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2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1616: 460774, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937408

RESUMO

Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are used as nutritious foods, and at the same time, are a source of phytoconstituents for the pharmaceutical industry. As biological activities of especially the pulp and peel of Musa spp. have been documented, this study investigated the variation in the secondary metabolite profiles of the leaves from field, in vitro-grown and acclimatized accessions. The genetic fidelity of the diverse accessions was assessed using diversity array technology sequencing. It showed that the in vitro-grown accessions were true-to-type with the field samples. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the samples from different culture systems (field and in vitro) were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry and compared to high-performance thin-layer chromatography-effect-directed analysis (HPTLC-EDA). The latter was applied for the first time for effect-directed profiling of the polar and medium polar sample components via different biochemical and biological assays. Compound zones showed acetyl-/butylrylcholinesterase inhibition (zones 1-4), α-/ß-glucosidase inhibition (zones 1 and 2) as well as antioxidative (zones 1-3) and antimicrobial (zone 4) activities. Structures were preliminary assigned by HPTLC-HRMS. The HPTLC was effective for bioactivity-guided characterization of the bioactive constituents in Musa spp. accessions. Accumulation of useful metabolites, especially compounds with antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties, was higher in samples from in vitro system. This validated the use of plant tissue culturing as an alternative method for large scale production of plant material and supply of bioactive constituents.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Espectrometria de Massas , Musa/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(3): 105892, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926284

RESUMO

Three homologous oxygenated elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides were isolated from a heterotrophic marine bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716, associated with an intertidal red alga Hypnea valentiae. The complete genome of the bacterium was sequenced and all detectable natural product gene clusters were analysed. The B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 genome features polyketide synthase (pks) systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases and hybrid clusters. Comprehensive spectroscopic studies revealed the compounds to possess isobenzofuranyl benzoate and 1H-furopyrano[2,3-c]oxacyclononadecine-6-carboxylate moieties. The identified compounds displayed broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤1.0 µg/mL, whereas the standard antibiotics ampicillin and chloramphenicol were active only at concentrations of ≥6.25 µg/mL. The plausible mechanism of elansolid-type macrolide biosynthesis by trans-AT polyketide synthases through the pks starter unit para-hydroxybenzoic acid was hypothesised, and the structures were correlated with the gene organisation, with the predicted gene cluster comprising 16 genes (~81 kb in size). The best binding poses for each compound with the peptide deformylase (PDF) protein of S. aureus revealed docking scores (>11.30 kcal/mol) greater than actinonin (6.96 kcal/mol), a natural PDF inhibitor. The higher electronic values along with optimum lipophilic parameters support the potential anti-infective properties of the studied macrolides. These antibacterial elansolid-type of polyketide spanned macrolides in marine symbiotic B. amyloliquefaciens could be potential leads for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications against emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrolídeos/química , Macrolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oxigênio
4.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(12): 906-911, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882044

RESUMO

A pair of new tirucallane triterpenoid epimers, picraquassins M and N (1> and 2), were isolated from the stems of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. Their structures were determined based on comprehensive spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analyses. In addition, their AChE inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity against five human tumour cell lines (SW480, MCF-7, HepG2, Hela, and PANC-1), and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria (Staphylococcus. aureus 209P and Escherichia coli ATCC0111) and two fungi (Candida albicans FIM709 and Aspergillus niger R330) were evaluated.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Picrasma/química , Caules de Planta/química , Triterpenos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Cristalografia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(12): 935-944, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882049

RESUMO

Bipolarins A-H (1-8), eight new tetracyclic ophiobolin-type sesterterpenes featuring a rare oxaspiro[4.4]nonane moiety, were isolated from cultures of fungus Bipolaris sp. TJ403-B1. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, electronic circular dichroism and 13C NMR calculations. Additionally, compound 5 exhibited significant selective antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis with an MIC value 8 µg·mL-1.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesterterpenos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , China , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Sesterterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887193

