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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911204

RESUMO

This study was conducted to develop a highly selective, sensitive, and validated method for quantifying metronidazole in human plasma and bile fluid. Metronidazole and metronidazole-d4 (internal standard) were extracted from 100 µL of plasma and bile fluid by liquid-liquid extraction. Liquid chromatography with a Hydrosphere C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm) was performed using 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) as the mobile phase. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was operated with an electrospray ionization interface in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The calibration curves were linear for bile and plasma samples over the range of 50-20,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.999). The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for plasma ranged from 2.50% to 7.85% and 3.11% to 16.9%, respectively; for bile, the intra-and inter-run precision (CVs) ranged from 2.76% to 13.2% and 3.16% to 11.5%, respectively. The mean extraction recovery for metronidazole ranged from 76.5% to 82.1% in plasma and from 78.8% to 87.8% in bile, respectively. Our proposed analytical method was successfully applied to determine metronidazole concentrations in bile as well as in plasma at multiple time points in a patient with acute cholangitis.


Assuntos
Bile/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metronidazol/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/sangue , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Metronidazol/sangue , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1369-1382, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487405

RESUMO

Propolis is a resinous substance composed of a mixture of different plant parts and molecules secreted by bees. Chemically, it is defined as a complex matrix containing biologically active molecules with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. It is widely employed in cosmetic formulations and pharmaceutical products and is one of the most widely used natural products. However, the effects and strength of these biological activities depend on the chemical profile and composition of each propolis type. This composition is associated with the diversity of local flora, the place and period of collection, and the genetics of the bees. In this context, the objective of this review was to investigate the biological, chemical, and microbiological properties of propolis. A technological prospection was also performed on patents for products designed to be used in animal health. Our investigation shows that the literature contains diverse studies dedicated to comparing and describing the composition and therapeutic properties of propolis. These studies demonstrate the potential biological use of propolis in veterinary medicine, showing the applications of propolis extracts in different formulations. However, there are a low number of propolis-based veterinary products with a registered patent. Thus, the development of products based on propolis is a promising market to be exploited. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Própole/química , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Abelhas , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Própole/farmacologia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11449-11452, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629516

RESUMO

Antimicrobial residues in milk have been discussed as a possible selector for Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) in dairy herds. Such residues are found in waste milk after antibiotic treatment of mastitis, but antibiotic dry cow therapy might also lead to antibiotic residues in colostrum and in milk during early lactation. While it is known that feeding of waste milk selects ESBL bacteria in calves, this was not investigated for colostrum yet, which is supposed to contain much lower antibiotic concentrations than waste milk. In this observational prospective case study on 2 farms, we hypothesized that blanket dry cow treatment with ß-lactams would have more selective (here: increasing) effects on ESBL concentrations than selective (here: individually chosen) antibiotic dry cow therapy. Thus, we compared concentrations of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in feces of calves (n = 50) at 2 dairy farms with different management of antibiotic dry cow therapy. Considerably higher concentrations of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were observed in blanket antibiotic dry cow therapy on d 3 of the calf's life (7.6 vs. 5.3 log cfu/g of calf feces). Both farms used narrow-spectrum penicillin combined with aminoglycosides for drying off, and the majority of ESBL isolates (93%) were co-resistant to aminoglycosides. No waste milk was fed to calves and no calf was treated with ß-lactam antibiotics or aminoglycosides during the first 3 d of life, thus differences were most likely associated with different frequency of antibiotic dry cow therapy on farms (19 of 25 mother cows on farm A, 9 of 25 on farm B). Even though the presumable selection effect of antibiotics used for drying off decreased within the next 3 wk, this result further emphasizes the need for the reduction and prudent use of antibiotic dry cow therapy on farms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colostro/química , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Leite/química , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31873-31886, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489545

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used in many personal care and cleaning products. It has been detected in most environmental compartments and the main entry pathway is wastewater effluents and biosolids. TCS was analyzed in 300 samples of raw influent, final effluent, and biosolids from 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Canada representing five types of typical wastewater treatment systems. TCS was almost always detected in influent (median 1480 ng/L), effluent (median 107 ng/L), and biosolids (median 8000 ng/g dry weight) samples. Removals of TCS from lagoons as well as secondary and advanced treatment facilities were significantly higher than primary treatment facilities (p < 0.001). TCS removal was strongly correlated with organic nitrogen removal. TCS removals at most lagoons and plants that use biological treatment were higher during summer compared with winter. However, no seasonal or temperature effects were observed at the two primary facilities, likely due to the absence of biological activity. Aerobically digested solids contained the lowest levels (median 555 ng/g) while anaerobically digested primary solids contained the highest levels of TCS (median 22,700 ng/g). The results of this large comprehensive study demonstrate that TCS is consistently present in wastewater and biosolids at relatively high concentrations and that removal from wastewater and levels in biosolids are strongly influenced by the wastewater and solids treatment types.


