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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129232, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639429

RESUMO

Non-extractable polyphenols (NEPPs) in pomegranate peel were released by acid hydrolysis followed by extraction using ethyl acetate (EtOAc). Ten NEPPs were identified in the hydrolysate using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Six compounds were then isolated from the EtOAc extracts whose structures were identified as ß-sitosterol-3-O-glycoside (1), ß-sitosterol (2), ursolic acid (3), corosolic acid (4), asiatic acid (5) and arjunolic acid (6) using a wide range of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 4-6 were isolated for the first time from pomegranate peel. Antimicrobial experiments revealed that compound 3 and 5 showed significant antimicrobial activity against a range of pathogens, particularly compound 5 which exhibited selective inhibitive activity towards Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 µg/ml. The present study has provided new insights into the composition of bound chemicals in pomegranate peel and laid a foundation for improving its further processing and utilization.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Fitoterapia ; 149: 104821, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387643

RESUMO

A new dihydrochromene derivative, named lisofurvin (1) and a xanthone, named dihydrobrasixanthone B (2) together with twenty one known compounds (3-23) were isolated from propolis of the stingless bee Lisotrigona furva. Their chemical structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS. The chemical constituents are predominantly geranyl(oxy) xanthones and Cratoxylum cochinchinense was suggested as a resin source, besides two other plants Mangifera indica and dammar trees (Dipterocarpaceae). Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, HepG-2, and Lu-1 cancer cell lines with IC50 values range from 12.63 to 15.17 µg/mL. Several isolated compounds were active against one to four tested cancer cell lines. In addition, among the isolated compounds, α-mangostin (15) displayed the strongest antimicrobial activity against three Gram (+) strains, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans with MIC values ranging between 1 and 2 µg/mL. Compound 22 showed good activity against three Gram (+) strains and C. albicans.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Própole/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Abelhas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clusiaceae/química , Dipterocarpaceae/química , Humanos , Mangifera/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Vietnã , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 408-417, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465360

RESUMO

Mushrooms are renewable natural gift for humankind, furnished with unique taste, flavor and medicinal properties. For the last few decades study of mushroom polysaccharides has become a matter of great interest to the researchers for their immunomodulating, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, and antitumor properties. Molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation of polysaccharides and chemical modification are the major factors influencing their biological activities. The mechanism of action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate T-cells, B-cells, natural killer cells, and macrophage dependent immune responses via binding to receptors like the toll-like receptor-2, dectin-1. The present review offers summarized and significant information about the structural and biological properties of mushroom polysaccharides, and their potential for development of therapeutic materials.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 94-106, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358950

RESUMO

Considering the need of new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the production of novel biosurfactant (BS) molecules, the current study brings out a new insight on the exploration of cheese samples for BS producers and process optimization for industrial applications. In view of this, Lactobacillus plantarum 60FHE, Lactobacillus paracasei 75FHE, and Lactobacillus paracasei 77FHE were selected as the most operative strains. The biosurfactants (BSs) described as glycolipoproteins via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogens. L. plantarum 60FHE BS showed an anticancer activity against colon carcinoma cells and had a week antiviral activity against Hepatitis A virus. Furthermore, glycolipoprotein production was enhanced by 1.42-fold through the development of an optimized process using central composite design (CCD). Emulsifying activities were stable after 60-min incubation from 4 to 120 °C, at pH 2-12, and after the addition of NaCl (2-14%). Characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) revealed that BS produced from strain 60FHE was glycolipoprotein. L. plantarum produced mixed BSs determined by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Thus, indicating that BS was applied as a microbial food prevention and biomedical. Also, L. plantarum 60FHE BS was achieved with the use of statistical optimization on inexpensive food wastes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Lipoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/economia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/economia , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/economia , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite A/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactobacillus paracasei/química , Lactobacillus paracasei/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Lipoproteínas/química , Lipoproteínas/economia , Lipoproteínas/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Filogenia , Ribotipagem , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/economia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Resíduos/análise
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 252: 117221, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183647

