Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.180
Filtrar
1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1175-1183, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879249

RESUMO

The mock patches were prepared with novel acrylic polymers as adhesive layer where biphenyl-4-ylacetic acid (BAA) or 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl) propanoic acid (FPA) was used as model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In addition, the mock patches were formulated with typical ester ingredients for transdermal dosage forms. The molecular state of the model APIs in the adhesive layer was observed by polarized microscope and microscopic Raman spectroscopy, which contains both conventional and low frequency (LF) region. Crystallization behavior would be depended on the interaction between API and polymers in the adhesive layer. In particular, LF Raman measurement was useful to discriminate API polymorphs. The pharmaceutical properties including dissolution and skin permeation of APIs were also evaluated for mock patches. The drug release and transdermal permeation were enhanced with the ester ingredients such as isopropyl myristate and diethyl sebacate due to their diffusion to the test solution or the skin stratum corneum as well as reducing the interaction between API and polymers. Further, the tack strength was not changed, but the peel strength was weakened by the additives. Thus, the adhesive properties were controllable by formulation with the additives. These findings could enable to evaluate the interaction between API and the polymers for adhesive layer and select the appropriate polymer and additives for used APIs when designing the drug products.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Polímeros , Adesivo Transdérmico , Adesividade , Administração Cutânea , Ácidos Decanoicos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Miristatos , Fenilacetatos/administração & dosagem , Fenilacetatos/metabolismo , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Propionatos/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral Raman
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21917, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many epidemiologic studies were performed to clarify the protective effect of regular aspirin use on breast cancer risks, but the results remain inconsistent. Here, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of 38 studies to quantitatively assess the association of regular aspirin use with risk of breast cancer. METHOD: We performed a bibliographic database search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Google Scholar from January 1939 to December 2019. Relative risk (RR) estimates were extracted from eligible case-control and cohort studies and pooled using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on study design, aspirin exposure assessment, hormone receptor status, menopausal status, cancer stage as well as aspirin use duration or frequency. Furthermore, sensitivity and publication bias analyses were performed. RESULTS: Thirty eight studies of 1,926,742 participants involving 97,099 breast cancer cases contributed to this meta-analysis. Compared with nonusers, the aspirin users had a reduced risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-0.95, P value of significance [Psig] < .001) with heterogeneity (P value of heterogeneity [Phet] < .001, I = 82.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed a reduced risk in case-control studies (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78-0.89, Psig < .001), in hormone receptor positive tumors (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94, Psig < .001), in situ breast tumors (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.88, Psig < .001), and in postmenopausal women (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96, Psig = .002). Furthermore, participants who use aspirin for >4 times/wk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, Psig = .003) or for >10 years (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99, Psig = .025) appeared to benefit more from the reduction in breast cancer caused by aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that aspirin use might be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly for reducing the risk of hormone receptor positive tumors or in situ breast tumors, and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(38): 1646-1651, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924969

RESUMO

As the topical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has gained popularity recently, adverse reactions related to their application have also become more common. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old man, who used etofenamate gel to treat leg pain. Following sun exposure, haemorrhagic, atypical lesions appeared and after rapid spread of the symptoms, the patient was hospitalized. In the area of the etofenamate application as well as on both legs, arms, trunk and face, confluent, erythematous sero-papules and macules were found, along with petechiae on the oral mucosa. Splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia accompanied the skin symptoms, which prompted an oncohematological workup, and the patient was diagnosed with hairy cell leukaemia. Epicutaneous testing (ET) was performed and found a positive reaction to etofenamate gel as well wood tar, propylen glycol, fragrance mix I, methylisothiazolinone, benzoic acid and balsam of Peru. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and CD69 expression were negative for etofenamate. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(38): 1646-1651.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Ácido Flufenâmico/análogos & derivados , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/diagnóstico , Esplenomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Administração Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Ácido Flufenâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Flufenâmico/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura/induzido quimicamente
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21446, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756162

