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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 85-95, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707866

RESUMO

To develop novel anti-inflammatory agents, a series of 5-alkyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-[1, 2, 4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-carboxamide derivatives were designed, synthesised, and evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects using RAW264.7 cells. Structures of the synthesised compounds were determined using 1H NMR, 13 C NMR, and HRMS. All the compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity based on their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO release. Among them, 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-[1, 2, 4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-carboxamide (6p) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited NO release more potently than the lead compound D1. Further studies revealed that compound 6p reduced the levels of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6, and that its anti-inflammatory activity involves the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS and downregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signal pathway. Notably, compound 6p displayed more prominent anti-inflammatory activity than D1 and the positive control ibuprofen in the in vivo acute inflammatory model. Overall, these findings indicate that compound 6p is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammation.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antiulcerosos/síntese química , Antiulcerosos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/síntese química , Quinoxalinas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 187-198, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752552

RESUMO

Twenty novel talmapimod analogues were designed, synthesised and evaluated for the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Among them, compound 6n, the most potent one, was selected for exploring the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory efficacy. In RAW264.7 cells, it effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharides-induced (LPS-induced) expressions of iNOS and COX-2. As illustrated by the western blot analysis, 6n downregulated both the NF-κB signalling and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Further enzymatic assay identified 6n as a potent inhibitor against both p38α MAPK (IC50=1.95 µM) and COX-2 (IC50=0.036 µM). By virtue of the concomitant inhibition of p38α MAPK, its upstream effector, and COX-2, along with its capability to downregulate NF-κB and MAPK-signalling pathways, 6n, a polypharmacological anti-inflammatory agent, deserves further development as a novel anti-inflammatory drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
3.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 19(15): 1219-1254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735158

RESUMO

Nowadays, heterocyclic compounds act as a scaffold and are the backbone of medicinal chemistry. Among all of the heterocyclic scaffolds, 1,4-Dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) is one of the most important heterocyclic rings that possess prominent therapeutic effects in a very versatile manner and plays an important role in synthetic, medicinal, and bioorganic chemistry. The main aim of the study is to review and encompass relevant studies related to 1,4-DHP and excellent therapeutic benefits of its derivatives. An extensive review of Pubmed-Medline, Embase and Lancet's published articles was done to find all relevant studies on the activity of 1,4-DHP and its derivatives. 1,4-DHP is a potent Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) antagonist derivative which acts as an anti-hypertensive, anti- anginal, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-tubercular, anti-cancer, anti-hyperplasia, anti-mutagenic, anti-dyslipidemic, and anti-ulcer agent. From the inferences of the study, it can be concluded that the basic nucleus, 1,4-DHP which is a voltage-gated calcium ion channel blocker, acts as a base for its derivatives that possess different important therapeutic effects. There is a need of further research of this basic nucleus as it is a multifunctional moiety, on which addition of different groups can yield a better drug for its other activities such as anti-convulsant, anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, and anti-microbial. This review would be significant for further researches in the development of several kinds of drugs by representing successful matrix for the medicinal agents.


Assuntos
Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Di-Hidropiridinas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6115-6123, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colon cancer is the second most common deadliest malignancy in the world and better understanding of its underlying mechanisms is needed to improve clinical management. Natural plant extracts are gaining attention in the development of new therapeutic strategies against various cancer types. Shikonin is a naturally extracted naphthoquinone pigment with effects against cancer, including colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we conducted a series of in vitro experiments to show the effects of Shikonin on colon cancer cell apoptosis. A colon cancer cell line with overexpression of peroxiredoxin V (PrxV) was constructed and the relationship of PrxV expression with Shikonin-induced cell apoptosis was investigated. RESULTS: Shikonin induced colon cancer cell apoptosis via regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Shikonin-induced cell apoptosis was abrogated by overexpression of PrxV. CONCLUSION: According to the results obtained in this study, targeting PrxV may provide new insight for the successful management of colon cancer by inducing cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1098-1103, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683394

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the status of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use in areas with a high incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancer in China. Methods: This study was based on the National Key Research and Development Program of "National Precision Medicine Cohort of Esophageal Cancer" and "Study on Identification and Prevention of High-risk Populations of Gastrointestinal Malignancies (Esophageal cancer, Gastric cancer and Colorectal cancer)" . From January 2017 to August 2018, 212 villages or communities with a high incidence of esophageal cancer or gastric cancer were selected from 12 regions in 6 provinces. A total of 35 910 residents aged between 40 and 69 years old who met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent were investigated and enrolled in this study. The use of NSAIDs, demographic characteristics, health-related habits, height, weight, and blood pressure were collected by the questionnaire and physical examination. The status of main NSAIDs (aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen) use with the difference varying in genders, age groups and regions were analyzed by using χ(2) test and Cochran-Armitage trend analysis method. Results: Of 35 910 subjects, the mean age was (54.6±7.1) years old and males accounted for 43.42% (15 591). The overall prevalence of NSAIDs intake was 4.56% (1 638), but it significantly varied in different provinces (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of NSAIDs intake was 4.87% (1 750) in females, which was significantly higher than that in males 4.24% (1 524) (P<0.001). The prevalence of NSAIDs intake increased with age (P for trend <0.001). As the frequency of NSAIDs intake increased, the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, gastrointestinal ulcers and black stools increased (P for trend <0.05 for all). Conclusion: The use of NSAIDs is prevalent in some areas with a high incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancer in China. The increased use of NSAIDs may lead to more adverse effects related to the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anticarcinógenos/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etnologia , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Life Sci ; 237: 116947, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605708