RESUMO

Seaweed is a prominent source of polysaccharides with extraction processes properly established, allowing to employ them in several areas. Among all the types of biopolymers obtained from seaweed, furcellaran has gained notoriety in recent years. This is due to its abundance, water solubility and outstanding film-forming abilities. Despite still being little studied, in several works, remarkable advances in terms of improving properties of furcellaran-based films have been described in the literature. However, there are still numerous research opportunities to be explored regarding the improvement of material properties. Therefore, the objective of this review is to highlight the innovative method in preparation, characterization and performance of furcellaran-based films as food packaging. This is the first study in which current results in the area are presented. Initially, it concerns biopolymer chemical and extraction insights. In addition, a comprehensive description of the advances in film properties is outlined (from mechanical to active/intelligent responses). Ultimately, challenges and future prospects are also discussed.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gomas Vegetais , Alginatos/química , Alginatos/isolamento & purificação , Alginatos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Gomas Vegetais/química , Gomas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Gomas Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113291, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841700

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) is a deciduous, commonly ornamental, tropical plant grown in home premises, parks, gardens, graveyards, because of its beautiful and attractive flowers of various colours and size. The different parts of the plant are used traditionally to treat various diseases and conditions like leprosy, inflammation, diabetic mellitus, ulcers, wounds, itching, acne, toothache, earache, tongue cleaning, pain, asthma, constipation and antifertility. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The main aim of this review is to provide an overview and critically analyze the reported ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicological studies of P. rubra and to identify the remaining gaps and thus supply a basis for further investigations. The review also focuses towards drawing attention of people and researchers about the wide spread pharmaceutical properties of the plant for its better utilization in the coming future. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the relevant data and information on P. rubra was gathered using various databases such as PubMed, Springer, Taylor and Francis imprints, NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), Science direct, Google scholar, Chemspider, SciFinder, research and review articles from peer-reviewed journals and unpublished data such as Phd thesis, etc. Some other 'grey literature' sources such as webpages, ethnobotanical books, chapters, wikipedia were also studied. RESULTS: More than 110 chemical constituents have been isolated from P. rubra including iridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, glycosides, fatty acid esters, carbohydrates, animo acids, lignan, coumarin, volatile oils, etc. The important chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological activities of the plant are fulvoplumierin, plumieride, rubrinol, lupeol, oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, plumieride-p-E-coumarate, rubranonoside, rubrajalellol, plumericin, isoplumericin, etc. The plant possess a wide range of pharmacological activities present namely antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anthelmintic, antifertility and many other activities. CONCLUSION: P. rubra is a valuable medicinal source and further study in this topic can validate the traditional and ethnobotanical use of the plant. However, many aspects of the plant have not been studied yet. The pharmacological activity of active chemical constituent isolated from the plant is proven only for a couple of activities hence, lack of bio-guided isolation strategies is observed. Further studies on bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and structural activity relationship studies of isolated pure compounds will contribute more in understanding their pharmacological effects. Higher doses of plant extracts are administered to experimental animals, therefore their toxicity and side effects in humans are needed to be thoroughly studied, although no side effect or toxicity is seen or observed in experimental animals. Studies are also essential to investigate the long term in vivo toxicity and clinical efficacy of the plant.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113181, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687960

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) LP Queiroz (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree in the Northeast of Brazil. Its flowers, leaves, stem bark and root have been used over the years to treat infections, abdominal pain, inflammation, diarrhea, heartburn, and dyspepsia. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study is a critical assessment of the state-of-the-art concerning traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. pyramidalis performed through the application of a robust research strategy to explore the therapeutic potential of P. pyramidalis extracts and isolated compounds for the treatment of human disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information related to this review was systematically collected from scientific literature databases for P. pyramidalis, including papers and patents (PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google scholar, INPI, WIPO, EPO and USPTO), published books (e.g. Plantas Forrageiras das Caatingas), dissertations and theses. Plant taxonomy has been confirmed in the "The Plant List" database (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis of P. pyramidalis shows several constituents such as flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenylpropanoids. The extract and isolated constituents exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and neuroprotective activities. In addition, toxicity studies showed that the administration of P. pyramidalis extract was safe in non-pregnant rats but displayed teratogenic effects in rats and goats. On the other hand, the search in patent databases reported a single filing, which highlights the disparity between a large number of published scientific articles versus the almost nonexistent filing of patents. This fact evidences a still little explored technological potential of the species. CONCLUSION: P. pyramidalis represents an important therapeutic resource for the population from the Northeast of Brazil. Pharmacological studies confirmed the effectiveness of the extract or isolated compounds in the treatment of various pathologies traditionally treated with P. pyramidalis. The authors emphasize the need for in-depth research and future clinical trials in order to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of P. pyramidalis.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Fabaceae , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113353, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891818

