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2.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5. Vyp. 2): 160-170, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the toxic effects of frequent instillations of anti-infective solutions (antibiotic eye drops - 0.3 and 1.4% tobramycin, 0.5% levofloxacin and 0.5% moxifloxacin; antiseptic eye drops - 0.05% pyloxidine and 0.025% chlorhexidine; antifungal drug - 2 mg/ml fluconazole solution) on ocular tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 21 Wistar rats (42 eyes) using method of semi-fine sections. RESULTS: The majority of antibiotics and antifungal agents do not cause toxic reactions in rats` eyes when instilled with frequent regimen with the exception of 'fortified' 1.4% tobramycin and pyloxidine solutions, which caused a decrease in corneal endothelial cells density and formation of fibrovascular tissue in the anterior chamber. CONCLUSION: Frequent instillations of antimicrobial drug solutions is a safe method for the treatment of purulent corneal ulcers and purulent keratitis. The exceptions were solutions of 'fortified' 1.4% tobramycin and piloxidine (vitabact).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cefazolina , Células Endoteliais , Soluções Oftálmicas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111633, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726378

RESUMO

In the present study, we assessed the oral mucosal irritation potential of antimicrobial chemotherapy involving hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis with a 405-nm laser device at an output power of ≥100 mW in hamsters. Twenty-four cheek pouches from 12 male Syrian hamsters received 7-min treatment with pure water (PW), 3% H2O2, laser irradiation of PW at 100 mW, laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 100 mW, laser irradiation of PW at 200 mW, or laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 200 mW (n = 4 each). The diameter of the irradiation area was set at 3 mm; accordingly, the calculated irradiances (optical power densities) of the 100- and 200-mW laser lights were approximately 1400 and 2800 mW/cm2, respectively. In addition, 12 cheek pouches from six animals received laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 100 mW for 1, 3, or 5 min (n = 4 each). Each treatment was repeated three times at 1-h intervals. Macroscopic and histological changes were evaluated 24 h after the last treatment. In addition, in vitro bactericidal activity of the treatment against periodontal pathogens was evaluated. We found that 405-nm laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 caused moderate to severe oral mucosal irritation when performed at powers of 100 and 200 mW for ≥3 min, while the same treatment performed at 100 mW for 1 min resulted in mild irritation. Moreover, 1-min H2O2 photolysis at 100 mW caused a >4-log decrease in viable bacterial counts. These findings suggest that 1-min H2O2 photolysis, which can effectively kill periodontal pathogens, may be acceptable when a 405-nm laser device is used at 100 mW. However, use of the laser at a lower power would be preferable for the prevention of unnecessary oral mucosal irritation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lasers , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cricetinae , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos da radiação , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(5): 511-518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566346