RESUMO

Literature surveys, taxonomical differences, and bioassay results have been utilized in the discovery of new natural products to aid in Actinomycetes isolate-selection. However, no or less investigation have been done on establishing the differences in metabolomic profiles of the isolated microorganisms. The study aims to utilise bioassay- and metabolomics-guided tools that included dereplication study and multivariate analysis of the NMR and mass spectral data of microbial extracts to assist the selection of isolates for scaling-up the production of antimicrobial natural products. A total of 58 actinomycetes were isolated from different soil samples collected from Ihnasia City, Egypt and screened for their antimicrobial activities against indicator strains that included Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. A number of 25 isolates were found to be active against B. subtilis and/or to at least one of the tested indicator strains. Principal component analyses showed chemical uniqueness for four outlying bioactive actinomycetes extracts. In addition, Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and dereplication study led us to further select two outlying anti-MRSA active isolates MS.REE.13 and 22 for scale-up work. MS.REE.13 and 22 exhibited zones of inhibition at 19 and 13 mm against MRSA, respectively. A metabolomics-guided approach provided the steer to target the bioactive metabolites (P<0.01) present in a crude extract or fraction even at nanogram levels but it was a challenge that such low-yielding bioactive natural products would be feasible to isolate. Validated to occur only on the active side of OPLS-DA loadings plot, the isolated compounds exhibited medium to weak antibiotic activity with MIC values between 250 and 800 µM. Two new compounds, P_24306 (C10H13N2) and N_12799 (C18H32O3) with MICs of 795 and 432 µM, were afforded from the scale-up of MS.REE. 13 and 22, respectively.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/química , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Egito , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Metabolômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0218837, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860650

RESUMO

The gut microbiota of insects is composed of a wide range of microorganisms which produce bioactive compounds that protect their host from pathogenic attack. In the present study, we isolate and identify the fungus Chrysosporium multifidum from the gut of Hermetia illucens larvae. Extract from C. multifidum culture broth supernatant showed moderate activity against a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Bioguided isolation of the extract resulted in the characterization of six α-pyrone derivatives (1-6) and one diketopiperazine (7). Of these compounds, 5,6-dihydro-4-methoxy-6-(1-oxopentyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4) showed the greatest activity (IC50 = 11.4 ± 0.7 µg/mL and MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) against MRSA.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Chrysosporium/química , Dípteros/microbiologia , Animais , Chrysosporium/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/química , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861466

RESUMO

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a small seed that comes from an annual herbaceous plant, Salvia hispanica L. In recent years, usage of Chia seeds has tremendously grown due to their high nutritional and medicinal values. Chia was cultivated by Mesopotamian cultures, but then disappeared for centuries until the middle of the 20th century, when it was rediscovered. Chia seeds contain healthy ω-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, proteins, vitamins, and some minerals. Besides this, the seeds are an excellent source of polyphenols and antioxidants, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and others. Today, chia has been analyzed in different areas of research. Researches around the world have been investigating the benefits of chia seeds in the medicinal, pharmaceutical, and food industry. Chia oil is today one of the most valuable oils on the market. Different extraction methods have been used to produce the oil. In the present study, an extensive overview of the chemical composition, nutritional properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, along with extraction methods used to produce chia oil, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692847