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Different plants are used for the treatment of various ailments and Acorus calamus L. is one such plant found in Western Himalaya. Rhizome of this plants has ethnomedicinal significance, as its rhizome is used for curing fever, pain and inflammation. An attempt has been made to alter the phytochemicals and increase its antioxidant property in a sustainable way with the help of mycorrhizal inoculation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Study of mycorrhizal (Funneliformis mosseae) impact on the biological activities and phytochemical profile of A. calamus L. rhizome and in silico studies of phytochemicals for their anti-inflammatory property. MATERIALS AND METHODS: F. mosseae was mass multiplied by single spore culture and then A. calamus rhizomes were inoculated with it. Antioxidant potential of rhizome extract was observed by DPPH and FRAP assays and the phytochemical profiling was done with GC-MS analysis. For observing antimicrobial activity disc diffusion method was employed. Dominant phytochemicals α-asarone and monolinolein TMS were chosen for molecular docking studies against four receptors (4COX, 2AZ5, 5I1B, 1ALU). RESULTS: There was increase in antioxidant activity of rhizome extract after mycorrhizal inoculation. However, no change in antimicrobial activity was observed in the plant after mycorrhizal inoculation. The comparison in phytochemicals was observed by GC-MS analysis which showed qualitative and quantitative variation in biochemical content in plants. The phytochemical, α-asarone and monolinolein TMS showed highest docking score and least binding energy against 1ALU and 4COX respectively for anti-inflammatory activity. CONCLUSION: Medicinal plants are potential source of antioxidants which can be increased by mycorrhizal inoculation without addition of chemical fertilizers and also results in altering the phytochemical composition.


Assuntos
Acorus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acorus/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Fungos/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Índia , Medicina Tradicional , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Rizoma
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113248, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805356

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake is a medicinal plant from South America, popularly known as "asa de peixe", "asa de peixe branco", "cambará branco" or "cambará guaçu", being used by traditional communities for its healing powers in the form of teas, infusions, liqueurs and extracts, for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts, such as kidney problems, bronchitis, inflammation and fever. However, none of the ethnopharmacological properties has been scientifically evaluated. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the ethnopharmacological use of the species, this study investigated the chemical composition, and for the first time acute toxicity, hemolytic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the essential oil from leaves of V. macrophylla. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil was obtained from the leaves by hydrodistillation (HD), being characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution technique in bacteria and fungi that cause infections of the respiratory and urinary tract, and toxicological safety regarding hemolytic activity on human red blood cells (hRBCs), and acute toxicity in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the model carrageenan-induced peritonitis with quantification of the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the intraperitoneal fluid, and ear edema induced by croton oil. The antipyretic activity evaluated in mice with pyrexia induced by yeast. RESULTS: The extraction of essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD) showed a yield of 0.33 ±â€¯0.04%, with its composition constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes of hydrocarbons (94.00%). The essential oil demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity, with a low rate of hemolysis in human red blood cells (hRBCs) and no clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg; p.o. The essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (38.83%, 72.42% and 73.52%) and IL-1ß (37.70%, 75.92% and 87.71%), and ear edema by 49.53%, 85.04% and 94.39% at concentrations of 4, 40 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The antipyretic activity presented by the essential oil is statistically similar to dipyrone. CONCLUSION: The set of results obtained, validates the main activities attributed to the traditional use of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake. These data add industrial value to the species, considering that the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities present results similar to the drugs already used also presenting safety. The results suggest that essential oil from V. macrophylla may be used by industry for the development of drugs with natural antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbesina/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113300, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871237