Assuntos
Triclosan/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Triclosan/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
5.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112990, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401522

RESUMO

The consumption of tonnes of anti-tubercular and other anti-microbial compounds for the control of the tuberculosis epidemic and other opportunistic diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus presents tuberculosis-endemic countries such as South Africa, with a problem regarding the occurrence and fate of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The majority of these compounds are not readily degradable and could persist in the aquatic environment with potential detrimental effect on the aquatic microbiota ecosystem, development and dissemination of anti-microbial resistance as well as chronic toxicity in humans due to long-term exposure. This review summarises and discusses the occurrence, fate and potential adverse effects of the commonly administered anti-tubercular compounds in the aquatic environment in tuberculosis-endemic countries and South Africa in particular. It further attempts to identify information gaps in the literature regarding anti-tubercular compounds in the environment that needs further investigation so that their risk can be comprehensively assessed and impact mitigated.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , África do Sul , Tuberculose , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104661, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450364

RESUMO

The present study aims at optimisation of enhanced solute impregnation through ultrasonication (US) at 37 kHz using central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Black carrots were blanched at 98 °C/3 min followed by immersion in salt-spices based solutions for 8 h, treated with bath sonication at specific intervals (2, 4 & 6 h) for 5, 10 and 15 min. Responses for optimum water loss (WL), solute gain (SG), anthocyanins retention, texture and highest antioxidant activity were optimized in effect of NaCl%, spices mix% and US time. The suggested models were of good fit while lack of fit as non-significant (p < 0.0500). Best combination was compared for anthocyanins retention on pressure-cooking (120 °C/15 psi) with fresh, blanched, salt-spiced without US subjected to hot-air convective drying (55 °C/5 h). Ultrasonication-assisted salt-spiced convective dried (USPCD) carrots retained highest anthocyanin content (41%) post cooking which correlated with increased glass transition (Tg) and antimicrobial efficacy (as zone of inhibition) in comparison to fresh, blanched convective dried (BCD) and salt-spiced convective dried (SPCD) carrots. FTIR spectra suggested the correlation of textural effects with pectin degradation and solute impregnation. XRD spectra revealed changes in pectin (2θ = 22.06°) and NaCl crystallinity peaks at 2θ = 27.49, 31.86, 45.62, 56.68, 66.45 and 75.43°, owing to the processing of black carrots. The spectra also confirmed higher solute impregnation in USPCD than SPCD carrots. Scanning electron micrographs of USPCD also indicated higher impregnation through smallest pores visible in longitudinal section of carrot tissue structure, which also appeared to be polymeric network filled with higher solutes than SPCD. Taken together, US assisted solute impregnation might have provided protection to the anthocyanins degradation as well as retention of other quality parameters on processing.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Daucus carota/química , Dessecação/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Sonicação , Especiarias , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cor , Daucus carota/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Solubilidade
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1251-1259, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038617