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a major growing problem fueled by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Patients requiring maintenance hemodialysis are at especially high risk for infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs to combat the spread of resistant pathogens. This article describes in detail a multifaceted antimicrobial stewardship intervention that featured staff education and a behavioral change process, Positive Deviance, and its implementation in six outpatient hemodialysis units. Results of the intervention demonstrated a 6% month-to-month reduction in antimicrobial doses/100 patient months over the course of the 12 months intervention, with a decrease in mean antimicrobial doses from 22.6/100 to 10.5/100 patient months from the beginning to the end of the intervention period. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of this multifaceted intervention in engaging staff and improving antimicrobial prescribing patterns.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17355, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a change in the formation of dental enamel of systemic origin that affects at least one of the first 4 permanent molars and usually affects incisors. During the eruption, the affected surfaces tend to fracture, exposing the dentin, which causes excessive sensitivity in addition to making the region very susceptible to the appearance of carious lesions. The objective of this research will be to evaluate the clinical effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in permanent teeth with severe and sensitive MIH. METHODS: The methodology will be based on the selection of patients from 6 to 12 years of age with permanent molar teeth, randomly divided in 2 groups. The selected teeth should have MIH on the occlusal surface, indicated for clinical restorative treatment. In Group 1, aPDT will be applied for the treatment of infected dentin. Afterward, the teeth will be restored with high viscosity glass ionomer cement. In Group 2, the removal of the softened dentin around the side walls of the cavity with sharp dentine curettes and posterior restoration with high viscosity glass ionomer cement will be performed. All patients will have clinical and radiographic follow-up with a time interval of 6 and 12 months. The data obtained will be submitted to descriptive statistical analysis to evaluate the association of categorical variables. Chi-square test and Fisher exact test will be applied, to analyze the correlation between the continuous variables, Pearson correlation test will be applied. For the analysis of dentin density in the scanned radiographic images and the microbiological results for colony-forming units, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis will be applied. DISCUSSION: Often in the presence of severe MIH, the presence of dentin sensitivity is also associated with caries lesion, making it even more necessary to respect the principles of minimal intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03904641.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Criança , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Dentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMJ ; 367: l5205, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine how clinicians vary in their response to new guidance on existing or new interventions, by measuring the timing and magnitude of change at healthcare institutions. DESIGN: Automated change detection in longitudinal prescribing data. SETTING: Prescribing data in English primary care. PARTICIPANTS: English general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In each practice the following were measured: the timing of the largest changes, steepness of the change slope (change in proportion per month), and magnitude of the change for two example time series (expiry of the Cerazette patent in 2012, leading to cheaper generic desogestrel alternatives becoming available; and a change in antibiotic prescribing guidelines after 2014, favouring nitrofurantoin over trimethoprim for uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI)). RESULTS: Substantial heterogeneity was found between institutions in both timing and steepness of change. The range of time delay before a change was implemented was large (interquartile range 2-14 months (median 8) for Cerazette, and 5-29 months (18) for UTI). Substantial heterogeneity was also seen in slope following a detected change (interquartile range 2-28% absolute reduction per month (median 9%) for Cerazette, and 1-8% (2%) for UTI). When changes were implemented, the magnitude of change showed substantially less heterogeneity (interquartile range 44-85% (median 66%) for Cerazette and 28-47% (38%) for UTI). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variation was observed in the speed with which individual NHS general practices responded to warranted changes in clinical practice. Changes in prescribing behaviour were detected automatically and robustly. Detection of structural breaks using indicator saturation methods opens up new opportunities to improve patient care through audit and feedback by moving away from cross sectional analyses, and automatically identifying institutions that respond rapidly, or slowly, to warranted changes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Inglaterra , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Medicina Geral/normas , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Medicina Estatal/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 72-75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560667

RESUMO

The aims of our study were to determine antibiotic prescribing rates for prevention and treatment of infections in pediatric units, to evaluate the number and type of antimicrobial agents and administration route, reveal commonly used antibiotic subgroups and identify targets for improving the quality of antimicrobial prescribing. A 1-day PPS (Point Prevalence Study) on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was performed in Georgia from 2015 to 2019. 18 clinics in different regions of Georgia were included in the survey. Antimicrobial prevalence rates increased over the years from 60.1% in 2015 to 92.6% in 2018. The most commonly, antibiotics were prescribed for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In 2015 25.1% of LRTI were treated by ampicillin-sulbactam but the next year it replaced with ceftriaxone (37.1% in 2017 and 38.2% in 2018). In pediatric surgical ward, the antibiotics were commonly prescribed for surgical prevention (54.1% in 2015, 32.3% in 2018). The most common conditions treated with antibiotics in neonates were sepsis (30.1%) and LRTI (45.3%). The most used antibiotic was ceftriaxone (33.3% in 2015). Ampicilin-sulbactam was prescribed in 28.1% of pneumonia case in neonates in 2018. In 2015 antibiotics were mainly prescribed empirically (98.0%). In 2018 resistance of MRSA was 8.1%, and resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin 17.3%. Prevalence rate of antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infection disease in pediatric units increased in 2018. Main feasible targets for optimization of antibiotic prescribing have been identified: high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitals, high frequency of empirical treatment, rarely performed culture tests, prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery patients and an alarming raise of resistant strains. The implementation of disease-specific clinical pathways associated with annual PPSs could be a good way to monitor and improve antibiotic prescription patterns in neonatal and pediatric inpatients over time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pediatria , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc ; 26(2): 151-153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476818

