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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500631

RESUMO

The 'core' metabolome of the Bacteroidetes genus Chitinophaga was recently discovered to consist of only seven metabolites. A structural relationship in terms of shared lipid moieties among four of them was postulated. Here, structure elucidation and characterization via ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of those four lipids (two lipoamino acids (LAAs), two lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs)), as well as several other undescribed LAAs and N-acyl amino acids (NAAAs), identified during isolation were carried out. The LAAs represent closely related analogs of the literature-known LAAs, such as the glycine-serine dipeptide lipids 430 (2) and 654. Most of the here characterized LAAs (1, 5-11) are members of a so far undescribed glycine-serine-ornithine tripeptide lipid family. Moreover, this study reports three novel NAAAs (N-(5-methyl)hexanoyl tyrosine (14) and N-(7-methyl)octanoyl tyrosine (15) or phenylalanine (16)) from Olivibacter sp. FHG000416, another Bacteroidetes strain initially selected as best in-house producer for isolation of lipid 430. Antimicrobial profiling revealed most isolated LAAs (1-3) and the two LPE 'core' metabolites (12, 13) active against the Gram-negative pathogen M. catarrhalis ATCC 25238 and the Gram-positive bacterium M. luteus DSM 20030. For LAA 1, additional growth inhibition activity against B. subtilis DSM 10 was observed.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Glicerofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502431

RESUMO

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can become infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bacteriófago phi 6/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/química , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361550

RESUMO

Efficient use of herbicides for plant protection requires the application of auxiliary substances such as surfactants, stabilizers, wetting or anti-foaming agents, and absorption enhancers, which can be more problematic for environment than the herbicides themselves. We hypothesized that the combination of sulfonylurea (iodosulfuron-methyl) anion with inexpensive, commercially available quaternary tetraalkylammonium cations could lead to biologically active ionic liquids (ILs) that could become a convenient and environment-friendly alternative to adjuvants. A simple one-step synthesis allowed for synthesizing iodosulfuron-methyl based ILs with high yields ranging from 88 to 96% as confirmed by UV, FTIR, and NMR. The obtained ILs were found to possess several favorable properties compared to the currently used sodium salt iodosulfuron-methyl, such as adjustable hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and enhanced stability in aqueous solutions, which was supported by molecular calculations showing cation-anion interaction energies. In addition, soil mobility and volatility of ILs were more beneficial compared to the parental herbicide. Herbicidal activity tests toward oil-seed rape and cornflower revealed that ILs comprising at least one alkyl chain in the decyl to octadecyl range had similar or better efficacy compared to the commercial preparation without addition of any adjuvant. Furthermore, results of antimicrobial activity indicated that they were practically harmless or slightly toxic toward model soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus cereus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Herbicidas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Tensoativos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Pseudomonas putida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361847

RESUMO

Biogenic-silver nanoparticles emerge as new nanosilver platforms that allow us to obtain silver nanoparticles via "green chemistry". In our study, biogenic-silver nanoparticles were obtained from Iris tuberosa leaf extract. Nanoparticles were characterized by a UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamical light scattering technique. The transmission electron microscope revealed spheric and irregular nanoparticles with 5 to 50 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated against typical microbial contaminants found in cosmetic products, showing high antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, natural moisturizing cream was formulated with biogenic-silver nanoparticles to evaluate the preservative efficiency through a challenge test, indicating its promising use as preservative in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Cosméticos/química , Iris/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Prata/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443608

RESUMO

In order to develop novel bioactive substances with potent activities, some new valine-derived compounds incorporating a 4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl fragment, namely, acyclic precursors from N-acyl-α-amino acids and N-acyl-α-amino ketones classes, and heterocycles from the large family of 1,3-oxazole-based compounds, were synthesized. The structures of the new compounds were established using elemental analysis and spectral (UV-Vis, FT-IR, MS, NMR) data, and their purity was checked by reversed-phase HPLC. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities, for toxicity on D. magna, and by in silico studies regarding their potential mechanism of action and toxicity. The 2-aza-3-isopropyl-1-[4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1,4-butanedione 4b bearing a p-tolyl group in 4-position exhibited the best antibacterial activity against the planktonic growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, while the N-acyl-α-amino acid 2 and 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one 3 inhibited the Enterococcus faecium biofilms. Despite not all newly synthesized compounds showing significant biological activity, the general scaffold allows several future optimizations for obtaining better novel antimicrobial agents by the introduction of various substituents on the phenyl moiety at position 5 of the 1,3-oxazole nucleus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cetonas/síntese química , Cetonas/farmacologia , Oxazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Cetonas/química , Oxazóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443356