RESUMO

Aspirin (ASA) exerts an anti-tumor effect via the COX pathway. Clinical studies on the chemopreventive effects of ASA on uterine cancer (UC) remain inconsistent. We used population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the UC in ASA users in Taiwanese women. From insurance claims data, we identified 23,342 women received ASA treatment between 2000 and 2010 and a comparison group of same sample size randomly selected from the same database matched by the propensity score. The incidence of UC in the ASA cohort was 10% of that in the comparison group (0.28 vs 2.73 per 10,000 person-years). The Poisson regression analysis estimated adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.09-0.11) for ASA users relatives to comparisons after controlling for covariates. The UC incidence in ASA users decreased with age, from 0.61 per 10,000 person-years in the 20 to 39 years old (adjusted IRR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.15-0.29) to 0.21 per 10,000 person-years in the 65 to 80 years old (adjusted IRR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.12-0.16). The incidence was higher in longer term users. Hormone therapy of estradiol was associated with the increase of UC risk in both cohorts, but less in ASA users than comparisons (1.34 vs 4.75 per 10,000 person-years). This study suggests that ASA use was associated with a decreased risk of UC. Further prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm the association.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioprevenção , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 1081-1085, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741866

RESUMO

Cancer patients often suffer from severe pain related to bone metastasis. We encountered a patient in whom the addition of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for persistent pain related to bone metastasis during therapy with opioids and oral NSAIDs reduced pain, improving activities of daily living (ADL). Fentanyl patches, celecoxib, denosumab, and topical NSAIDs (loxoprofen tape, felbinac) were administered to a 72-year-old patient with gastric cancer and pain related to bone metastasis. Pain control was favorable, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 2 and Japanese version Support Team Assessment Schedule (STAS-J) score of 1. Intervention by pharmacists for the use of topical NSAIDs decreased both the NRS and STAS-J scores to zero, improving ADL. The results suggest that topical NSAIDs relieve bone-metastasis-related pain, improving ADL. When bone-metastasis-related pain is localized, the prescription of topical NSAIDs should be considered, and positive intervention by pharmacists regarding their usage should be promoted.