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L. contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli e a citotoxicidade sobre células epiteliais da glândula mamária bovina (MAC-T), visando a seu uso no tratamento da mastite bovina. A análise qualitativa do óleo revelou cis-tagetona (24,24%), di-hidrotagetona (16,65%), 1,3,6-octatrieno-3,7-dimetil-E (13,61%), trans-ocimenona (13,52%) e cis-ocimenona (10,06%) como compostos majoritários. Nos ensaios da atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) verificada foi de 1 mg/mL para a cepa padrão (ATCC 25923), cinco isolados de S. aureus provenientes de leite de vacas com mastite e a cepa padrão resistente à meticilina (MRSA) (ATCC 33592). Para a cepa padrão de E. coli (ATCC 8739) e dois isolados de leite de vacas com mastite, a CIM foi de 3 mg/mL. Elevado efeito citóxico do óleo sobre as células da linhagem MAC-T foi constatado. Concentrações superiores a 10 (g/mL do óleo resultaram em mais de 90% de morte celular. Tais resultados sugerem que, apesar da atividade antimicrobiana contra agentes causadores da mastite bovina, a utilização intramamária do óleo de T. minuta não seria recomendada. É importante destacar a sensibilidade da cepa MRSA ao óleo essencial, o que evidencia seu potencial como antisséptico e sanitizante.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tagetes minuta L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and its cytotoxicity to bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T line), aiming at its use for bovine mastitis treatment. The qualitative analysis of the oil by GC-MS identified cis-tagetone (24.24%), dihydrotagetone (16.65%), 1,3,6-Octatriene 3,7-Dimethyl-E (13.61%); trans-ocimenone (13.52%) and cis-ocimenone (10.06%) as major compounds. Antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution technique and revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/mL for the standard strain of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and five bacterias isolated from mastitic milk, including a multiresistant strain (ATCC 33592); and 3mg/ml for the standard strain of E. coli (ATCC 8739) and two bacterias isolated from mastitic milk. However, a strong citotoxic effect on MAC-T cells was found. Oil concentrations from 10(g/mL resulted in over 90% of cell death. The results suggest that although the antimicrobial activity was identified against the main agents of bovine mastitis, the intramammary use of T. minuta oil may not be recommended. On the other hand, it is important to highlight the sensibility of the MSRA strain to the essential oil, which evidences its potential as an antiseptic or sanitizer.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Tagetes , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Plantas Medicinais
8.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4220-4230, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257368

RESUMO

The use of natural products as food supplements has received increasing attention in recent years. Sea-buckthorn pulp and flaxseed residues are rich in phenolic fractions and aroma substances, thereby offering high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, large quantities of these residues usually remain unused. Therefore, this study confirmed the chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of these materials, and evaluated their effect on the quality, characteristics and shelf life of bread. Both residues were rich in crude fiber, while sea-buckthorn had a much higher content of polyphenols compared with flaxseed. The addition of these two residues changed the characteristics and nutritional value of the bread, including the specific volume, color, texture, and antioxidant capacity. Supplementation with these two residues also gave the breads new aromas. The shelf life of the breads was increased by different levels of addition compared with the control group. For sensory evaluation, bread with a suitable content of residues was favored by consumers.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Linho/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Hippophae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Pão/microbiologia , Cor , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 143-148, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274175

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in poultry in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria. Four organs - kidney, liver, muscle, and gizzard - were harvested from 100 commercial broiler birds and tested using the Three Plate Test (microbiological method) with Bacillus subtilis as test organism. Of the 100 sampled birds, 64 were positive for antimicrobial residues, with a prevalence of 64%. Out of 400 organs, 155 were positive for antimicrobial residues, with different prevalence values observed in the harvested organs. Our findings indicate an association between the type of organ and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues, with the kidney having the highest prevalence (p value: < 0.0001, Chi Square test). Overall, in this study, commercial poultry were found to contain multiple antimicrobial residues, which strongly suggest the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in livestock production.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Nigéria
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111483, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279173

RESUMO

CuCo2O4 nanoparticles modified with nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (CuCo2O4/N-CNTs) have high specific surface area and good electrical conductivity. Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on CuCo2O4/N-CNTs loaded molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is proposed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of metronidazole (MNZ). The composite of CuCo2O4/N-CNTs with MIP significantly enhances the electrical signal. The electrochemical polymerization was performed with MNZ as template and aniline as functional monomer by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to detect MNZ. Factors that affect sensor response were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the DPV current response shows two linearity ranges for MNZ in the range of 0.005-0.1 µM and 0.1-100 µM with very low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.48 nM (S/N = 3). This electrochemical sensing system has high sensitivity, selectivity, excellent reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The recovery (95.9%-100.9%) and reasonable relative standard deviation (RSD) (3.2%-4.8%) for determination of real samples indicate the practicality of the sensing system. This sensing system has high potential for rapid determination of MNZ in samples such as metronidazole tablets, human serum and urine.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Metronidazol/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nitrogênio/química , Anti-Infecciosos/sangue , Anti-Infecciosos/urina , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cobalto/química , Cobre/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Metronidazol/sangue , Metronidazol/urina , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Óxidos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3 (Supplementary)): 1235-1243, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303596