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea DC is a plant whose geographical distribution is all over Brazil, but mainly on the country's coastal areas. It is used by folk medicine to treat inflammations and chronic pain with application of the raw extract of macerated leaves in the region of pain. This paper aims to provide an integrative review of the role of chemical compounds present in the extract and the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing properties. The extract of Cordia verbenacea DC is widely found within popular culture as teas, decoctions, infusions, pomades/creams for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing uses. Its extract is mainly composed of α-humulene, α-pinene, trans-caryophyllene, artemetin, spathulenol and allo-aromadrendene. The described effects of the chemical compounds found in the extract are applied to muscle bruising and myofascial pain, edema reduction and chronic tendonitis, when used topically (with a comercial product being marketed); and to rheumatic, neuralgic and arthritic processes, when used orally as an anti-ulcerative agent; as well as for its healing and analgesic properties when used topically or as infusion according to test results using animals. Besides its use in chronic pain and topical application, in vitro studies have revealed the importance of antimicrobial action by inhibiting the bacterial growth of the components present in the Cordia verbenacea DC extract. In addition to expanding knowledge about Cordia verbenacea, other studies are being developed with the extract and essential oil in order to expand knowledge about healing aspects of topical use. Although other studies are being conducted, the results presented in this analysis provide a rich database of the activities found in the compounds found in the extract and the essential oil, in addition to promoting knowledge of the best extraction method cited. Therefore, such studies constitute a preliminary source of information to encourage new pieces of research, species conservation, safe management of the species, use of the extract/essential oil and development of plant-based products.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461727, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338903

RESUMO

Giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) root extract was screened for bioactive compounds by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), coupled with effect-directed analysis including antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis F1276, B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, Aliivibrio fischeri and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria), antifungal (Fusarium avenaceum) and enzyme inhibition (acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases, α- and ß-glucosidases and α-amylase) assays. Compounds of six multipotent zones (Sg1-Sg6) were characterized by HPTLC-heated electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and HPTLC-Direct Analysis in Real Time-HRMS. Apart from zone Sg3, containing three compounds, a single characteristic compound was detectable in each bioactive zone. The bioassay-guided isolation using preparative-scale flash chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography provided eight compounds that were identified by NMR spectroscopy as clerodane diterpenes. All isolates possessed inhibiting activity against at least one of the tested microorganisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solidago/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/isolamento & purificação , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322214

RESUMO

Thermally processed rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala (RAM) have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating various disorders, and have been an integral part of various traditional drugs and healthcare products. In TCM, herbal medicines are, in most cases, uniquely processed. Although it is thought that processing can alter the properties of herbal medicines so as to achieve desired functions, increase potency, and/or reduce side effects, the underlying chemical changes remain unclear for most thermally processed Chinese herbal medicines. In an attempt to shed some light on the scientific rationale behind the processes involved in traditional medicine, the RAM processed by stir-frying with wheat bran was investigated for the change of chemical composition. As a result, for the first time, five new chemical entities, along with ten known compounds, were isolated. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The possible synthetic pathway for the generation of such thermally-induced chemical entities was also proposed. Furthermore, biological activity evaluation showed that none of the compounds possessed cytotoxic effects against the tested mammalian cancer and noncancer cell lines. In addition, all compounds were ineffective at inhibiting the growth of the pathogenic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Rizoma/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários , Atractylodes/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 246, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856115