Assuntos
Administração Tópica , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Administração Oral , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007789, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute soft tissue injuries are common and costly. The best drug treatment for such injuries is not certain, although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often recommended. There is concern about the use of oral opioids for acute pain leading to dependence. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits or harms of NSAIDs compared with other oral analgesics for treating acute soft tissue injuries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL, 2020 Issue 1, MEDLINE (from 1946), and Embase (from 1980) to January 2020; other databases were searched to February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving people with acute soft tissue injury (sprain, strain, or contusion of a joint, ligament, tendon, or muscle occurring within 48 hours of inclusion in the study), and comparing oral NSAIDs versus paracetamol (acetaminophen), opioid, paracetamol plus opioid, or complementary and alternative medicine. The outcomes were pain, swelling, function, adverse effects, and early re-injury. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 20 studies, with 3305 participants. Three studies included children only. The others included predominantly young adults; approximately 60% were male. Seven studies recruited people with ankle sprains only. Most studies were at low or unclear risk of bias; however, two were at high risk of selection bias, three were at high risk of bias from lack of blinding, and five were at high risk of selective outcome reporting bias. Some evidence relating to pain relief was high certainty. Other evidence was either moderate, low or very low certainty, reflecting study limitations, indirectness, imprecision, or combinations of these. Thus, we are certain or moderately certain about some of the estimates, and uncertain or very uncertain of others. Eleven studies, involving 1853 participants compared NSAIDs with paracetamol. There were no differences between the two groups in pain at one to two hours (1178 participants, 6 studies; high-certainty evidence), at days one to three (1232 participants, 6 studies; high-certainty evidence), and at day seven or later (467 participants, 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). There was little difference between the groups in numbers of participants with minimal swelling at day seven or later (77 participants, 1 study; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence from three studies (386 participants) means we are uncertain of the finding of little difference between the two groups in return to function at day seven or later. There was low-certainty evidence from 10 studies (1504 participants) that NSAIDs may slightly increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events compared with paracetamol. There was low-certainty evidence from nine studies (1679 participants) of little difference in neurological adverse events between the NSAID and paracetamol groups. Six studies, involving 1212 participants compared NSAIDs with opioids. There was moderate-certainty evidence of no difference between the groups in pain at one hour (1058 participants, 4 studies), and low-certainty evidence for no difference in pain at days four or seven (706 participants, 1 study). There was very low-certainty evidence of no important difference between the groups in swelling (84 participants, 1 study). Participants in the NSAIDs group were more likely to return to function in 7 to 10 days (542 participants, 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). There was moderate-certainty evidence (1143 participants, 5 studies) that NSAIDs were less likely to result in gastrointestinal or neurological adverse events compared with opioids. Four studies, involving 240 participants, compared NSAIDs with the combination of paracetamol and an opioid. The applicability of findings from these studies is in question because the dextropropoxyphene combination analgesic agents used are no longer in general use. Very low-certainty evidence means we are uncertain of the findings of no differences between the two interventions in the numbers with little or no pain at day one (51 participants, 1 study), day three (149 participants, 2 studies), or day seven (138 participants, 2 studies); swelling (230 participants, 3 studies); return to function at day seven (89 participants, 1 study); and the risk of gastrointestinal or neurological adverse events (141 participants, 3 studies). No studies reported re-injury rates. No studies compared NSAIDs with oral complementary and alternative medicines, AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared with paracetamol, NSAIDs make no difference to pain at one to two hours and at two to three days, and may make no difference at day seven or beyond. NSAIDs may result in a small increase in gastrointestinal adverse events and may make no difference in neurological adverse events compared with paracetamol. Compared with opioids, NSAIDs probably make no difference to pain at one hour, and may make no difference at days four or seven. NSAIDs probably result in fewer gastrointestinal and neurological adverse effects compared with opioids. The very low-certainly evidence for all outcomes for the NSAIDs versus paracetamol with opioid combination analgesics means we are uncertain of the findings of no differences in pain or adverse effects. The current evidence should not be extrapolated to adults older than 65 years, as this group was not well represented in the studies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Contusões/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Entorses e Distensões/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Adulto , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD000544, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; also known as mesalazine or mesalamine) preparations were intended to avoid the adverse effects of sulfasalazine (SASP) while maintaining its therapeutic benefits. In an earlier version of this review, we found that 5-ASA drugs were more effective than placebo for maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC), but had a significant therapeutic inferiority relative to SASP. In this version, we have rerun the search to bring the review up to date. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, dose-responsiveness, and safety of oral 5-ASA compared to placebo, SASP, or 5-ASA comparators for maintenance of remission in quiescent UC and to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily dosing of oral 5-ASA with conventional (two or three times daily) dosing regimens. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a literature search for studies on 11 June 2019 using MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. In addition, we searched review articles and conference proceedings. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials with a minimum treatment duration of six months. We considered studies of oral 5-ASA therapy for treatment of participants with quiescent UC compared with placebo, SASP, or other 5-ASA formulations. We also included studies that compared once-daily 5-ASA treatment with conventional dosing of 5-ASA and 5-ASA dose-ranging studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcome was the failure to maintain clinical or endoscopic remission. Secondary outcomes were adherence, adverse events (AE), serious adverse events (SAE), withdrawals due to AEs, and withdrawals or exclusions after entry. Trials were separated into five comparison groups: 5-ASA versus placebo, 5-ASA versus SASP, once-daily dosing versus conventional dosing, 5-ASA (balsalazide, Pentasa, and olsalazine) versus comparator 5-ASA formulation (Asacol and Salofalk), and 5-ASA dose-ranging. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. We analyzed data on an intention-to-treat basis, and used GRADE to assess the overall certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: The search identified 44 studies (9967 participants). Most studies were at low risk of bias. Ten studies were at high risk of bias. Seven of these studies were single-blind and three were open-label. 5-ASA is more effective than placebo for maintenance of clinical or endoscopic remission. About 37% (335/907) of 5-ASA participants relapsed at six to 12 months compared to 55% (355/648) of placebo participants (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.76; 8 studies, 1555 participants; high-certainty evidence). Adherence to study medication was not reported for this comparison. SAEs were reported in 1% (6/550) of participants in the 5-ASA group compared to 2% (5/276) of participants in the placebo group at six to 12 months (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.84; 3 studies, 826 participants; low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference in AEs at six to 12 months' follow-up (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.18; 5 studies, 1132 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). SASP is more effective than 5-ASA for maintenance of remission. About 48% (416/871) of 5-ASA participants relapsed at six to 18 months compared to 43% (336/784) of SASP participants (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.27; 12 studies, 1655 participants; high-certainty evidence). Adherence to study medication and SAEs were not reported for this comparison. There is probably little or no difference in AEs at six to 12 months' follow-up (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.40; 7 studies, 1138 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There is little or no difference in clinical or endoscopic remission rates between once-daily and conventionally dosed 5-ASA. About 37% (717/1939) of once-daily participants relapsed over 12 months compared to 39% (770/1971) of conventional-dosing participants (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.01; 10 studies, 3910 participants; high-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference in medication adherence rates. About 10% (106/1152) of participants in the once-daily group failed to adhere to their medication regimen compared to 8% (84/1154) of participants in the conventional-dosing group (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.93; 9 studies, 2306 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). About 3% (41/1587) of participants in the once-daily group experienced a SAE compared to 2% (35/1609) of participants in the conventional-dose group at six to 12 months (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87; moderate-certainty evidence). There is little or no difference in the incidence of AEs at six to 13 months' follow-up (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.04; 8 studies, 3497 participants; high-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in the efficacy of different 5-ASA formulations. About 44% (158/358) of participants in the 5-ASA group relapsed at six to 18 months compared to 41% (142/349) of participants in the 5-ASA comparator group (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.28; 6 studies, 707 participants; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high-certainty evidence that 5-ASA is superior to placebo for maintenance therapy in UC. There is high-certainty evidence that 5-ASA is inferior compared to SASP. There is probably little or no difference between 5-ASA and placebo, and 5-ASA and SASP in commonly reported AEs such as flatulence, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dyspepsia. Oral 5-ASA administered once daily has a similar benefit and harm profile as conventional dosing for maintenance of remission in quiescent UC.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Sulfassalazina/administração & dosagem , Sulfassalazina/efeitos adversos
8.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 682-683, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842391