RESUMO

Within the unavoidable variability of various origins in the characteristics of essential oils, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the distillation time on the chemical composition and biological activity of Cannabis sativa essential oils (EOs). The dry inflorescences came from Carmagnola, Kompolti, Futura 75, Gran Sasso Kush and Carmagnola Lemon varieties from Abruzzo region (Central Italy), the last two being new cultivar here described for the first time. EOs were collected at 2 h and 4 h of distillation; GC/MS technique was applied to characterize their volatile fraction. The EOs were evaluated for total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AOC) and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. The time of distillation particularly influenced EOs chemical composition, extracting more or less terpenic components, but generally enriching with minor sesquiterpenes and cannabidiol. A logical response in ratio of time was observed for antioxidant potential, being the essential oils at 4 h of distillation more active than those distilled for 2 h, and particularly Futura 75. Conversely, except for Futura 75, the effect of time on the antimicrobial activity was variable and requires further investigations; nevertheless, the inhibitory activity of all EOs against Pseudomonas fluorescens P34 was an interesting result.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445378

RESUMO

(1) Background: Several properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), such as cytotoxic, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, have been subjects of intense research; however, important aspects such as nanoparticle aggregation are generally neglected, although a decline in colloidal stability leads to a loss of the desired biological activities. Colloidal stability is affected by pH, ionic strength, or a plethora of biomolecules that interact with AgNPs under biorelevant conditions. (2) Methods: As only a few studies have focused on the relationship between aggregation behavior and the biological properties of AgNPs, here, we have systematically evaluated this issue by completing a thorough analysis of sterically (via polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP)) stabilized AgNPs that were subjected to different circumstances. We assessed ultraviolet-visible light absorption, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, in vitro cell viability, and microdilution assays to screen both colloidal stability as well as bioactivity. (3) Results: The results revealed that although PVP provided outstanding biorelevant colloidal stability, the chemical stability of AgNPs could not be maintained completely with this capping material. (4) Conclusion: These unexpected findings led to the realization that stabilizing materials have more profound importance in association with biorelevant applications of nanomaterials than just being simple colloidal stabilizers.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Povidona/química , Prata/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Prata/química
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443693

RESUMO

The multi-step synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, and biological activity of novel valine-derived compounds, i.e., N-acyl-α-amino acids, 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones, N-acyl-α-amino ketones, and 1,3-oxazoles derivatives, bearing a 4-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]phenyl moiety are reported here. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral (UV-Vis, FT-IR, MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR) data and elemental analysis results, and their purity was determined by RP-HPLC. The new compounds were assessed for their antimicrobial activity and toxicity to aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. Also, in silico studies regarding their potential mechanism of action and toxicity were performed. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed that the 2-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]benzamido}-3-methylbutanoic acid and the corresponding 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains and the new 1,3-oxazole containing a phenyl group at 5-position against the C. albicans strain.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Ácido Benzoico/síntese química , Ácido Benzoico/toxicidade , Simulação por Computador , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ácido Benzoico/química , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360650

RESUMO

This review focuses on the specific biological effects of optically pure silymarin flavo-nolignans, mainly silybins A and B, isosilybins A and B, silychristins A and B, and their 2,3-dehydro derivatives. The chirality of these flavonolignans is also discussed in terms of their analysis, preparative separation and chemical reactions. We demonstrated the specific activities of the respective diastereomers of flavonolignans and also the enantiomers of their 2,3-dehydro derivatives in the 3D anisotropic systems typically represented by biological systems. In vivo, silymarin flavonolignans do not act as redox antioxidants, but they play a role as specific ligands of biological targets, according to the "lock-and-key" concept. Estrogenic, antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects have been demonstrated in optically pure flavonolignans. Potential application of pure flavonolignans has also been shown in cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and modulation of multidrug resistance activity by these compounds are discussed in detail. The future of "silymarin applications" lies in the use of optically pure components that can be applied directly or used as valuable lead structures, and in the exploration of their true molecular effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Silibina/química , Silibina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299005

RESUMO

Nanoparticles can interact with the complement system and modulate the inflammatory response. The effect of these interactions on the complement activity strongly depends on physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. The interactions of silver nanoparticles with serum proteins (particularly with the complement system components) have the potential to significantly affect the antibacterial activity of serum, with serious implications for human health. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO, GO-PcZr(Lys)2-Ag, GO-Ag, GO-PcZr(Lys)2) on the antibacterial activity of normal human serum (NHS), serum activity against bacteria isolated from alveoli treated with nanocomposites, and nanocomposite sensitivity of bacteria exposed to serum in vitro (using normal human serum). Additionally, the in vivo cytotoxic effect of the GO compounds was determined with application of a Galleria mellonella larvae model. GO-PcZr(Lys)2, without IR irradiation enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of the human serum. IR irradiation enhances bactericidal activity of serum in the case of the GO-PcZr(Lys)2-Ag sample. Bacteria exposed to nanocomposites become more sensitive to the action of serum. Bacteria exposed to serum become more sensitive to the GO-Ag sample. None of the tested GO nanocomposites displayed a cytotoxicity towards larvae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química , Soro/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidópteros/efeitos da radiação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanocompostos/administração & dosagem , Soro/microbiologia , Prata/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299020