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis infections represent a health concern, mainly in oral diseases, in which treatments with chlorhexidine solution (0.2%) are often used; however, it presents high toxicity degree and several side effects. Based on this, the use of natural products as an alternative to treatment has been explored. Nonetheless, plant extracts have poor organoleptic characteristics that impair theirs in natura use. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the analytical profile, biological activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro of S. brasiliensis-loaded chitosan microparticles (CMSb) produced using different aspersion flow rates. The analytical fingerprint was obtained by FTIR and NIR spectra. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to verify the similarity between the samples. The crystallinity degree was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical screening (PS) was performed to quantify phytocompounds. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibiofilm activity and bactericidal kinetics against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and MB 146-clinical isolated) were also assessed. The hemolytic potential was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Data provided by FTIR, NIR, and PCA analyses revealed chemical similarity between all CMSb. Furthermore, the results from XRD analysis showed that the obtained CMSb present amorphous characteristic. Tannins and polyphenols were accurately quantified by the PS, but methodology limitations did not allow the flavonoid quantification. The low hemolytic potential assay indicates that all samples are safe. Antimicrobial assays revealed that CMSb were able to inhibit not only the E. faecalis ATCC growth but also the biofilm formation. Only one CMSb sample was able to inhibit the clinical strain. These results highlighted the CMSb antimicrobial potential and revealed this system as a promising product to treat infections caused by E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Microesferas , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108645, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353648

RESUMO

In this study, we focus on the antimicrobial properties of tempeh, a soybean fermented food, against oral bacteria. Tempeh showed antimicrobial activity against dental caries pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL. An antimicrobial substance contained in tempeh was present in the 100 kDa or greater fraction generated by ultrafiltration, but it was found not to be proteinaceous by native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE and protein degradation tests. Next, when the fraction was purified with an ODS column, the 80% and 100% methanol eluates showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. The 100% methanol eluate was further subjected to a 2nd column purification, and isolation of the target was confirmed by HPLC. When the isolated material was analyzed by ESI-MS, the m/z was 279.234. Further analysis by Raman spectroscopy revealed a peak similar to linoleic acid. This substance also possessed antimicrobial properties equivalent to linoleic acid.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/microbiologia
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 7821310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292295

RESUMO

Agrimonia asiatica is a perennial plant with deep green color and covered with soft hairs and has a slightly aromatic odor. This genus Agrimonia has been used in traditional medicines of China, Greece, and European countries. It was mainly used as a haemostatic, a tonic for asthenia, and an astringent for diarrhea. Agrimony is part of the division Magnoliophyta; class is represented by order Rosales, family Rosaceae, of the genus Agrimonia. Family Rosaceae-or pink eels-is one of the largest families of flowering plants, including about 100 genera and 3000 species. Rosaceae is common in almost all areas of the globe where flowering plants can grow, but most of them are concentrated in the temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Phytochemical investigation on ethanolic extract of A. asiatica led to isolation of four flavonoid derivatives (kaempferol-3-glycoside, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranosyl-ß-D-galactopyranoside, 3-O-kaempherol 2,3-di-O-acetyl-4-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D-glucosopyranoside, and catechin) alongside of sucrose. All the extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities. We also studied the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial part of A. asiatica. The essential oil constituents from the aerial part of A. asiatica were obtained using a steam-distillation method in wild growing conditions in Kazakhstan. The essential oil extracted from the aerial part of the plant was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting to 100% were found to be ß-selinene (36.370%), α-panasinsene (21.720%), hexadecanoic acid (7.839%), and 1,2-nonadiene (6.199%). Neither the extract nor the isolated compounds showed antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities.


Assuntos
Agrimonia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4929, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188923

RESUMO

Mesopelagic organisms form huge biomass aggregations, supporting important pelagic trophic webs and several top predators. Although some studies on the occurrence, biology and ecology of these organisms are available, to date there are no investigations on their potential use for anticancer and antimicrobial biotechnological applications. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of seven mesopelagic species for possible anticancer (Lung cell line A549, skin cell line A2058, liver cell line HepG2, breast cell line MCF7 and pancreas cell line MiaPaca-2) and antibacterial (Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the Gram-positive bacteria methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) activities. Results showed that only two species were active, the lanternfish Myctophum punctatum and the Mediterranean krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In particular, M. punctatum showed strong activity against the A549 and MCF7 cells, while M. norvegica was more active against HepG2 cells. Regarding antibacterial assays, both species were active against methicillin resistant S. aureus. Fractionation and LC/MS dereplication of the fractions showed that the main compounds found in extracts of both species were EPA, DHA and ETA. For some of the detected compounds anticancer and/or antibacterial activity are already known, but this is the first time that such activities have been found for mesopelagic species.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Mar Mediterrâneo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 31, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048066