RESUMO

A 4-month-old child with skin rash for 2 days and fever for 1 day was hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics of Erdos Central Hospital in November 2019. According to the clinical symptoms, medical history and medication history at the time of admission, it was diagnosed as urticaria with angioneuroedema. In this case, the urticaria occurred 3 days after acetaminophen administration, which is a delayed reaction.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Angioedema/induzido quimicamente , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Urticária/induzido quimicamente , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Febre , Humanos , Lactente
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMO

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD000543, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) preparations were intended to avoid the adverse effects of sulfasalazine (SASP) while maintaining its therapeutic benefits. It was previously found that 5-ASA drugs in doses of at least 2 g/day were more effective than placebo but no more effective than SASP for inducing remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, dose-responsiveness and safety of oral 5-ASA compared to placebo, SASP, or 5-ASA comparators (i.e. other formulations of 5-ASA) for induction of remission in active UC. A secondary objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily dosing of oral 5-ASA versus conventional dosing regimens (two or three times daily). SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library on 11 June 2019. We also searched references, conference proceedings and study registers to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including adults (aged 18 years or more) with active UC for inclusion. We included studies that compared oral 5-ASA therapy with placebo, SASP, or other 5-ASA formulations. We also included studies that compared once-daily to conventional dosing as well as dose-ranging studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Outcomes include failure to induce global/clinical remission, global/clinical improvement, endoscopic remission, endoscopic improvement, adherence, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), withdrawals due to AEs, and withdrawals or exclusions after entry. We analyzed five comparisons: 5-ASA versus placebo, 5-ASA versus sulfasalazine, once-daily dosing versus conventional dosing, 5-ASA (e.g. MMX mesalamine, Ipocol, Balsalazide, Pentasa, Olsalazine and 5-ASA micropellets) versus comparator 5-ASA (e.g. Asacol, Claversal, Salofalk), and 5-ASA dose-ranging. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each outcome. We analyzed data on an intention-to-treat basis, and used GRADE to assess the overall certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We include 54 studies (9612 participants). We rated most studies at low risk of bias. Seventy-one per cent (1107/1550) of 5-ASA participants failed to enter clinical remission compared to 83% (695/837) of placebo participants (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.89; 2387 participants, 11 studies; high-certainty evidence). We also observed a dose-response trend for 5-ASA. There was no difference in clinical remission rates between 5-ASA and SASP. Fifty-four per cent (150/279) of 5-ASA participants failed to enter remission compared to 58% (144/247) of SASP participants (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.04; 526 participants, 8 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There was no difference in remission rates between once-daily dosing and conventional dosing. Sixty per cent (533/881) of once-daily participants failed to enter clinical remission compared to 61% (538/880) of conventionally-dosed participants (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.06; 1761 participants, 5 studies; high-certainty evidence). Eight per cent (15/179) of participants dosed once daily failed to adhere to their medication regimen compared to 6% (11/179) of conventionally-dosed participants (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.86; 358 participants, 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy among the various 5-ASA formulations. Fifty per cent (507/1022) of participants in the 5-ASA group failed to enter remission compared to 52% (491/946) of participants in the 5-ASA comparator group (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.02; 1968 participants, 11 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events between 5-ASA and placebo, once-daily and conventionally-dosed 5-ASA, and 5-ASA and comparator 5-ASA formulation studies. Common adverse events included flatulence, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache and worsening UC. SASP was not as well tolerated as 5-ASA. Twenty-nine per cent (118/411) of SASP participants experienced an AE compared to 15% (72/498) of 5-ASA participants (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.63; 909 participants, 12 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high-certainty evidence that 5-ASA is superior to placebo, and moderate-certainty evidence that 5-ASA is not more effective than SASP. Considering relative costs, a clinical advantage to using oral 5-ASA in place of SASP appears unlikely. High-certainty evidence suggests 5-ASA dosed once daily appears to be as efficacious as conventionally-dosed 5-ASA. There may be little or no difference in efficacy or safety among the various 5-ASA formulations.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfassalazina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Sulfassalazina/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(5): 38-40, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663183