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was carried out to isolate and screen actinomycetes from soil of two salterns in Taza-Morocco, for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a set of target bacteria. Also, it aims to highlight some practices in order to isolates actinomycetes and screen for their ability to produce antibacterial compounds. Methods: Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and salinity. The actinomycetes were isolated on Casein Starch Agar (CSA) medium and purified on International Streptomyces Project 2 (ISP-2) medium. Antimicrobial activity of actinomycete isolates was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zone. These activities were tested against Dickeya solani IP2222, Pectobacterium brasiliensis 13471a, Escherichia coli K12, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CECT118, Listeria innocua CECT4030, Staphylococcus aureus CECT976, Bacillus subtilis DSM 347 and Candida alibicans, using three different culture media (CSA, Bennett and Mueller Hinton) and at two temperatures of incubation (30°C and 37°C). Results: Physical and chemical analysis of soil samples showed that both sites are alkaline. Also, with regards to salinity, the second site showed to contain high salt concentration compared the first site. The abundance of bacteria isolated on CSA medium from both sites showed correlation with the physical-chemical properties of the sampling soils. Incubation temperature of 30°C resulted in a high number of actinomycetes (18/22) isolates with antimicrobial effect relative to the temperature of 37°C (4/22). Some actinomycetes isolates show antimicrobial effect on only one culture medium, which shows a special nutritional requirement to express their antimicrobial effect. On the other hand, some isolates, they express their antimicrobial effect on the three media at the same time. Additionally, some isolates of actinomycetes inhibit the growth of several microorganisms at once. While others inhibit the growth of only one microorganism tested which reflects a possible specificity of antimicrobial substances. Conclusion: Growth conditions including, media composition, temperature of incubation and the spectrum of test strain tailors the behavior of the antimicrobial screening.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Marrocos , Temperatura
10.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104369, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626911

RESUMO

Five new polyketides, colletotric B (2), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid (3), colletotric C (4), chaetochromone D (6) and 8-hydroxy-pregaliellalactone B (9), together with four known analogues (1, 5 and 7-8) were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phoma sp. SYSU-SK-7. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of extensive spectroscopic data and mass spectrometric data. Compounds 1-2 showed strong antimicrobial activity against the P. aeruginosa, MRSA and C. albicans with the MIC values in the range of 1.67-6.28 µg/ml. Furthermore, Compounds 1-5 also exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values in the range of 36.2-90.6 µM. Compound 7 was found to inhibited radical scavenging activity against DPPH with the EC50 value of 11.8 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , China , Endófitos/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10711-10723, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548055

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to obtain casein hydrolysates with aspartic proteinases present in extracts from the artichoke flower (Cynara scolymus L.) and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in vitro. The casein hydrolysates produced by the action of C. scolymus had elevated antihypertensive and antioxidant activity due to their high hydrophobic peptide content (93.84, 96.58, and 90.54% at 2, 4, and 16 h of hydrolysis, respectively). Hydrolysis time and molecular weight (<3 kDa) had a significant influence on the hypertensive and antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates, which were greater at hydrolysis times of 4 and 16 h and corresponding to the <3 kDa fractions. The <3 kDa fraction of the 16 h hydrolysate had an ACE inhibitory activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 71.77 µg peptides per mL; DPPH and ABTS•+ radical scavenging activities of 6.27 µM and 6.21 mM Trolox equivalents per mg of peptides, respectively; and iron (II) chelation activity with an IC50 of 221.49 µg of peptides per mL. Antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis was also observed in the hydrolysates. From the peptide sequences identified in the hydrolysates, we detected 22 peptides (from the BIOPEP database) that were already in their bioactive form (AMKPWIQPK, AMKPWIQPKTKVIPYVRYL, ARHPHPHLSFM, DAQSAPLRVY, FFVAPFPEVFGK, GPVRGPFPII, KVLPVPQK, LLYQEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, MAIPPKKNQDK, NLHLPLPLL, PAAVRSPAQILQ, RELEELNVPGEIVESLSSSEESITR, RPKHPIKHQ, RPKHPIKHQGLPQEVLNENLLRF, SDIPNPIGSENSEK, TPVVVPPFLQP, VENLHLPLPLL, VKEAMAPK, VLNENLLR, VYPFPGPIH, VYQHQKAMKPWIQPKTKVIPYVRY, VYQHQKAMKPWIQPKTKVIPYVRYL) and are reported to display antioxidant, antimicrobial, and ACE inhibitory activity. We also identified 12,116, 14,513, and 25,169 peptide sequences in the hydrolysates at 2, 4, and 16 h, respectively, that were contained in the primary sequence, and these are reported to display ACE inhibitory, antioxidant, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, antithrombotic, opioid, immunomodulation, antiamnesic, anticancer, chelating, and hemolytic bioactivity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caseínas/farmacologia , Cynara scolymus/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Caseínas/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Peso Molecular , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/isolamento & purificação
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7851251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559313

