's efforts to combat food waste and loss because of the lack of high efficacy food preservatives. In this study, dual-functional conjugates that simultaneously suppress both lipid oxidation and microorganism growth are fabricated by covalently conjugating natural antioxidant gentisic acid (GA) on native antibacterial lysozyme (Lys). The mixing ratio of Lys and GA determines the particle size, morphology, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial performance of the ensuing conjugates. With more of GA being grafted, a drastic decrease in the net surface charge with the concomitant occurrence of aggregations are observed in the conjugates. The maximum antioxidant activity and antibacterial performance of the conjugates is achieved when Lys:GA molar ratio is 1:112. The findings could guide the rational design of future functional food ingredients that combine multiple natural bioactive compounds to effectively intervene food waste and loss.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Alimentos , Gentisatos , Muramidase
13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120255, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464919

RESUMO

For the estimation of some co-administered antimicrobials, two highly accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric methods were developed. Fluconazole (FLZ) is co-administered with either ciprofloxacin (CPR) or ofloxacin (OFX) for the treatment of certain microbial infections. On the other hand, another antimicrobial drug, vancomycin (VNC) is co-administered with ciprofloxacin (CPR) for peritonitis treatment. In method I, conventional spectrofluorimetry has been introduced for the concurrent quantitative estimation of FLZ in presence of OFX or CPR. While in method II, a first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric technique was adapted for quantitation of VNC and CPR co-administered combination. Both of them were utilized for estimation of the considered drugs in raw materials, laboratory prepared mixtures, dosage forms, and biological fluids. Method I was relied on simultaneous measuring of the native fluorescence of FLZ and OFX or CPR without any overlapping between the emission spectra of each binary mixture (FLZ / OFX) and (FLZ / CPR). Fluorescence intensities were measured at 283.0, 483.0 and 436.0 nm after excitation at 262.0, 292.0 and 275.0 nm for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Method II was utilized the synchronous fluorescence intensity of VNC and CPR in methanol at Δλ = 40 nm. The first derivative synchronous spectra were calibrated at 297.0 nm for VNC and at 379.5 nm for CPR. Different variables influencing conventional and synchronous fluorescence intensities of the four antimicrobials under investigation were precisely optimized. Both methods were successfully investigated for the determination of the studied drugs in plasma. The linear data analysis for the calibration curves reveals a good relationship in the ranges of 1.0-10.0, 0.25-2.5 and 0.06-0.6 µg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR for method I with limits of detection 0.144, 0.038 and 0.007 µg/mL and limits of quantitation of 0.437, 0.114 and 0.021 µg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Linearity range for method II was 0.5 -10.0 µg/mL for VNC and CPR with detection limits of 0.127 and 0.110 µg/mL and quantitation limits of 0.380 and 0.334 µg/mL for VNC and CPR, respectively. International Council on Harmonization ICH Q2 (R1) Guidelines were followed in the developed methods validation. The achieved outcomes were statistically compared with those found by the reported ones, and no significant difference was observed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Calibragem , Ciprofloxacina , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 188-195, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635612

RESUMO

Background: Fusobacterium species are obligately anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli. Especially, F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum are highly relevant human pathogens. We investigated clinical differences in patients infected with Fusobacterium spp. and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium isolates. Methods: We collected clinical data of 86 patients from whom Fusobacterium spp. were isolated from clinical specimens at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2020. In total, 76 non-duplicated Fusobacterium isolates were selected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the agar dilution method, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (M11-A9). Results: F. nucleatum was most frequently isolated from blood cultures and was associated with hematologic malignancy, whereas F. necrophorum was mostly prevalent in head and neck infections. Anti-anaerobic agents were more commonly used to treat F. nucleatum and F. varium infections than to treat F. necrophorum infections. We observed no significant difference in mortality between patients infected with these species. All F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. F. varium was resistant to clindamycin (48%) and moxifloxacin (24%), and F. mortiferum was resistant to penicillin G (22%) and ceftriaxone (67%). ß-Lactamase activity was not detected. Conclusions: Despite the clinical differences among patients with clinically important Fusobacterium infections, there was no significant difference in the mortality rates. Some Fusobacterium spp. were resistant to penicillin G, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, or moxifloxacin. This study may provide clinically relevant data for implementing empirical treatment against Fusobacterium infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Fusobacterium , Fusobacterium , Infecções por Fusobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Fusobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , República da Coreia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131694, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346344