RESUMO

Background: Extracts from Boswellia serrata gum resin have anti-inflammatory effect and are used for treatment of a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. It was previously demonstrated that the treatment with Boswellia serrata gum resin of LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) patients decreased blood levels of IA2 antibodies, one of the markers associated with LADA autoimmune diabetes. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether Boswellia serrata gum resin also influences GAD65 autoantibodies as the other marker associated with LADA. Methods/Design: We report a case study of male patient diagnosed with LADA with positive GAD65 autoantibodies who was treated with extract from Boswellia serrata gum resin, during 9 months. Blood levels of GAD65 autoantibodies, fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1c were measured before the treatment and periodically during the treatment. Results: Over the observed period, the blood levels of GAD65 autoantibodies linearly decreased about 25%. Conclusion: The study confirms that extract of Boswellia serrata gum resin seems to prevent insulitis in patients with LADA, as indicated by its action on both markers of autoimmune diabetes, i.e., GAD65 and IA2 autoantibodies. The possibility that the treatment with boswellic acids of LADA patients with positive autoantibodies could be beneficial on the course of the disease, calls for further investigation and a clinical study.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Boswellia/química , Glutamato Descarboxilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resinas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Glutamato Descarboxilase/imunologia , Humanos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 562-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to study the association of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: Spine BMD was evaluated in a subset of 2028 participants from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who were NSAID users (including aspirin) and underwent both lumbar and thoracic imaging. Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study that includes 4 ethnic groups (white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic). Trabecular BMD was evaluated by quantitative computed tomography based on cardiac computed tomography images, which were obtained during coronary calcium scans. The analyses were cross sectional using baseline examination data for exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, race, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a small association between trabecular BMD and baseline use of COX-2-selective NSAID was observed. COX-2-selective NSAID use was associated with 7.4 mg/cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.3; P = 0. 013) higher trabecular BMD in thoracic spine and 10.6 mg/cm higher at lumbar spine (95% CI, 5.1-16.1; P < 0.001). Among regular aspirin users, there was no association between drug use and trabecular BMD. Considering all spine fractures together, the prevalence ratio of fractures among aspirin users was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.3) among COX-2-selective NSAID users. CONCLUSIONS: Regular use of aspirin has no significant association with trabecular BMD in either the thoracic or lumbar spine and no association with fracture prevalence. COX-2-selective NSAIDs may have modest positive association with BMD, but the mechanisms were not assessed and the observational study design makes residual confounding a possible alternate explanation. Potential pathological mechanisms warrant further longitudinal exploration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/etnologia
13.
Therapie ; 75(4): 335-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665090