RESUMO

Supramolecular hydrogels are 3D, elastic, water-swelled materials that are held together by reversible, non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, ionic, host-guest interactions, and metal-ligand coordination. These interactions determine the hydrogels' unique properties: mechanical strength; stretchability; injectability; ability to self-heal; shear-thinning; and sensitivity to stimuli, e.g., pH, temperature, the presence of ions, and other chemical substances. For this reason, supramolecular hydrogels have attracted considerable attention as carriers for active substance delivery systems. In this paper, we focused on the various types of non-covalent interactions. The hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, ionic, coordination, and host-guest interactions between hydrogel components have been described. We also provided an overview of the recent studies on supramolecular hydrogel applications, such as cancer therapy, anti-inflammatory gels, antimicrobial activity, controlled gene drug delivery, and tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hidrogéis/química , Polímeros/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Íons/química , Ligantes , Temperatura
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203313

RESUMO

The paper presents a synthesis of poly(l-lactide) with bacteriostatic properties. This polymer was obtained by ring-opening polymerization of the lactide initiated by selected low-toxic zinc complexes, Zn[(acac)(L)H2O], where L represents N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene) tryptophan or N-(2-pyridin-4-ylethylidene) phenylalanine. These complexes were obtained by reaction of Zn[(acac)2 H2O] and Schiff bases, the products of the condensation of amino acids and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. The composition, structure, and geometry of the synthesized complexes were determined by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and molecular modeling. Both complexes showed the geometry of a distorted trigonal bipyramid. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of both complexes were found to be much stronger than those of the primary Schiff bases. The present study showed a higher efficiency of polymerization when initiated by the obtained zinc complexes than when initiated by the zinc(II) acetylacetonate complex. The synthesized polylactide showed antibacterial properties, especially the product obtained by polymerization initiated by a zinc(II) complex with a ligand based on l-phenylalanine. The polylactide showed a particularly strong antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. At the same time, this polymer does not exhibit fibroblast cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Zinco/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Quelantes/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(8): 1027-1032, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292539

RESUMO

The search for new materials that can be applied in the treatment of injured human tissues has led to the development of new dressings. Membranes have potential as dressing materials because they can be fitted to and interact with the tissue surface. In this study, we analyze the morphological properties and wettability of latex membranes, along with the incorporation of the photosensitizer methylene blue, in the context of the utility of the membranes in curative applications involving photodynamic therapy (PDT). It was observed that deposition of the photosensitizer into latex membranes increased both the surface roughness and wettability. Antifungal testing indicated that antimicrobial PDT assisted by the latex membranes incorporating methylene blue effectively inactivated Candida albicans.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Corantes/química , Látex , Membranas Artificiais , Azul de Metileno/química , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos da radiação , Fotoquimioterapia
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299452

RESUMO

In recent decades, demands for novel insecticides against mosquitoes are soaring, yet candidate chemicals with desirable properties are limited. Kathon is a broad-spectrum isothiazolinone microbicide, but other applications remain uncharacterized. First, we treated larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus, two major mosquito vectors of human viral diseases, with Kathon at 15 mg/L (a concentration considered safe in cosmetic and body care products), and at lower concentrations, and found that Kathon treatment resulted in high mortality of larvae. Second, sublethal concentration of Kathon can cause significantly prolonged larval development of C. quinquefasciatus. Third, we explored the effects of two constituents of Kathon, chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT), on the survival of larvae, and found that CMIT was the major toxic component. Further, we explored the mechanisms of action of Kathon against insect cells and found that Kathon reduces cell viability and adenosine triphosphate production but promotes the release of lactate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Our results indicate that Kathon is highly toxic to mosquito larvae, and we highlight its potential in the development of new larvicides for mosquito control.


Assuntos
Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores
16.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299613

RESUMO

Aeonium is a genus of succulents belonging to the Crassulaceae family. Their importance in traditional medicine has stimulated both pharmacological and chemical research. In this study, we optimized extraction, separation, and analytical conditions using a high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry by the negative mode (HPLC-ESI-MS) in order to, for the first time, determine thirty-four compounds from Aeonium arboreum leaves. Twenty-one of them are assigned among which are sixteen flavonoids and five phenolic acids. FRAP, TAC, DPPH, and ABTS•+ radical scavenging were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 0.031 to 0.043 mg.mL-1 for DPPH and between 0.048 and 0.09 mg·mL-1 for ABTS•+. Antimicrobial activity was also assessed. The obtained minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these extracts ranged from 12.5 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria ivanovii, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum, and from 25 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Candida albicans. Therefore, these extracts can be considered as a potential source of biological active compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Crassulaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279385