RESUMO

Surfactin is a bacterial lipopeptide and an influential biosurfactant mainly known for excellent surfactant ability. The amphiphilic nature of surfactin helps it to sustain under hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions. In this investigation, a bacterium strain (BTKU3) that produces biosurfactant were isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Based on the blue agar plate (Bap) assay, the BTKU3 strain was found to be promising for biosurfactant production. This strain was later identified as a Lysinibacillus sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. The characteristics of extracted bacterial surfactin were evidenced by FTIR with the presence of amine, C-H, CO, CC, esters, thiocarbonyl and asymmetric aliphatic C-H stretch molecular structural groups. Further, the extracted bacterial biosurfactant material was subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS), and it was identified and confirmed as surfactin with an elution time of 3.1 min and m/z value of 1034. The emulsification and oil displacement tests further proved the surfactin ability with 83% of coconut oil emulsion index and 80 % oil displacement ability with diesel, respectively. Lysinibacillus sp. BTKU3 strain also proved its efficacy in the degradation of difenoconazole by utilizing a capacity of 9.1 µg ml-1. Thus, it is inferred that the Lysinibacillus sp. BTKU3 strain plays a significant role in the production of surfactin, which positively acts as an antimicrobial agent and reduces contaminants in polluted sites.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fungicidas Industriais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dioxolanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tensoativos , Triazóis
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 19-40, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453323

RESUMO

Eleocharis dulcis, an aquatic plant belonging to Cyperaceae family, is indigenous to Asia, and also occurs in tropical Africa and Australia. The edible corm part of E. dulcis is a commonly consumed aquatic vegetable with a planting area of 44.46 × 103 hm2 in China. This work aims to explore the potential of E. dulcis corm for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits by reviewing its nutrients, phytochemicals, functions, processing and food products. Eleocharis dulcis corm contains starches, dietary fibers, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, phenolics, sterols, puchiin, saponins, minerals and vitamins. Among them, phenolics including flavonoids and quinones could be the major bioconstituents that largely contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and hypolipidemic functions. Peel wastes of E. dulcis corm tend to be enriched in phenolics to a much higher extent than the edible pulp. Fresh-cut E. dulcis corm can be consumed as a ready-to-eat food or processed into juice for beverage production, and anti-browning processing is a key to prolonging shelf life. Present food products of E. dulcis corm are centered on various fruit and vegetable beverages, and suffer from single categories and inadequate development. In brief, underutilized E. dulcis corm possesses great potential for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eleocharis/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1281101

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Biofilmes , Fenômenos Químicos , Anti-Infecciosos
18.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48534

RESUMO

Países das Américas estão notificando surtos de infecções resistentes a medicamentos, provavelmente devido ao uso indevido sem precedentes de medicamentos antimicrobianos no tratamento da COVID-19, alertou nesta quarta-feira (17) a diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, durante coletiva de imprensa


Assuntos
América , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos , Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19
19.
Br J Nurs ; 30(19): S16-S22, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) through the introduction of an antimicrobial (AM) catheter as recommended in evidence-based guidelines and standards. DESIGN: Quality improvement project comparing incidence of infections pre-implementation and postimplementation of the new catheter. SETTING: A 582-bed community teaching hospital in Northwest Indiana. METHODS: Pre-implementation analysis of surveillance data indicated that 50% of CLABSIs occurred inpatients with PICCs in situ. A gap analysis was performed to review institutional practices against evidence-based recommendations. The use of an AM catheter was supported in each of the documents consulted. After introduction of the new device, performance was measured in a prospective manner using standardized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance protocols for CLABSI and internal data sources for other measures. RESULTS: After 30 months of data collection, the PICC CLABSI incidence reduced from a baseline rate of 1.83/1000 PICC days to 0.162/1000 PICC days (91.15% reduction, P=0.0002). CONCLUSION: Combined with continued compliance with basic prevention strategies (ie use of a central line insertion checklist/insertion bundle) and optimization of device selection and lumen justification, the introduction of an antimicrobial/antithrombogenic (AM/AT) PICC was associated with a significant reduction in CLABSI.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateterismo Periférico , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Sepse , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 617, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults (aged 65 years and above) constitute the fastest growing population cohort in the western world. There is increasing evidence that the burden of infections disproportionately affects older adults, and hence this vulnerable population is frequently exposed to antimicrobials. There is currently no systematic review summarising the evidence for organ injury risk among older adults following antimicrobial exposure. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the relationship between antimicrobial exposure and organ injury in older adults. METHODOLOGY: We searched for original research articles in PubMed, Embase.com , Web of Science core collection, Web of Science BIOSIS citation index, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, and PsycINFO databases, using key words in titles and abstracts, and using MeSH terms. We searched for all available articles up to 31 May 2021. After removing duplicates, articles were screened for inclusion into or exclusion from the study by two reviewers. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias for cohort and case-control studies. We explored the heterogeneity of the included studies using the Q test and I2 test and the publication bias using the funnel plot and Egger's test. The meta-analyses were performed using the OpenMetaAnalyst software. RESULTS: The overall absolute risks of acute kidney injury among older adults prescribed aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, and macrolides were 15.1% (95% CI: 12.8-17.3), 19.1% (95% CI: 15.4-22.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.3-0.3), respectively. Only 3 studies reported antimicrobial associated drug-induced liver injury. Studies reporting on the association of organ injury and antimicrobial exposure by age or duration of treatment were too few to meta-analyse. The funnel plot and Egger's tests did not indicate evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Older adults have a significantly higher risk of sustaining acute kidney injury when compared to the general adult population. Older adults prescribed aminoglycosides have a similar risk of acute kidney injury to the general adult population.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
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