RESUMO

Over 1,000 compounds, including ecteinascidin-743 and didemnin B, have been isolated from ascidians, with most having bioactive properties such as antimicrobial, antitumor, and enzyme-inhibiting activities. In recent years, direct and indirect evidence has shown that some bioactive compounds isolated from ascidians are not produced by ascidians themselves but by their symbiotic microorganisms. Isolated culturable bacteria associated with ascidians and investigating their potential bioactivity are an important approach for discovering novel compounds. In this study, a total of 269 bacteria were isolated from the ascidian Styela clava collected from the coast of Weihai in the north of the Yellow Sea, China. Phylogenetic relationships among 183 isolates were determined using their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven indicator strains, and an antiproliferative activity assay was performed to test for inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel 7402 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell proliferation. Our results showed that the isolates belonged to 26 genera from 18 families in four phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes). Bacillus and Streptomyces were the most dominant genera; 146 strains had potent antimicrobial activities and inhibited at least one of the indicator strains. Crude extracts from 29 strains showed antiproliferative activity against Bel 7402 cells with IC50 values below 500 µg·mL-1, and 53 strains showed antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells, with IC50 values less than 500 µg·mL-1. Our results suggest that culturable bacteria associated with the ascidian Styela clava may be a promising source of novel bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Filogenia , Urocordados/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Biodiversidade , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Firmicutes/química , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteobactérias/química , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Urocordados/química , Urocordados/genética
13.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(15): 1309-1320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushrooms are deemed as a special delicacy in many countries. They are considered an important cuisine due to their bioactive ingredients and possible health benefits. METHODS: Herein, we measured selected biological properties of methanol extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Boletus edulis fruiting bodies including; in vitro antimicrobial activity, anti-α- glucosidase activity, antioxidant activity, anti-lipase activity and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cells and normal cells. RESULTS: B. edulis methanol extracts showed high antimicrobial and anti-α-glucosidase activity. In contrast, P. citrinopileatus methanol extracts showed superior antioxidant activity indicated by (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging with half maximal inhibitory concentration of IC50 37.4 µg/ml, anti-lipase activities with IC50 65.2 µg/ml and high cytotoxicity activity against HepG2 and HeLa cell lines with IC50 22.8 and 36.7 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle was used to show apoptotic effects of methanol extracts against HepG2 and HeLa cells. CONCLUSION: P. citrinopileatus and B. edulis methanolic extracts appear to contain biologically active compounds that might be used to treat some common human diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Carpóforos/química , Pleurotus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Metanol/química , Picratos/química
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31873-31886, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489545

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used in many personal care and cleaning products. It has been detected in most environmental compartments and the main entry pathway is wastewater effluents and biosolids. TCS was analyzed in 300 samples of raw influent, final effluent, and biosolids from 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Canada representing five types of typical wastewater treatment systems. TCS was almost always detected in influent (median 1480 ng/L), effluent (median 107 ng/L), and biosolids (median 8000 ng/g dry weight) samples. Removals of TCS from lagoons as well as secondary and advanced treatment facilities were significantly higher than primary treatment facilities (p < 0.001). TCS removal was strongly correlated with organic nitrogen removal. TCS removals at most lagoons and plants that use biological treatment were higher during summer compared with winter. However, no seasonal or temperature effects were observed at the two primary facilities, likely due to the absence of biological activity. Aerobically digested solids contained the lowest levels (median 555 ng/g) while anaerobically digested primary solids contained the highest levels of TCS (median 22,700 ng/g). The results of this large comprehensive study demonstrate that TCS is consistently present in wastewater and biosolids at relatively high concentrations and that removal from wastewater and levels in biosolids are strongly influenced by the wastewater and solids treatment types.