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the methanol extracts and their fractions of two edible halophytic Limonium species, L. effusum (LE) and L. sinuatum (LS). The total phenolic content resulted about two-fold higher in the ethyl acetate fraction of LE (522.82 ± 5.67 mg GAE/g extract) than in that of LS (274.87 ± 1.87 mg GAE/g extract). LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that tannic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both species (71,439.56 ± 3643.3 µg/g extract in LE and 105,453.5 ± 5328.1 µg/g extract in LS), whereas hyperoside was the most abundant flavonoid (14,006.90 ± 686.1 µg/g extract in LE and 1708.51 ± 83.6 µg/g extract in LS). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and TAC assays, and the stronger antioxidant activity in ethyl acetate fractions was highlighted. Both species were more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram negatives and showed considerable growth inhibitions against tested fungi. Interestingly, selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was observed with LE and LS. Particularly, the water fraction of LS strongly inhibited AChE (IC50 = 0.199 ± 0.009 µg/mL). The ethyl acetate fractions of LE and LS, as well as the n-hexane fraction of LE, exhibited significant antityrosinase activity (IC50 = 245.56 ± 3.6, 295.18 ± 10.57 and 148.27 ± 3.33 µg/mL, respectively). The ethyl acetate fraction and methanol extract of LS also significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 83.76 ± 4.19 and 162.2 ± 7.29 µg/mL, respectively). Taken together, these findings warrant further investigations to assess the potential of LE and LS as a bioactive source that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plumbaginaceae/química , Polifenóis/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279391

RESUMO

Alternative technologies, which have been developed in order to meet the consumers' demand for nourishing and healthy meat and meat products, are followed by the food industry. In the present study, it was determined, using the HPLC method, that green tea contains a high level of epicatechin (EP) under optimal conditions and that pomegranate peel contains a high level of punicalagin (PN). Green tea, pomegranate peel, EP and PN were added to meatballs at different concentrations in eight groups. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured. The antimicrobial activity was examined for 72 h using three different food pathogens. The highest level of antimicrobial activity was achieved in the 1% punicalagin group, whereas the minimum inhibition concentration (L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium) was found to be 1.87 mg/mL. A statistically significant decrease was found in FFA, POV and TBARS levels of meatballs on different days of storage (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the bioactive compounds preserved the microbiological and chemical properties of meatballs during storage at +4 °C (14 days). It was concluded that the extracts with high EP and PN concentrations can be used as bio-preservative agents for meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Produtos da Carne/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279398

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the influence of the extraction method, chemical composition, antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on human cells of the non-polar extracts of grape (Vitis labrusca) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) seeds. The Soxhlet (Sox), Bligh-Dyer (BD), and ultrasound (US) methods were used for extractions. For blackberry non-polar seed extract, extraction via the BD method showed the highest mean values of total phenolic content (TPC), expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per 100 mL of non-polar seed extracts (102.37 mg GAE/100 mL), and higher antioxidant activity in relation to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per 100 mL of non-polar seed extracts (11.50 mg AAE/100 mL), if compared with the Sox and US extractions. Similar results were obtained for the non-polar grape seed extracts, where BD extraction obtained the highest values for TPC (28.61 mg GAE/100 mL) and DPPH (35.36 mg AAE/100 mL). The type of extraction method had an impact on the composition of fatty acids. Only the non-polar blackberry and grape seed extracts obtained via the Sox method showed some in vitro inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli (IAL 2064) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 13565). Regardless of the extraction method used, the non-polar blackberry and grape seed extracts did not decrease the cell viability (IC50 >1000 µg/mL) of cancer and normal cell lines, thus indicating the relative safety of the extracts. All the seed extracts decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cell lines. Blackberry and grape seed lipid fractions can be utilized as antioxidants, and the extraction methods used cause significant changes in relation to their bioactivity and chemical composition.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Rubus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299584

RESUMO

Currently, the potential utilization of fruits and vegetable waste as a source of micronutrients and antioxidants has increased. The present study, therefore, aimed to determine the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus nobilis peel extract. A modified solvent evaporation technique was employed for peel extract preparation. For effective utilization of the natural product, quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy technique. Phenolic and flavonoids were present in high amounts, while ß-carotene and lycopene were present in vestigial amounts. The antimicrobial efficiency of peel extract was evaluated against four bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2295), and Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC 1254), and one fungal strain Candida albicans (MTCC 183), and zone of inhibition was comparable to the positive control streptomycin and amphotericin B, respectively. The extract of Citrus nobilis peels showed effective anti-inflammatory activity during human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC) and albumin denaturation assay. The extracts also exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity ranging from 53.46 to 81.13%. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that Citrus nobilis peel could be used as an excellent source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus/química , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
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