RESUMO

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Its occurrence isolated in the lung rare and carries a high mortality risk if untreated. We report the case of a 76-year old male immunocompetent patient, under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, admitted to the emergency department with hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy was performed and active bleeding from the middle lobe bronchus was found. Chest CT scan identified a solitary cavitary lesion in the middle lobe. The patient was proposed for urgent open middle lobectomy. Postoperative period was uneventful. Pulmonary mucormycosis was confirmed and adjuvant therapy with Amphotericin B was performed for 30 days. Despite its rarity, mucormycosis prevalence is expected to raise together with increasing number of immunocompromised patients. A high level of suspicion is recommended as early diagnosis can be determinant.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias Fúngicas/terapia , Mucormicose/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/imunologia , Masculino , Mucormicose/complicações , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/imunologia , Pneumonectomia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
12.
Chemistry ; 25(59): 13472-13478, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393035

RESUMO

A series of water-soluble cationic chalcogenoviologen-based photosensitizers for photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PDAT) is reported. The Se-containing derivatives (SeMV2+ ) 5 b and 6 b showed good antimicrobial activities due to the presence of chalcogen atoms and a cationic scaffold. The former efficiently enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the latter facilitated the ROS delivery to bacteria, resulting in their death. Interestingly, alkyl-modified photosensitizers showed higher antimicrobial activities than commonly reported photosensitizers with quaternary ammonium (QA) groups. In particular, the SeMV2+ (6 b) with excellent antibacterial activities efficiently promoted the healing of infected wounds in mice. Simple yet novel, nontoxic and biocompatible chalcogenoviologens provided a promising strategy to develop new efficient photosensitizers for photodynamic antimicrobial therapy and skin regeneration.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Cátions/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Pele/fisiopatologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Regeneração
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 273, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Struvite urolithiasis with bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly reported in dogs; few data exist to describe successful dissolution protocols in dogs with naturally occurring disease. We hypothesized that a dry therapeutic urinary diet combined with targeted antimicrobial therapy can effectively dissolve presumptive struvite cystolithiasis in dogs with naturally occurring urease-producing bacterial UTI. RESULTS: Ten dogs with presumed infection-induced struvite cystolithiasis based on lower urinary tract signs (LUTS), radiodense cystoliths, and urease-producing bacterial UTI were enrolled. At enrollment, antimicrobials and dry therapeutic urinary diet were dispensed. In addition to lack of radiographic resolution of urolithiasis, dogs with persistent clinical signs were considered non-responders. There was no significant difference in pH between responders and non-responders; USG was significantly higher in the responder group. Recheck visits continued until radiographic dissolution or failure was documented. Five of the 10 dogs achieved radiographic dissolution of cystolithiasis within a median of 31 days (range 19-103). In the other 5 dogs, surgical urolith removal was necessary due to persistent LUTS (3 dogs within 2 weeks) or lack of continued dissolution noted radiographically (1 dog with numerous cystoliths failed at day 91; 1 dog failed by day 57 with questionable owner compliance). CONCLUSIONS: Dissolution of urinary tract infection induced struvite cystoliths can be accomplished in some dogs fed this dry therapeutic urinary diet in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Case selection could increase the likelihood of successful dissolution; however, if calcium phosphate is present, this could also prevent stone dissolution. If clinical signs persist despite diet and antimicrobials, stone removal is advised.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Estruvita/química , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/veterinária , Urolitíase/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Resultado do Tratamento , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/dietoterapia , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Urolitíase/dietoterapia , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/cirurgia
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5051-5060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371946