RESUMO

Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major public health problem. To date, there is no evidence of a higher incidence of COVID in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and we support the approach of maintaining chronic rheumatological treatments. However, once infected there is a small but significant increased risk of mortality. Among the different treatments, NSAIDs are associated with higher rates of complications, but data for other drugs are conflicting or incomplete. The use of certain drugs for autoimmune inflammatory rheumatisms appears to be a potentially interesting options for the treatment. The rationale for their use is based on the immune system runaway and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il1, IL6, TNFα) in severe forms of the disease. Notably, patients on chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for their autoimmune rheumatic disease are not protected from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Life Sci ; 256: 118016, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603817

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the most important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), a clinical syndrome with kidney dysfunction and high mortality rates. New diagnostic biomarkers need to be defined to better illuminate the pathophysiology of AKI. For the first time, we aim to investigate the protective effects of Curcumin which is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and 12/15 lipoxygenase inhibitor LOXblock-1 on I/R induced AKI by modulating inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, apoptosis and semaphorin-plexin pathway. MAIN METHODS: The rats were divided into five groups, with eight animals per group: Sham, I/R, I/R + DMSO (1%, i.p.), I/R + Curcumin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), I/R + LOXblock-1 (2 µg/kg, i.p.). KEY FINDINGS: The renal function biomarkers (BUN, CREA and UA) in serum were significantly increased in the I/R group. The inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1), apoptotic (CYCS and CASP3) and oxidative stress parameters (MDA, MPO, TAS and TOS) measured by ELISA were significantly increased in the I/R group. In histopathological analysis, it was observed that I/R caused serious damage to kidney tissue. SEMA3A was found to increase both serum level and mRNA expression in I/R group. It was observed that curcumin and LOXblock-1 reduce inflammatory processes, oxidative stress and apoptosis via the semaphorin-plexin pathway by both measurements and histopathological analysis. Curcumin was proved more effective than LOXblock-1 with its antioxidant feature in I/R injury. SIGNIFICANCE: The current study reveals the protective effects of Curcumin and LOXblock-1 on acute kidney injury by suppressing SEMA3A as a new biomarker.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Semaforina-3A/sangue , Semaforinas/metabolismo
15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 156: 190-199, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653511