RESUMO

Considering the growing interest in medicinal plants having imperative phytoconstituents, a research has been steered to standardize the crude drug from "Saussurea hypoleuca root" by assessing its primary, secondary metabolites and to screened out in vitro biological assays of thrashed plant. Quantitative analysis was done by estimation of the primary and secondary metabolites (total proteins, total carbohydrates, total lipids, total glycosaponins, total alkaloids, total flavonoids, and total polyphenolics) in powder and extracts. The maximum value of total proteins (0.59%), total carbohydrates (53.7%), total lipids (27.12%), total glycosaponins (63.9%), total alkaloids (20.3%), total flavonoids (0.23%) and total polyphenolics (0.919%) were respectively. Antimicrobial assay was done by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Haemolytic and DNA protection activity was studied by reported method. Different extracts showed various results however butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol give promising results. The results of this present study gives an evidence for the existence of diverse primary and secondary metabolites and thus rationalizes its use in traditional medicines for the cure of different aliments owing to the safety profile on human red blood cells. The conclusions of this research work give an indication that this plant has good potential for antimicrobial activity and has possible pronounced significance as therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Saussurea/química , Alcaloides/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Carboidratos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saussurea/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124303, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310978

RESUMO

Biofilm reactors are a promising biotechnology to eliminate pharmaceuticals from wastewater during tertiary treatment or in water works for drinking water production. This study aimed at investigating the effects of pulsed carbon feeding for promoting the co-degradation of indigenous pharmaceuticals from pre-treated wastewater in a fixed-bed porous biofilm reactor (slow sand filter). The addition of acetate (carbon source) resulted in three different enhancement/limitation effects, which were compound dependent: 1) atenolol and iohexol experienced enhanced co-degradation followed by constant (acetate independent) degradation; 2) metoprolol, iomeprol, diclofenac, propranolol and sulfamethizole co-degradation dependent on aerobic turnover, but inhibited at higher acetate concentrations (60-300 mg C/L); 3) sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were removed independently of oxygen and acetate concentration. Carbamazepine, ditriazoic acid, iopromide; tramadol and venlavaxine were not removed at any acetate dosage. Biofilm reactors can be employed for polishing treated wastewater, and the addition of a primary carbon source can enhance the performance of the bioreactor.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Carbono/análise
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 123, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases, particularly those due to multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are almost impossible to cure globally. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of Azadirachta indica A. Juss secondary metabolites (AISM) formulated soap and cream for management of infectious and oxidative stress-related diseases (OSD). METHODS: The antibacterial, radical scavenging and cytotoxic effects of the neem cosmetics were examined by serial dilution, spectrophotometric and hemolytic techniques respectively, while the AISM in the essential oils (EOs) were elucidated by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and retention index. RESULTS: The neem cosmetics without AISM exhibited bacteriostatic effects against five reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria ivanovii, Enterobacter cloacae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptococcus uberis) and two confirmed multi-drug resistant bacterial strains (Vibrio paraheamolyticues, Escherichia coli 180) at 0.80 mg/mL. Conversely, at less than 0.50 mg/mL the neem soap produced with AISM demonstrated bactericidal effects against most of these test pathogens linked to infectious diseases. The neem soap containing AISMs displayed noteworthy effects in scavenging radicals associated with OSD at < 1.76 mg/mL. The cosmetics were not toxic to human red blood cells below 0.70 mg/ mL. To our known, the AISM predominantly caryophyllene (30.02%), phytol (14.12%), elemene (13.40%) and linoleic acid (10.5%) exceptional inhibitory effects in neem cosmetics are reported here for the first time. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that apart from traditional uses of A. indica, the EO contained potent bioactive AISM and feasible as an antimicrobial agent, an alternative to synthetic antioxidant, likewise considered novel in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics industries and as food preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Azadirachta , Glicerídeos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/química , Cosméticos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sabões/química
14.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237955

RESUMO

Farming insects has recently emerged as a new source of protein and lipid production. To date, research has mostly focused on food applications of insects. Focusing on nonfood potential of oil and proteins of insects, high-throughput studies of insect lipids and proteins are needed. We performed proteomics and lipidomics investigation on black soldier fly (Hermitia illucens) and blow fly (Lucilia sericata) larvae to investigate new potential and applications. We used mass spectrometry for proteomics and lipidomics analysis of control and treated larvae. Treatment was performed by incubation with a biological decomposer. We provide the list of all fatty acids with their concentration in control and treated larvae. This result showed high levels of lauric acid in black soldier fly, which could even increase after biological decomposition. Proteomics analysis showed the presence of proteins like collagen of cosmetic interest, and proteins with antimicrobial properties such as phenoloxidases and enzymatic activities, such as amylase and trypsin. Insects harbor high potential for nonfood usage as additives, antimicrobial effects, and even pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. These data open avenues for future research in pharmacological and cosmetic approaches to find new molecules of interests.