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cutaneous wounds represent a major issue in medical care and are often prone to infections. Purpose: The aim of this study was the design of a clay mineral-drug nanocomposite based on montmorillonite and norfloxacin (NF, antimicrobial drug) as a powder for cutaneous application, to enhance wound healing in infected skin lesions. Methods: The nanocomposite has been prepared by means of an intercalation solution procedure. Adsorption isotherm, solid-state characterization of the nanocomposite, drug loading capacity and its release have been performed. Moreover, cytocompatibility, in vitro fibroblast proliferation and antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were assessed. Results: The clay drug adsorption isotherm demonstrates that the mechanism of NF intercalation into montmorillonite galleries is the adsorption as one single process, due to the charge-charge interaction between protonated NF and negatively charged montmorillonite edges in the interlayer space. Nanocomposite is biocompatible and it is characterized by antimicrobial activity greater than the free drug: this is due to its nanostructure and controlled drug release properties. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained, NF-montmorillonite nanocomposite seems a promising tool to treat infected skin lesions or skin wounds prone to infection, as chronic ulcers (diabetic foot, venous leg ulcers) and burns.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Nanocompostos/química , Norfloxacino/farmacologia , Norfloxacino/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adsorção , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Difração de Raios X
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16752, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441848

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tumor rupture and bleeding at initial presentation of infants with neuroblastoma (NBL) is a rare, but life threatening condition and challenge in pediatric oncology. Here, we report successful multidisciplinary management of an abdominal compartment syndrome as a result of tumor rupture and bleeding in an infant with bilateral high risk stage 4 NBL. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was admitted to a cooperating hospital with vomiting, failure to thrive and a large mass in the abdomen and was then referred to our center. DIAGNOSES: Stage 4 NBL with MYC-N amplification and 1p36 deletion was diagnosed in an 11 months old girl. Due to rapid and massive tumor growth she developed abdominal compression with renal failure, severe bleeding, and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). INTERVENTIONS: Surgical decompression by enterostomy, local, and systemic bleeding control with platelets and coagulation factors, antiinfective and TLS therapy were effective in stabilizing the patient's condition. This allowed initiation of the multimodal antineoplastic treatment according to protocol NB 2004. OUTCOMES: Mechanical ventilation was stopped after 11 days, the abdominal wall was closed 3 months after the start of therapy, and treatment according to the protocol be started and successfully completed. LESSONS: Only the immediate, coordinated multidisciplinary intervention managed to overcome the life-threatening abdominal compartment syndrome and its associated problems, eventually enabling successful curative treatment.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/complicações , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/etiologia , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/terapia , Neuroblastoma/complicações , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea , Enterostomia/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neuroblastoma/patologia
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 138-141, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349285

RESUMO

Antimicrobial computerized decision support systems (CDSS) have been developed to improve decision-making at the point of prescribing. Uptake of CDSS for antibiotic prescribing remains low, and evidence to suggest that CDSS provides a clear benefit for antimicrobial outcomes is scarce. We reviewed existing evidence on the impact of CDSS on antimicrobial prescribing. Based on the results of our literature search, we discuss the use of CDSS for antimicrobial management in hospitals and antibiotic prescribing practices in ambulatory primary care settings. We identify some of the issues surrounding selecting and defining appropriate outcome measures for assessing the impact of CDSS on antimicrobial prescribing in the hospital setting. In the primary care setting, we observed that CDSS has a modest impact in changing antibiotic prescribing practice, which could be related to the underutilization of antimicrobial CDSS.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 111-116, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331748

RESUMO

In this magnetic resonance imaging-based study, we investigated the clinical features, neuroimaging features and therapeutic outcomes of 14 adults (eight men and six women; mean age 60.4 years; range 37-77 years) with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST). Of the underlying conditions, 10 had diabetes mellitus and 13 had concomitant sphenoid sinusitis. Headache (n = 13) and ophthalmoplegia (n = 13) were the most common clinical presentations, followed by fever (n = 9) and other neuro-vascular signs and symptoms. The duration from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis ranged from 1 to 61 days, and more than 64% (9/14) of the septic CST patients were diagnosed >7 days after symptom onset. Expansion of the cavernous sinus was the most common neuroimaging feature, followed by convexity of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus (5) and filling defect of the cavernous sinus (4). Staphylococcal species (spp.) was the most commonly implicated pathogen, followed by Aspergillus spp. Despite treatment, 7% (1/14) of the patients died in the hospital and 67% (8/12) of the survivors had neurological deficits. The duration of onset-to-diagnosis and the presence of hemiparesis were significant prognostic factors. These results provide a preliminary view of this uncommon infectious syndrome. Further large-scale studies are needed to better delineate septic CST in adults.