RESUMO

Biogenic production of nanoparticles is eco-friendly, less expensive method with various medical and biological applications. Nanotechnology along with photodynamic therapy is gaining tremendous importance with enhanced efficacy. The present work was aimed to evaluate methanolic extracts and nanoparticles of two selected plants (Datura suavolens and Verbina tenuisecta) for cytotoxic photodynamic, antioxidant and antimicrobial study. Both extract and silver (5 mM) nanoparticles of Datura plant showed significant activities against bacterial strains. Maximum ZOI of 27.3 ± 1.6 mm was observed with nanoparticles of Datura branches with minimum inhibitory (MIC) value of 32 µg/ml. In case of antifungal and antioxidant assay samples were moderately active. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were effective against rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with lowest IC50 value of 42.5 ± 0.6 µg/ml and percent viability of 25.6 ± 1.3 of Verbena tenuisecta. However, nanoparticles of Datura leaves and branches were more potent with IC50 value of 2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml and 7.8 ± 1.1 µg/ml respectively. The result of photodynamic study showed that efficacy of photosensitizer was enhanced and percent viability reduced when nanoparticles used as an adjunct. The color change and UV spectra (415‒425 nm) indicated the production of nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed presence of different functional groups e.g., hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino. Nanoparticles are sphenoid in morphology and size ranges between 20-150 nm. Current study showed these silver nanoparticles can be used as cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy and can play a critical role to establish medicinal potential of selected plants.


Assuntos
Datura/química , Metanol/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Verbena/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Metanol/química , Metanol/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Prata/química , Prata/isolamento & purificação
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 30, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025825

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether seeds of Brassica oleracea var. italica (i.e. broccoli, an edible plant) produce defensins that inhibit phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria of clinical significance. Crude extracts obtained from broccoli seeds were fractioned by molecular exclusion techniques and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Two peptides were identified, BraDef1 (10.68 kDa) and BraDef2 (9.9 kDa), which were categorized as Class I defensins based on (a) their primary structure, (b) the presence of four putative cysteine disulfide bridges, and (c) molecular modeling predictions. BraDef1 and BraDef2 show identities of, respectively, 98 and 71%, and 67 and 85%, with defensins from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. BraDef (BraDef1 + BraDef2) disrupted membranes of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria alternata and also reduced hyphal growth of C. gloeosporioides by ~ 56% after 120 h of incubation. Pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus 183, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio parahaemolitycus) were susceptible to BraDef, but probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were not inhibited. To our knowledge, this is the first report of defensins present in seeds of B. oleracea var. italica (i.e. edible broccoli). Our findings suggest an applied value for BraDef1/BraDef2 in controlling phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria of clinical significance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Defensinas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Defensinas/química , Defensinas/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
20.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013272

RESUMO

Searching for new bio-based herbicides is crucial for decreasing chemical pollution, protecting the environment, and sustaining biodiversity. Origanum vulgare is considered a promising source of essential oil with herbicidal effect. The mode of action is not known. The present study focused on (1) comparison of phytotoxic activity of Origanum vulgare EO on monocot (Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare) and dicot species (Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba); (2) and evaluating other antimicrobial biological activities against phytopatogen bacteria (Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Xanthomonas campestris); antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, and Botrytis cinerea; cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity. According to the GC/MS analyses, the EO belongs to the thymol chemotype O. vulgare with its high content of thymol (76%). Germination of all four species was not influenced by EO. The phytotoxic effect was statistically significant in the monocot species, while in the dicot species the opposite was observed-a stimulation effect, which was also statistically significant. Strong biological activity of O. vulgare EO was noted on all phytopatogen bacteria and fungi in the highest dose. Cytotoxic activity showed an IC50 = 50.5 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity showed an IC50 = 106.6 µg/mL after 45 min experimental time. Based on the presented results, it is possible to conclude that thymol chemotype O. vulgare essential oil could be potentially used as a herbicide with selective effects on monocot plant species.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lepidium sativum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Timol/química , Timol/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
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