Assuntos
Dípteros/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteoma , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Dípteros/química , Dípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Larva/química , Larva/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Proteômica
15.
Chemosphere ; 230: 201-209, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103866

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC) is considered as contaminant of emerging concern (CEC), and ranked in the top 10 CEC occurrence. TCC is a high production volume synthetic chemical used extensively in various personal care products. This chemical will be released into the environment via incomplete wastewater treatment and untreated wastewater discharge. TCC and its transformation products (4,4'-dichlorocarbilide (DCC),1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-phenylurea (MCC) and carbanilide (NCC),2'OH-TCC, 3'OH-TCC) were detected in the environmental matrices. Sediment organic carbon will influence TCC concentrations in suspended and bed sediments. TCC is an antimicrobial agent and also emerging endocrine disruptor that can cause immune dysfunction and affect human reproductive outcomes. Furthermore, TCC alters the expression of proteins related to binding and metabolism, skeletal muscle development and function, nervous system development and immune response. TCC has potential health risks in wildlife and humans. Several animal studies illustrate that it can cause various adverse effects, which can be monitored by antioxidant biomarkers (CAT, GST and LPO). Accumulation of TCC in organisms depends on the lipophilicity and bioavailability of TCC in sediment and water. TCC was continuously detected in aquatic system. TCC is a lipophilic compound, which can efficiently bind with lipid content. Women are more vulnerable to TCC due to substantially higher frequency and extended exposure to TCC. This review provides basic information of occurrence of TCC and the exposure levels in aquatic organisms. Several literature have shown the higher usage and human exposure levels of TCC, which provides useful information for the chemical management approaches.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Carbanilidas/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 185-191, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082583

RESUMO

Synthetic antimicrobials known as parabens, triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are emerging environmental contaminants. Limited studies on these contaminants have been conducted in coastal environments. In our study, parabens, their metabolites, TCS, and TCC were measured in sediment collected along the Korean coast, to investigate contamination status, spatial distribution, and potential health risks to coastal environments. Methyl paraben and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in all sediment samples, suggesting widespread contamination. Total concentrations of parent parabens, their metabolites, TCS, and TCC ranged from 0.19 to 11.2 (mean: 2.40) ng/g dry weight, 9.65 to 480 (mean: 120) ng/g dry weight, and < limit of quantification (LOQ)-6.10 (mean: 0.41) ng/g dry weight, and from < LOQ-41.0 (mean: 2.78) ng/g dry weight, respectively. The overall contamination of parabens and antimicrobials in sediment was different from that reported for persistent organic pollutants due to different contamination sources among chemical groups. Significant correlation was found among target contaminants in sediment, suggesting the existence of a common source. Total organic carbon (TOC) was significantly correlated with the concentrations of target contaminants, implying a major factor for coastal distribution of parabens and antimicrobials. The concentrations of parabens and TCS measured in sediment did not exceed a hazard quotient (HQ), implying low potential health risks associated with exposure to these contaminants. This is the first study to report the nationwide distribution of parabens, their metabolites, and antimicrobials in the coastal environments of Korea.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Parabenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbanilidas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Parabenos/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Triclosan/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6892-6901, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125221

RESUMO

We herein describe a high-throughput 96-well plate micro-solid phase extraction sample preparation technique based on novel sulfonated-polyaniline/polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats (sulfonated-PANI/PAN NFMs) for multiresidue detection of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in various animal-origin food samples. Through the double-modification of polyaniline and sulfonic acid, the resulting functionalized sulfonated-PANI/PAN NFMs present high extraction efficiency for FQs. Compared with the existing methods, this approach demonstrates its advantages of being suitable for more sample matrices (milk, animal muscle, liver, kidney, and egg), lower sample amount (0.5 g), lower sorbent requirement (5.0 mg), lower volume of organic solvent (0.7 mL), shorter time (0.2 min per sample), and high sensitivity (0.012-0.06 µg·kg-1). In addition, sulfonated-PANI/PAN NFMs possess excellent reusability which could be reused 10 times without an obvious decrease in extraction efficiency. Combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the novel sample preparation technique can be expected as an efficient method for routine trace FQ residue monitoring in animal-origin food samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Rim/química , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Nanofibras/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Suínos
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(10): e4603, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116451