Assuntos
Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/diagnóstico , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 603, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection. METHODS: From August 2015 to December 2017, 172 pathogenic bacterial strains from patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection in our hospital were identified, and the drug sensitivity was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 172 strains of pathogenic bacteria, gram negative bacteria was the main cause of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with acute cerebral infarction, accounting for 75.6% of all pathogens. Furthermore, 80% of diabetic patients with cerebral infarction had lung infection induced by gram negative bacteria, which was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic patients (72.2%). Moreover, the drug resistance rate in the diabetic group (68.3%) was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group (54.3%). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 19.1% of all pathogenic bacteria. The infection rate of gram-positive bacteria in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction was 14.7%, which was lower than that in the non-diabetic group (22.6%). The drug-resistance rate was higher in the diabetic group (45.5%) than in the non-diabetic group (28.2%). Furthermore, the fungal infection rate in patients with lung infection in these two groups was 5.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and fungi presented with high sensitivity to commonly used antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection, the majority of pathogens are multidrug-resistant gram negative bacilli. Pathogen culture should be conducted as soon as possible before using antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents should be reasonably used according to drug sensitivity test results.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261876

RESUMO

The chronic sensation of a dry mouth is a disease condition called xerostomia and affects a large part of the population. Xerostomia is associated with decreased secretion, or more often, qualitative changes in saliva proteins and immunoglobulin concentrations that develop as a result of salivary gland dysfunction. Several reasons causing dry mouth were described, and usually, they include taking medications, diseases or radiotherapy. In some situations, when it is difficult to use salivary stimulants or salivary gland damage is irreversible, the only option might seem to be saliva substitutes. The paper presents the most important aspects considering saliva preparations. The rheological and lubricating properties and the reconstruction of the complex saliva structure has been the main purpose of research. The biological properties of saliva preparations were also widely discussed. As part of the work, the antimicrobial effect of three commercial saliva preparations was tested. Finally, inadequate antimicrobial properties against the strains isolated from the oral cavity were demonstrated. The development of salivary substitutes, in particular, the improvement of antimicrobial properties, can be achieved using nanotechnology, including drug delivery systems containing nanocarriers.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Saliva/química , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microfluídica/métodos , Viscosidade , Xerostomia/etiologia
20.
Cornea ; 38(8): 1062-1067, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conjunctivitis, or inflammation of the conjunctiva, is a common condition that can be caused by infectious (eg, bacterial or viral infections) and noninfectious (eg, allergy) etiologies. Treatment involves diagnosis of the underlying cause and use of appropriate therapies. A broad-spectrum therapy that can address multiple etiologies, and also the accompanying inflammation, would be very useful. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and ophthalmic formulations that combine corticosteroids with anti-infectives/antibiotics for treating acute infectious conjunctivitis. METHODS: A review of the published literature and relevant treatment guidelines. RESULTS: Topical corticosteroids are useful in treating ocular inflammation, but most treatment guidelines recommend steroid use generally in severe cases of conjunctivitis. This is partly due to risks associated with steroid use. These risks include potential for prolonging adenoviral infections and potentiating/worsening herpes simplex virus infections, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and cataracts. Most of these perceived risks are not, however, supported by high-quality clinical data. They are also associated with long-term steroid uses that are dissimilar to applications for infectious conjunctivitis. Clinical data show that ophthalmic formulations that combine corticosteroids with broad-spectrum anti-infectives could be effective and well tolerated when used for short-term treatment (≤2 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids, in combination with anti-infectives, could be a promising treatment option for acute conjunctivitis subject to development of further evidence on their effectiveness and safety in conjunctivitis treatment.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Administração Oftálmica , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Soluções Oftálmicas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
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