Assuntos
Triclosan/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Triclosan/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
15.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104353, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476402

RESUMO

Fourteen new compounds including thirteen drimane - phthalide derivatives (fendlerals A - C, fendlerins A - D, fendlerols A - B, fendleric acids A - C, fendlerinine G) and one terphenyl derivative (fendleryl E) along with eight known compounds, fendlerinine A, rickenyls C - D, fendleryls C - D, atromentin, tetramethyl atromentin, and (±)-microsphaerophthalide F, were isolated from the wood fungus Hypoxylon fendleri BCC32408. Compared with the prior work, the results indicated the agitation effect on the production of bioactive drimane - phthalides. The chemical structures were determined based upon spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configurations were verified by comparison of the ECD spectral data with the calculated ECD spectra of the related compounds. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 4.15-4.39 µM), Colletotrichum capsici (MIC 6.25-12.5 µg/mL), and Bacillus cereus (MIC 1.56-3.13 µg/mL). All tested compounds displayed broad cytotoxicity against cancerous (MCF-7, KB, and NCI-H187) and non-cancerous (Vero) cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Xylariales/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Tailândia , Células Vero
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arisaema jacquemontii is traditionally used in treatment of different diseases. In this study, phytochemical, in vitro biological and chemo-preventive screening of A. jacquemontii was carried out to explore its pharmacological potential. METHODS: The dried tuber of A. jacquemontii was extracted in 11 organic solvent mixture of different polarity. The extracts were screened for phytochemical assays (phenolics and flavonoids), antioxidants potential (free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, reducing power), biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antileishmanial, protein kinase inhibition), and chemopreventive activities using different cell lines through standard protocols. RESULTS: Significant amount phenolic contents were determined in EtOH and MeOH extracts (210.3 ± 3.05 and 193.2 ± 3.15 µg GAE/mg, respectively). Maximum flavonoid content was determined in MeOH extract (22.4 ± 4.04 µg QE/mg). Noteworthy, DPPH scavenging activity was also recorded for MeOH extract (87.66%) followed by MeOH+EtOAc extract (85.11%). Considerable antioxidant capacity (7.8 ± 0.12 µg AAE/mg) and reducing power (3.1 ± 0.15 µg AAE/mg) was observed in extract of MeOH. The LC50 against brine shrimp and leishmanial parasite was found 9.01 and 12.87 µg/mL for n-Hex and CHCl3 extracts, respectively. The highest zone of inhibition against Streptomyces hyphae formation (12.5 ± 1.77 mm) by n-Hex extract. Growth zone of inhibition 13.8 ± 1.08 mm was recorded for EtOAc and MeOH extracts, respectively against Micrococcus luteus while 10.0 ± 0.11 mm for MeOH extract against Aspergillus flavus. In-vitro cytotoxic assay showed that n-Hex extract had higher cytotoxicity against DU-145 prostate cancer and HL-60 cancer cell lines. NF-kB and MTP potential showed 34.01 and 44.87 µg/mL for n-Hex and CHCl3 extracts, respectively in chemo-preventive potential. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that Arisaema jacquemontii bears significant phytochemical activity and pharmacological activities, this plant can be further explored for isolation of active component against a number of aliments.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Arisaema/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(9): e1900254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381251

RESUMO

The genus Thymus (Lamiaceae) comprises about 214 species throughout the world, mainly found in North Africa, Europe, and temperate Asia zone. They are traditionally used as food additives and folk medicines. This review comprehensively summarizes information about traditional uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of this genus and provides recommendations for future investigations. All information was gathered from scientific databases including Google Scholar, Sci-Finder, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and CNKI. Volatile oils are the most concerned constituents of this genus. Flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, tannins, organic acids, terpenoids, and phytosterols were also summarized. This genus plants possessed a variety of activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, analgesic, and antidiabetic. In brief, this review will be helpful to provide valuable data for explorations and create more interests towards Thymus genus in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação
18.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126301, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422232