RESUMO

Studies have shown that infection, excessive coagulation, cytokine storm, leukopenia, lymphopenia, hypoxemia and oxidative stress have also been observed in critically ill Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients in addition to the onset symptoms. There are still no approved drugs or vaccines. Dietary supplements could possibly improve the patient's recovery. Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), present an anti-inflammatory effect that could ameliorate some patients need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. EPA and DHA replace arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phospholipid membranes. When oxidized by enzymes, EPA and DHA contribute to the synthesis of less inflammatory eicosanoids and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins, maresins and protectins. This reduces inflammation. In contrast, some studies have reported that EPA and DHA can make cell membranes more susceptible to non-enzymatic oxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and increasing the oxidative stress. Although the inflammatory resolution improved by EPA and DHA could contribute to the recovery of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation cannot be recommended before randomized and controlled trials are carried out.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Leucopenia/dietoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/dietoterapia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/metabolismo , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/dietoterapia , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/virologia , Leucopenia/epidemiologia , Leucopenia/metabolismo , Leucopenia/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012129, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma, due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy), or in association with operative vaginal birth, is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding. Aspirin has been used in the management of postpartum perineal pain, and its effectiveness and safety should be assessed. This is an update of the review, last published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a single dose of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), including at different doses, in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (4 October 2019), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (4 October 2019) and screened reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), assessing single dose aspirin compared with placebo, no treatment, a different dose of aspirin, or single dose paracetamol or acetaminophen, for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included RCTs. Data were checked for accuracy. The certainty of the evidence for the main comparison (aspirin versus placebo) was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 RCTs, 16 of which randomised 1132 women to aspirin or placebo; one RCT did not report numbers of women. Two RCTs (of 16) did not contribute data to meta-analyses. All women had perineal pain post-episiotomy, and were not breastfeeding. Studies were published between 1967 and 1997, and the risk of bias was often unclear, due to poor reporting. We included four comparisons: aspirin versus placebo (15 RCTs); 300 mg versus 600 mg aspirin (1 RCT); 600 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin (2 RCTs); and 300 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin (1 RCT). Aspirin versus placebo Aspirin may result in more women reporting adequate pain relief four to eight hours after administration compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69 to 2.42; 13 RCTs, 1001 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether aspirin compared with placebo has an effect on the need for additional pain relief (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.37; 10 RCTs, 744 women; very low-certainty evidence), or maternal adverse effects (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.06; 14 RCTs, 1067 women; very low-certainty evidence), four to eight hours after administration. Analyses based on dose did not reveal any clear subgroup differences. 300 mg versus 600 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four hours after administration, 300 mg compared with 600 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.86; 1 RCT, 81 women) or the need for additional pain relief (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.12 to 3.88; 1 RCT, 81 women). There were no maternal adverse effects in either aspirin group. 600 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four to eight hours after administration, 600 mg compared with 1200 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.39; 2 RCTs, 121 women), the need for additional pain relief (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.30 to 5.68; 2 RCTs, 121 women), or maternal adverse effects (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.52; 2 RCTs, 121 women). 300 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four hours after administration, 300 mg compared with 1200 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.32; 1 RCT, 80 women) or need for additional pain relief (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.19 to 21.18; 1 RCT, 80 women). There were no maternal adverse effects in either aspirin group. None of the included RCTs reported on neonatal adverse effects. No RCTs reported on secondary review outcomes of: prolonged hospitalisation due to perineal pain; re-hospitalisation due to perineal pain; fully breastfeeding at discharge; mixed feeding at discharge; fully breastfeeding at six weeks; mixed feeding at six weeks; perineal pain at six weeks; maternal views; or maternal postpartum depression. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Single dose aspirin may increase adequate pain relief in women with perineal pain post-episiotomy compared with placebo. It is uncertain whether aspirin has an effect on the need for additional analgesia, or on maternal adverse effects, compared with placebo. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence because of study limitations (risk of bias), imprecision, and publication bias. Aspirin may be considered for use in non-breastfeeding women with post-episiotomy perineal pain. Included RCTs excluded breastfeeding women, so there was no evidence to assess the effects of aspirin on neonatal adverse effects or breastfeeding. Future RCTs should be designed to ensure low risk of bias, and address gaps in the evidence, such as the secondary outcomes established for this review. Current research has focused on women with post-episiotomy pain; future RCTs could be extended to include women with perineal pain associated with spontaneous tears or operative birth.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Períneo , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Efeito Placebo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 18(2): 55-62, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193760

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury develops after torsion and following detorsion of the testis. Reactive oxygen species were produced and oxidative damage begins to occur due to I/R process. Nimesulide, which is a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug, have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesics and antipyretic effects. We aimed to investigate biochemically and histopathologically effect of nimesulide on testis I/R injury in rats induced by the testicular torsion-detorsion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 24 albino Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (6 rats in each group): ischemia/reperfusion applied+50mg/kg nimesulide administrated (NIM-50), ischemia/reperfusion applied+100mg/kg nimesulide administrated (NIM-100), ischemia/reperfusion applied (IR) and Sham surgery (SS) groups. Nimesulide was administered to NIM-50 and NIM-100 groups at the 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg doses before 2h applied I/R procedures. The IR group were applied only I/R procedures, no drug treatment was applied. Animals were sacrificed under high dose anesthesia and left testes were extracted. Testes were examined biochemically and histopathologically. RESULTS: Total glutathione (tGSH) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) levels were increased in the NIM-50 and NIM-100 groups compared to IR group. The levels of COX-2, malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were lower in the NIM-50 and NIM-100 groups than in the IR group. Some histopathological changes seen in IR group. This findings were decreased in NIM-50 group and prevented in NIM-100 group. CONCLUSION: Nimesulide prevented inflammation and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that nimesulide may be have a protective effect on testicular I/R injury