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate for the first time the chemical composition and insecticidal and antimicrobial properties of Phlomis floccosa D. Don. essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation of its aerial parts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the essential oil on the basis of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/FID and GC/MS) revealed the presence of 59 organic volatiles representing 86.9% of the total constituents. The major compounds were germacrene-D (19.7%) followed by ß-caryophyllene (15.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.3%), hexadecenoic acid (7.9%) and carvacrol (6.1%). The broth microdilution method was conducted to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against five pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans. The oil of P. floccosa D. Don. shows promising activity against the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis and the yeast C. albicans (minimum inhibitory concentration = 625 µg.mL-1 ). The effectiveness of the essential oil was assessed on both Tribolium confusum and Sitophilus zeamais pest insects and it was more pronounced against T. confusum, showing a moderate mortality of 47.5%.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Phlomis/química , Óleos Vegetais , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 4196-4203, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041444

RESUMO

Although eggs are an excellent protein source, they are a perishable product. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is the use of protein coatings that may be combined with antimicrobial substances, as propolis. The effectiveness of rice protein coatings plus propolis on maintaining interior quality and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs was evaluated during storage at 20°C for 6 wk. Egg quality was assessed by weight loss, Haugh unit (HU), albumen pH, yolk index (YI), shell strength, and scanning electron microscopy in uncoated eggs (control treatment) and eggs coated with rice protein concentrate and propolis at 5 or 10%. The HU and YI were higher in coated eggs (P < 0.001). Weight loss increased (P < 0.001) during long-term storage. Uncoated eggs showed the highest weight loss (5.39%), whereas rice protein (4.27%) and rice protein plus propolis at 5% (4.11%) and 10% (4.40%) solutions were effective in preventing weight lost (P < 0.001). Uncoated eggs had the worst (P < 0.001) HU (58.47), albumen pH (9.48), and YI (0.33) after 6 wk of storage. The eggs coated with rice protein and rice protein plus propolis presented results with similar intern quality between them during all the storage period. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a lower surface porosity in coated eggshell, indicating that the use of the coating may provide a protective barrier against the transfer of gases and moisture. In conclusion rice protein and propolis treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time compared to uncoated eggs. These could be a viable alternative for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during long-term storage at room temperature.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Própole/análise , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Galinhas , Própole/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 419-429, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077920

RESUMO

This study assessed the applicability of fixed bed bioreactors in two configurations - anaerobic structured bed reactor (ASBR) and anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) - in the removal of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP), two antibiotics frequently detected in sanitary sewage. The problem of these pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants in conventional sewage treatment systems is mainly because they encourage the development and spread of resistance genes in bacteria. Both reactors had similar performances, and the antibiotics were highly removed - APBR: 85 ±â€¯10% for SMX and 81 ±â€¯16% for CIP; ASBR: 83 ±â€¯12% for SMX and 81 ±â€¯15% for CIP. The ASBR showed to be potentially more feasible in operating and economic terms compared to the APBR, as the former presents a smaller amount of support material in the bed. SMX was completely biotransformed, while the influence of the sorption mechanism was observed for CIP, as its presence was detected sorbed onto biomass throughout the reaction bed of the reactors, with a partition coefficient (log KD) of around 2.8 L·kg-1TSS. The degradation kinetics of the pharmaceuticals were fitted using a first-order kinetic model, whereby the reactors behaved as plug flow ones, indicating the possibility of optimizing the operation for a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. The removal kinetics was more favorable for CIP (higher apparent constant kinetic - kCIPapp > kSMXapp), since its biodegradation is linked to the biomass, which is more concentrated in the bed bottom layer. The experimental results showed the potential of anaerobic fixed bed reactors in removing environmentally relevant concentrations of SMX and CIP found in sewage.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Ciprofloxacino/análise , Esgotos/análise , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Reatores Biológicos/classificação , Brasil
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