RESUMO

The in vitro inhibition of quorum sensing signal, xanthan gum secretion, biofilm formation in different Xanthomonas pathovars and biological control of bacterial blight of rice by the two bioactive extrolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CGK-KS-1 were explored. These extrolites were extracted from Diaion HP-20 resin with methanol and purified by preparative-thin layer chromatography. Further, spectroscopic structural elucidation revealed the tentative identity of these extrolites to be (R,3E,5E,9Z,11E)-13-((3S,5R)-5-acetyl-2,6-dimethylheptan-3-yl)-10-hydroxy-4-methyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,5,9,11(15),13-pentaen-2-one and (R,3E,5E,8E,11E)-13-((3S,5R)-5-acetyl-2,6-dimethylheptan-3-yl)-4-methyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,5,8,11(15),13-pentaene-2,10-dione, named as Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2, respectively. Antimicrobial assay showed Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 exhibited a strong in vitro growth inhibition against various Xanthomonas pathovars. Quorum sensing overlay assay using a reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV026 showed that Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 inhibited quorum sensing signaling. The mechanistic studies revealed that these extrolites inhibited the production of quorum sensing signaling factor, cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid; suppressed the xanthan gum secretion and also inhibited the biofilms formed by various Xanthomonas pathovars. Both Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 showed ROS generation in the test Xanthomonas strains, resulting in in vitro cell membrane damage was revealed through CSLM and FE-SEM micrographs. Further, greenhouse experiments using Samba Mashuri (BPT-5204) revealed that seed treatment with Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 along with foliar spray groups showed up to ˜80% reduction in bacterial blight disease in rice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on new quorum sensing inhibitors, Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CGK-KS-1 exhibiting DSF inhibition activity in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Chromobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos , Xanthomonas/metabolismo
19.
Plant Dis ; 103(11): 2925-2932, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449436

RESUMO

With increasing concerns of the environmental problems associated with current fungicide application, investigation of alternative, environmentally compatible biopesticides for plant disease management is needed. A total of 113 strains associated with Acanthus ilicifolius Linn in the Maipo Reserve, Hong Kong, were isolated and identified. In vitro assay with crude extracts of bacterial fermentation cultures identified ∼26% of the isolates producing antimicrobial compounds against a variety of agriculturally important phytopathogens. Selected crude extracts with inhibition to Colletotrichum fructicola and Magnaporthe oryzae growth significantly suppressed anthracnose and rice blast development in pear fruits and rice plants, respectively, when applied at 50 µg ml-1. Furthermore, 10 of 14 selected crude extracts with good antimicrobial activities had no significant differences in toxicity to the genus Chlorella compared with the control when used at 25 µg ml-1, whereas Amistar Top and Mancozeb completely killed the alga under the same concentration. These data illustrate the potential of natural products from mangrove rhizosphere bacteria in future agricultural application.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Produtos Biológicos , Chlorella , Doenças das Plantas , Rizosfera , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Hong Kong , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376652

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules with microbicidal and immunoregulatory activities. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of peptides ToAP3 and ToAP4, AMPs from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus obscurus. To test the peptides' activity, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) or dendritic cells (BMDCs) were stimulated with peptides plus LPS to analyze their ability to modulate cytokine release as well as phenotypic markers. For antimicrobial analysis, we evaluated the indirect activity against macrophage-internalized Cryptococcus neoformans and direct activity against Mycobacterium massiliense. Our data demonstrate that they were able to reduce TNF-α and IL-1ß transcript levels and protein levels for BMDM and BMDC. Furthermore, the reduction of TNF-α secretion, before LPS- inflammatory stimuli, is associated with peptide interaction with TLR-4. ToAP4 increased MHC-II expression in BMDC, while ToAP3 decreased co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86. Although these peptides were able to modulate the production of cytokines and molecules associated with antigen presentation, they did not increase the ability of clearance of C. neoformans by macrophages. In antimicrobial analysis, only ToAP3 showed potent action against bacteria. Altogether, these results demonstrate a promising target for the development of new immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial therapies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/química , Escorpiões , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium abscessus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
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