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La lesión de isquemia y reperfusión testicular (I/R) se desarrolla después de la torsión y la consiguiente detorsión del testículo. Se produjeron especies reactivas de oxígeno y el daño oxidativo comienza a producirse debido al proceso de I/R. La nimesulida, que es un fármaco inhibidor específico de la ciclooxigenasa 2, tiene efectos antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios, analgésicos y antipiréticos. El objetivo fue investigar el efecto bioquímico e histopatológico de la nimesulida sobre la lesión testicular I/R en ratas inducida por la torsión-detorsión testicular. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En este estudio se dividió a 24 ratas albinas Wistar macho en 4 grupos (6 ratas en cada grupo): isquemia y reperfusión aplicada+50mg/kg de nimesulida administrada (NIM-50), isquemia y reperfusión aplicada+100mg/kg de nimesulida administrada (NIM-100), isquemia y reperfusión aplicada (IR) y cirugía simulada (SS). La nimesulida se administró a los grupos NIM-50 y NIM-100 a las dosis de 50 y 100mg/kg, respectivamente, 2h antes de aplicar los procedimientos de I/R. Al grupo IR se aplicó solo procedimientos I/R, no se aplicó tratamiento farmacológico. Los animales se sacrificaron con anestesia a dosis altas y se extrajeron los testículos izquierdos. Los testículos se examinaron bioquímicamente e histopatológicamente. RESULTADOS: Los niveles totales de glutatión (tGSH) y ciclooxigenasa-1 (COX-1) aumentaron en los grupos NIM-50 y NIM-100 en comparación con el grupo IR. Los niveles de COX-2, malondialdehído (MDA), interleucina 1β (IL-1β) y factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-α) fueron menores en los grupos NIM-50 y NIM-100 que en el grupo IR. Se vieron algunos cambios histopatológicos en el grupo IR. Estos hallazgos disminuyeron en el grupo NIM-50 y se evitaron en el grupo NIM-100. CONCLUSIÓN: La nimesulida previno la inflamación y el estrés oxidativo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la nimesulida puede tener un efecto protector sobre la lesión testicular I/R


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
19.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(2): 131-136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499470

RESUMO

Background: Inappropriate prescribing of analgesics has a global impact on the health of elderly patients and the society. Empirical evidence on the prescription of analgesics among elderly Nigerians is scarce. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of analgesics and describe the co-prescribing of gastroprotective agents with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among elderly patients at the geriatric center, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional, hospital-based study was carried out among elderly patients (≥60 years) who were prescribed analgesics. Using a data extraction sheet, information on demographic characteristics, drug utilization pattern, and morbidities was obtained from patients' case files via electronic health records. Results: A total of 337 patients case files were reviewed, the mean age was 72 ± 8.8 years, and 210 (62.3%) were females. There were a total of 2074 medications prescribed, with 733 (35.3%) being analgesics. Majority of the elderly patients (259, 76.9%) were on nonopioids, with 252 (74.8%) on NSAIDs. Paracetamol was the most commonly prescribed analgesics (181, 24.6%), followed by diclofenac/misoprostol (177, 24.1%), opioid analgesic prescribed was 88 (12.0%), with paracetamol/codeine 58 (65.9%), and tramadol 16 (18.2%) being the most prescribed opioid. A significant proportion of the hypertensive elderly patients (160, 78.8%; P < 0.036) were on NSAIDs. The oral route of administration (302, 89.6%) was the most common route of administration. Majority (310, 92%) of elderly patients taking NSAIDs had a co-prescription for gastroprotective agents. Conclusions: Majority of hypertensive patients were on NSAIDs. This calls for prompt awareness of rational analgesic use among the elderly to improve management and their survival.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Codeína , Estudos Transversais , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tramadol/uso terapêutico
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 827-837, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the associations of aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs with mammographic breast density (MBD) and their interactions in relation to breast cancer risk. METHODS: This study included 3,675 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) cohorts. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) were measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique; all measures were square root-transformed. Information on medication use was collected in 1980 (NHS) and 1989 (NHSII) and updated biennially. Medication use was defined as none, past or current; average cumulative dose and frequency were calculated for all past or current users from all bi-annual questionnaires preceding the mammogram date. We used generalized linear regression to quantify associations of medications with MBD. Two-way interactions were examined in logistic regression models. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, none of the anti-inflammatory medications were associated with PD, DA, and NDA. We found no interactions of any of the medications with PD with respect to breast cancer risk (all p-interactions > 0.05). However, some of the aspirin variables appeared to have positive associations with breast cancer risk limited only to women with PD 10-24% (past aspirin OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.35; current aspirin with < 5 years of use OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.01-3.28; current aspirin with ≥ 5 years of use OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26-2.82). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin and NSAIDs are not associated with breast density measures. We found no interactions of aspirin with MBD in relation to breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Densidade da Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mama/citologia , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA