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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18854, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms of the periodontal pocket is one of the main points for success in periodontal treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical and antimicrobial effect of papain-mediated photodynamic therapy in the clinical treatment of periodontal disease. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis will be selected. Patients will be randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). Group 1 will receive conventional periodontal treatment and group 2 will receive conventional treatment and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PACT). Conventional treatment will consist of oral hygiene guidance, with brushing technique instructions and recommendation of daily flossing. The calculus deposits on the teeth will be removed with ultrasound equipment and curettes for scraping and root planning. The PACT will be performed at the end of each periodontal treatment session, at sites with bags ≥4 mm. PapaMblue photosensitizer will be deposited in the periodontal pockets with a syringe and a pre-irradiation time of 1 minute will be adopted. Then, the laser emitting wavelength of 660 nm, with power of 100 mW, for 2 minutes, radiant exposure of 30 J/cm and power density of 250 mW/cm will be applied. Patients will undergo clinical evaluations before treatment (day 1) at 30, 60, and 90 days after the end of treatment; and microbiological evaluations before and immediately after treatment. The distribution of the data within each group and the homogeneity of the variances will be verified. With this information, the most appropriate statistical test in each evaluation will be used. The sample calculation is based on the literature and the significance level of 5% will be adopted. DISCUSSION: The combination of PACT with methylene blue in a papain gel and the conventional treatment may increase the reduction of bacteria in periodontal pockets.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To adapt an antibiotic dose adjustment software initially developed in English, to Portuguese and to the Brazilian context. METHODS: This was an observational, descriptive study in which the Delphi method was used to establish consensus among specialists from different health areas, with questions addressing the visual and operational aspects of the software. In a second stage, a pilot experimental study was performed with the random comparison of patients for evaluation and adaptation of the software in the real environment of an intensive care unit, where it was compared between patients who used the standardized dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, and those who used an individualized dose adjusted through the software Individually Designed and Optimized Dosing Strategies. RESULTS: Twelve professionals participated in the first round, whose suggestions were forwarded to the software developer for adjustments, and subsequently submitted to the second round. Eight specialists participated in the second round. Indexes of 80% and 90% of concordance were obtained between the judges, characterizing uniformity in the suggestions. Thus, there was modification in the layout of the software for linguistic and cultural adequacy, minimizing errors of understanding and contradictions. In the second stage, 21 patients were included, and there were no differences between doses of piperacillin in the standard dose and adjusted dose Groups. CONCLUSION: The adapted version of the software is safe and reliable for its use in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Linguística/normas , Piperacilina/administração & dosagem , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Tazobactam/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(3): 227-234, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958255

RESUMO

Introduction: Farnesol (C15H26O) is a sesquiterpene alcohol found in essential oils. This substance is reported to have different pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant effects, as well as actions in different body systems.Areas covered: This study aimed to analyze pharmaceutical patents containing this substance in their formulations. Patent search was carried out through the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), LatiPat and INPI (National Institute of Industrial Property) electronic banks using the following descriptors and combinations: 'farnesol', 'pharmaceutical product', 'pharmacology' and 'pharmacy'.Expert opinion: Primary research identified 54 patents, from which 17 were selected for the final analysis after applying the inclusion criteria. The selected patents referred to products presenting different pharmaceutical activities of interest such as the prevention and treatment of diseases affecting the dermis, central nervous and cardiovascular systems, diseases caused by different microorganisms and cancers, among others. A minority of the articles included in this review reported the type of farnesol isomer that was investigated, this becoming a major limitation for the development of future pharmaceutical products. With the completion of this study, farnesol presents itself as a potential agent with pharmacological application both in the prevention and treatment of different diseases.


Assuntos
Farneseno Álcool/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto
5.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 172-174, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714184

RESUMO

Axillary artery blowout is a rare life- and limb-threatening condition. The traditional surgical approach of ligation and extra-anatomic bypass is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. We present a case report of a 65-year-old male with axillary artery hemorrhage secondary to an irradiated squamous cell cancer. We propose a staged hybrid approach for the treatment of this unusual clinical entity consisting of emergent stent grafting followed by planned elective extra-anatomic bypass, debridement, and a course of specific antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Artéria Axilar/efeitos da radiação , Artéria Axilar/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Desbridamento , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
N Z Vet J ; 68(2): 126-133, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608795

RESUMO

Case history: Gradual onset of ocular opacity was observed in three gold-striped geckos (Woodworthia chrysosiretica), and five Pacific geckos (Dactylocnemis pacificus) held in two adjacent terrariums in a zoological institution located in the North Island of New Zealand. Ultraviolet light and heat had been provided for the previous 3-4 years by a fluorescent bulb, but in the last 4 weeks of winter a ceramic heat bulb had been added, situated 10 cm above the upper mesh of the cageClinical findings: All eight geckos presented with mostly bilateral lesions of varying severity confined to the central or upper quadrant of the spectacles. These lesions ranged from variable areas of opacity within the stroma of the spectacle to similarly distributed ulcers of the surface epithelium of both spectacles. The spectacle lesions in the Pacific geckos responded well to treatment with topical combined antimicrobial therapy, within 18-29 days. The gold-striped geckos suffered complications including dysecdysis, severe spectacle ulceration and perforation, mycotic spectaculitis, and widespread mycotic dermatitis resulting in death or leading to euthanasia.Pathological findings: In the three gold-striped geckos, there were extensive areas of deep ulceration and replacement of the spectacle with a thick serocellular crust containing large numbers of fungal elements. The affected areas of the stroma were expanded by large deposits of proteinaceous and mucinous material, pyknotic cellular debris and moderate numbers of heterophils and macrophages as well as infiltrating fungal hyphae.Diagnosis: Mycotic spectaculitis with ulceration and perforation, and disseminated mycotic dermatitis likely secondary to thermal burns.Clinical relevance: This is the first report of thermal burns of the spectacle in any reptile. There was species variation in the burn severity with gold-striped geckos showing more severe lesions, possibly due to a mix of behavioural and anatomical factors. The thermal burns to the spectacles in three cases were complicated by delayed healing, perforation, dysecdysis and severe mycotic infection.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/veterinária , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Calefação/instrumentação , Abrigo para Animais , Lagartos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Bacitracina/administração & dosagem , Bacitracina/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/etiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Neomicina/administração & dosagem , Neomicina/uso terapêutico , Polimixina B/administração & dosagem , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Glob Health Action ; 12(sup1): 1697541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795863

RESUMO

Demand for poultry meat is rising in low- and middle-countries, driving the expansion of large commercial farms where antimicrobials are used as surrogates for hygiene, good nutrition. This routine use of antimicrobials in animal production facilitates the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Despite potentially serious consequences for the animal industry, few studies have documented trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) at the farm-level in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate AMU in a broiler chicken farm in Pakistan over a five-year period and to extrapolate national AMU in commercial broiler farming. Between 2013 and 2017, we monitored AMU in 30 flocks from a commercial broiler farm in Punjab, the most populous province of Pakistan. The amount of antimicrobials administered was calculated in milligram/population unit of the final flock weight (mg/fPU) and in used daily dose (UDD). The annual on-farm antimicrobial use was 250.84 mg of active ingredient per kilogram of the final flock weight. This consumption intensity exceeds the amount of antimicrobial used per kilogram of chicken of all countries in the world except China. Measured in mg per kg of final flock weight or population unit (fPU), medically important drugs such as colistin (31.39 mg/fPU), tylosin (41.71 mg/fPU), doxycycline (81.81 mg/fPU), and enrofloxacin (26.19 mg/fPU) were the most frequently used antimicrobials for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Lincomycin was the most frequently used antimicrobial used in-feed (29.09 mg/fPU). Our findings suggest that the annual consumption of antimicrobials in the broiler sector in Pakistan could be as high as 568 tons. This alarmingly high consumption estimate is the first baseline study on antimicrobial use in animals in Pakistan. Our findings call for immediate actions to reduce antimicrobial use in Pakistan, and countries with comparable farming practices.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(5): 565-575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health. Antibiotic stewardship programs (AMSP) promote the proper use of antimicrobials, improve clinical and economic outcomes, and helps containing the AMR. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic phase of the AMS programs and early implementation of AMS at three high complexity hospitals that belong to the social security system in Peru. METHODS: A quasi-experimental multicenter study was implemented. The construction of the AMSP, microbiological baselines, antimicrobial consumption and consensus on AMS activities were evaluated at the diagnosis and early implementation periods of the AMSP. RESULTS: Following implementation, hospitals doubled their score of resources and processes available for the AMS program from 6.75 to 13.75. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteria was 50-60% while Pseudomonas aeruginosa averaged 69% resistance to carbapenems. The defined daily dose (DDD) of ceftriaxone was 13.63, vancomycin 7.35 and meropenem 6.73 in average. Hospitals A and C decreased the use of antimicrobials (30-50%). DISCUSSION: The implementation of the AMSP in the three hospitals was achieved through diverse strategies designed by multidisciplinary teams, which in addition to its articulation, reduce the consumption of broad spectrum antimicrobials at an early stage.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Peru , Previdência Social , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104802, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675606

RESUMO

In Japan veterinary antimicrobials are used most in the pig production sector. However, there is a paucity of data on the quantity of antimicrobials used on pig farms in Japan. This study describes antimicrobial use on Japanese pig farms in 2015, 2016 and 2017 in terms of mg of active ingredient per kg of PCU (population correction unit). Data on antimicrobial use from a total of 72 farrow-to finish farms over these three years were used in the study. The results revealed that the average use of antimicrobials in 2015, 2016 and 2017 was 304.8 (SD = 226.3), 311.2 (SD = 241.0) and 342.9 (SD = 291.3) mg/kg PCU, respectively. Most (97%) of the antimicrobials were administered orally. The most commonly used antimicrobials were tetracyclines, followed by macrolides, penicillins and sulfonamides. Tohoku was the region in which the lowest quantities of antimicrobial were used whilst South Kanto was the region in which the largest amount was used. The use of antimicrobials was on the increase in the North Kanto, South Kanto and Kyushu regions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Uso de Medicamentos , Fazendas , Suínos , Animais , Japão
10.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192245, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the healing by second intention under the effects of topical application of honey, copaíba oil-resin and a commercial product (fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol) with a control group in rats. METHODS: we carried out a skin resection, 1cm in diameter, on the back of 40 rats allocated to four groups of ten animals. All wounds were cleaned daily with 2ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. The first group (control - GC) was restricted to such procedure. In the wounds of the second (GM), third (GO) and fourth groups (GF), after cleaning, we respectively applied 1ml of honey, 1ml of copaíba oil-resin and 1ml of cream containing fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol. The wounds were occluded with sterile gauze. Immediately after the incision and on days three, seven and 14 of the experiment, the wounds were copied and contraction was analyzed using planimetry. After euthanasia, we histologically evaluated the inflammatory reaction and collagen in the scars. RESULTS: the reduction of the wound area of GM (p=0.003), GO (p=0.011) and GF (p=0.002) were higher than the GC. The amount of type-I collagen present in GM and GO was higher than in GC and GF groups (p<0.05). There was a predominance of chronic inflammatory stage in GM (p=0.004), GO (p<0.001) and GF (p=0.003) when compared with GC. CONCLUSION: the topical use of honey and copaíba oil-resin increases wound contraction, the presence of type-I collagen and accelerates healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae/química , Mel , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Cloranfenicol/administração & dosagem , Desoxirribonuclease I/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinolisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(39): 6025-6040, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allicin (2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-2-propenyl ester, diallyl thiosulfinate) extracted from garlic, has proven activity against Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. In recent years, clinical trials have explored its utility as an add-on therapy with variable outcomes reported. AIM: To perform a systemic review of allicin as an add-on treatment for H. Pylori infection and assess its efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese VIP Information Databases, Chinese Medical Databases, and the Wan-Fang Database were searched for keywords including "allicin", "Helicobacter pylori", "randomized clinical trials", and their synonyms. A meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effects model for low heterogeneity and the random-effects model for high heterogeneity with sensitivity analysis. Bias was evaluated using Egger's tests. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to evaluate information size and treatment benefits. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the level of quality, and studies were classed as "high quality", "moderate quality", "low quality", and "very low quality". RESULTS: A total of eight RCTs consisting of 867 participants (435 from the allicin group and 432 from the control group) were included. Eradication rate in the allicin group (93.33%, 406/435) was significantly higher than that of the control group (83.56%, 361/432) [I 2 = 0%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-4.35, P < 0.001]. The healing rate of ulcers following H. pylori therapy in the allicin group (86.17%, 349/405) was significantly higher than that of the control group (75.87%, 305/402) [I 2 = 0%, OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001]. The total remission rate of peptic ulcers across all allicin groups was 97.16%, which was significantly higher than that of controls [96.05% (389/405) vs 86.55% (360/402), I 2 = 0, OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 1.51-6.12, P = 0.015]. No significant differences in side effects were observed. TSA suggested that the trials were of sufficient standard to draw reliable conclusions. The quality of outcomes including eradication rates and side effects was graded as "very low" due to downgrades for "risk of bias" and "indirectness". Other outcomes such as ulcer healing rates and total ulcer remission rates were graded as "low" due to downgrades for "risk of bias". CONCLUSION: Allicin as an add-on therapy improves H. pylori eradication, healing of ulcers, and remission of symptoms. These results are suggested to be treated with caution due to limited quality.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Sulfínicos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Úlcera Gástrica/microbiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Ácidos Sulfínicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Ter ; 170(5): e373-e381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612196

RESUMO

Among the various pathologies of the oral cavity, the formation of "unsightly black spots" on the surface of the tooth, universally known as Black Stain (BS) has recently been acquiring more interest. Usually BS is typically found in individuals in prepubertal age, even though it has been identified in adults associated with microbial exchange and / or with iron metabolism disorders. Microbial exchange concerns the possible exchange of bacteria between family members which can take place directly, through effusions, or indirectly, through brushes, cutlery or glasses. For this reason, it is recommended that toothbrushes of family members not be left damp and in contact with each other. The bathroom, being a warm-humid environment, is in fact an optimal habitat for microbial proliferation. Of specific importance in BS is the accumulation of iron in tissues and secretions which, together with chromogenic bacteria, are the primary cause of this pathology. In fact, among the metabolic products synthesized by bacteria in the oral cavity, hydrogen sulfide is of considerable interest, since upon reacting with iron available in saliva, in pathological conditions (iron metabolism disorders), it forms black precipitates consisting of ferric sulfide. These precipitates bind to the surface of the teeth, tending to form a stria that usually follows the contour of the gingiva, with an unsightly and variable chromatic intensity. In physiological situations, iron homeostasis is defined as the state of equilibrium between iron present in tissues and in secretions and that which is present in the circulation. Instead, in pathological conditions, defined as iron metabolism disorders, there is an accumulation of iron in tissues and secretions and a lack of it in the circulation. It is also important to remember that subjects affected by BS are more protected from carious processes than healthy subjects, probably due to a significant predominance of chromogenic bacteria compared to those responsible for caries. It should also be remembered that in young subjects BS tends to regress with pubertal development and the transition to adult life. In any case, using common professional hygiene procedures, it is possible to remove BS as well as plaque and tartar deposits. In particular, with ultrasonic scalers, polishing pastes and powders carried by air and water jets, the surfaces of the teeth can be restored to their natural healthy state. All the techniques for removing the precipitates, are not enough however, to fix and permanently eradicate their appearance, as these precipitates last only for short periods and recur very frequently. Due to the frequent recurrences, new oral microbiota control therapies are emerging; among these the use of lactoferrin (Lf) in the dental field and particularly in the treatment of BS appears to be very promising. Taken togheter, here the effect of Lf in subjects affected by BS has been investigated.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/dietoterapia , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Descoloração de Dente/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/diagnóstico , Masculino , Gravidez , Saliva/metabolismo , Descoloração de Dente/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4544, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586051

RESUMO

The selective regulation of bacteria in complex microbial populations is key to controlling pathogenic bacteria. CRISPR nucleases can be programmed to kill bacteria, but require an efficient and broad-host range delivery system to be effective. Here, using an Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica co-culture system, we show that plasmids based on the IncP RK2 conjugative system can be used as delivery vectors for a TevSpCas9 dual nuclease. Notably, a cis-acting plasmid that encodes the conjugation and CRISPR machinery conjugates from E. coli to S. enterica with high frequency compared to a trans system that separates conjugation and CRISPR machinery. In culture conditions that enhance cell-to-cell contact, conjugation rates approach 100% with the cis-acting plasmid. Targeting of single or multiplexed sgRNAs to non-essential genes results in high S. enterica killing efficiencies. Our data highlight the potential of cis-acting conjugative plasmids as a delivery system for CRISPR nucleases or other microbial-altering agents for targeted bacterial killing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/administração & dosagem , Conjugação Genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA Guia/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/genética
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 507-534, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590900

RESUMO

Livestock industries strive to improve the health of their animals and, in the future, they are going to be required to do this with a continued reduction in antimicrobial use. Nutraceuticals represent a group of compounds that may help fill that void because they exert some health benefits when supplemented to livestock. This review is focused on the mechanisms of action, specifically related to the immune responses and health of ruminants. The nutraceutical classes discussed include probiotics, prebiotics, phytonutrients (essential oils and spices), and polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
15.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 862-869, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631637

RESUMO

Despite the continuous improvement in perioperative use of antibiotics and aseptic techniques, the incidence of infection continues to rise as the need for surgery increasing and brings great challenges to orthopedic surgery. The rough or porous structure of the prosthesis provides an excellent place for bacterial adhesion, proliferation and biofilm formation, which is the main cause of infection. Traditional antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement are difficult to determine whether the infected focus have been removed completely and whether the infection will recur. In recent years, nanotechnology has shown obvious advantages in biomaterials and drug delivery. Nano drug carriers can effectively achieve local antimicrobial therapy, prevent surgical infection by local sustained drug release or intelligent controlled drug release under specific stimuli, and reduce the toxic side effects of drugs. The unique advantages of nanotechnology provide new ideas and options for the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection. At present, the application of nano-technology in the prevention and treatment of infection can be divided into the addition of nano-drug-loaded materials to prosthesis materials, the construction of drug-loaded nano-coatings on the surface of prosthesis, the perfusable nano-antimicrobial drug carriers, and the stimulation-responsive drug controlled release system. This article reviews the methods of infection prevention and treatment in orthopaedic surgery, especially the research status of nanotechnology in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanotecnologia , Ortopedia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Aderência Bacteriana , Humanos
16.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 34(5): 1237-1245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To show the clinical and radiographic results of intrabony peri-implantitis lesions treated nonsurgically with adjunctive systemic metronidazole with a mean follow-up of 50 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with peri-implantitis (probing depth ≥ 5 mm with concomitant bleeding on probing and/or suppuration) with radiographic evidence of intrabony defects > 2 mm were included in this study. Implants affected received one session of nonsurgical mechanical debridement with ultrasonic and steel curettes. Systemic metronidazole was immediately prescribed for 7 days. Clinical and radiographic variables were registered at baseline and at the end of follow-up. RESULTS: Eighteen patients and 25 implants were included in this investigation. At baseline, the mean radiographic bone level and intrabony component were 4.52 ± 2.14 mm and 3.93 ± 1.51 mm, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 54 (range: 12 to 108) months, the mean radiographic bone level reduction was 2.6 ± 0.21 mm, and the intrabony component reduction was 2.85 ± 0.37 mm (P < .05). A mean probing depth reduction of 4.66 ± 1.33 mm was observed (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, nonsurgical treatment of peri-implantitis with the adjunctive administration of systemic metronidazole has shown potential effectiveness in terms of probing depth and radiographic defect reduction after a mean follow-up of 54 months.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Metronidazol , Peri-Implantite , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Índice Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 31(5): 433-451, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550193

RESUMO

This article describes the development of the Community Health clinic model for Agency in Relationships and Safer Microbicide Adherence intervention (CHARISMA), an intervention designed to address the ways in which gender norms and power differentials within relationships affect women's ability to safely and consistently use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). CHARISMA development involved three main activities: (1) a literature review to identify appropriate evidence-based relationship dynamic scales and interventions; (2) the analysis of primary and secondary data collected from completed PrEP studies, surveys and cognitive interviews with PrEP-experienced and naïve women, and in-depth interviews with former vaginal ring trial participants and male partners; and (3) the conduct of workshops to test and refine key intervention activities prior to pilot testing. These steps are described along with the final clinic and community-based intervention, which was tested for feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness in Johannesburg, South Africa.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , África do Sul , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais
19.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 157-160, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185324

RESUMO

En el presente artículo se revisa el papel del biofilm en la progresión de la úlcera de pie diabético con presencia de biofilm. Se revisan los conceptos recientes sobre la fisiopatología del biofilm bacteriano y de la aparición del concepto "grupos de patógenos funcionalmente equivalentes", así como de las colonizaciones fúngicas presentes en la herida de pie diabético. La detección clínica del biofilm continúa siendo dificultosa a la cabecera del paciente y se destaca especialmente la importancia del desbridamiento y el uso de antimicrobianos tópicos apropiados según el documento de consenso actual sobre manejo del biofilm en el pie diabético


In this article it is reviewed the role of biofilm in the progression of diabetic foot ulcer with biofilm. Recent concepts on the pathophysiology of the bacterial biofilm and the new concept of "groups of functionally equivalent pathogens" as well as the fungal colonizations present in the diabetic foot wound are reviewed. The clinical detection of the biofilm continues to be difficult at the patient's bedside and the importance of debridement. The use of appropriate topical antimicrobials according to the current consensus document on biofilm management in the diabetic foot is especially highlighted


Assuntos
Humanos , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/terapia , Desbridamento , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia
20.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(5): 580-584, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373697

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of baicalin after intravenous and intramuscular administration of sodium baicalin at 50 mg/kg to piglets. Plasma baicalin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time data of baicalin for both administration routes were best described by two-compartmental open model. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve and the elimination half-lives were 77.47 ± 6.14 µg/ml × h and 1.73 ± 0.16 hr for intravenous and 64.85 ± 5.67 µg/ml × h and 2.42 ± 0.15 hr for intramuscular administration, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution and body clearance were 1.63 ± 0.23 L/kg and 2.74 ± 0.30 L h-1  kg-1 for intravenous and 0.51 ± 0.10 L/kg and 0.78 ± 0.08 L h-1  kg-1 for intramuscular routes, respectively. An intramuscular injection of sodium baicalin in piglets resulted in rapid and complete absorption, with a mean maximal plasma concentration of 77.28 ± 7.40 µg/ml at 0.17 hr and a high absolute bioavailability of 83.73 ± 5.53%.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Suínos/sangue , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/sangue , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Intravenosas
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