RESUMO

AIMS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of opportunistic and hospital-acquired infections worldwide, which is frequently linked with clinical treatment difficulties. Ibuprofen, a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been previously reported to exert antimicrobial activity with the specific mechanism. We hypothesized that inhibition of P. aeruginosa with ibuprofen is involved in the quorum sensing (QS) systems. MAIN METHODS: CFU was utilized to assessed the growth condition of P. aeruginosa. Crystal violent staining and acridine orange staining was used to evaluate the biofilm formation and adherence activity. The detection of QS virulence factors such as pyocyanin, elastase, protease, and rhamnolipids were applied to investigation the anti-QS activity of ibuprofen against P. aeruginosa. The production of 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL was confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. qRT-PCR was used to identify the QS-related gene expression. Furthermore, we explored the binding effects between ibuprofen and QS-associated proteins with molecular docking. KEY FINDINGS: Ibuprofen inhibits P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and adherence activity. And the inhibitory effects of ibuprofen on C4-HSL levels were concentration-dependent (p < 0.05), while it has no effect on 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Moreover, ibuprofen attenuates the production of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa (p < 0.05). In addition, the genes of QS system were decreased after the ibuprofen treatment (p < 0.05). Of note, ibuprofen was binding with LuxR, LasR, LasI, and RhlR at high binding scores. SIGNIFICANCE: The antibiofilm and anti-QS activity of ibuprofen suggest that it can be a candidate drug for the treatment of clinical infections with P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Life Sci ; 236: 116939, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593705

RESUMO

Taxifolin (TAX) reportedly exerts protective and therapeutic effects in liver. Herein, the effects of TAX against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacology and metabolomics analyses of TAX were assessed on C57 mice and L-02 cells. TAX was administered for 7 days, and APAP was given on the last day to establish an acute liver injury model. ALT and AST levels were determined, and liver ROS, MDA, GST, GSH and GPX1 were analysed. The expression and protein abundance of GPX1, GPS-Pi, GCLC and GCLM were assessed by PCR and western blotting, and metabolic changes in cells and serum were investigated by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS. Serum ALT and AST, and liver ROS, MDA, GST, GSH and GPX1 levels confirmed the protective effects of TAX. Besides, we found Only treating with TAX decreased the expression of CYP2E1 in mice liver tissue. TAX reversed the APAP-induced decrease in cell viability in L-02 cells, and reduced cellular ROS levels. Furthermore, TAX reversed the APAP-induced decrease in antioxidant enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels. Metabolomics analysis identified metabolites mainly related to glutathione metabolism (36 in vivo and 23 in vitro). The concentration of glutathione, oxidized glutathione, carnitine, succinic acid, pyroglutamic acid, citrulline, taurine, palmitoleic acid, phytoshingosine-1-P and sphingosine-1-P were close to normal levels after treating with TAX. These results indicate that TAX prevents APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation mediated by CYP450 enzymes, modulating glutathione metabolism, and expression of related antioxidative signals. These properties could be harnessed to prevent or treat hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Glutationa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 237: 116925, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610201

RESUMO

Inflammatory disorders result from abnormal immune response and their incidence has increased recently. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover new treatments for inflammatory disorders. In recent years, the natural products contained in Chinese herbs have attracted much attention worldwide owing to their anti-inflammatory effects. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a bioactive compound purified from the Chinese herb Paeonia lactiflora and reports have recently emerged suggesting the great potential of P. lactiflora as an agent to counter inflammatory disorders. The anti-inflammatory effects of PF have been revealed by in vitro studies and in vivo animal experiments of different inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and asthma. This review systematically describes the recent progress of studies on the mechanism of PF and its therapeutic potential in inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
Life Sci ; 237: 116915, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610207

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of the study was to determine whether ß-caryophyllene (BCP) exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting microglial activation and modulating their polarization via the TLR4 pathway. MAIN METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (KO) C57BL/6J mice were subjected to cerebral I/R injury and neurologic dysfunction, cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, microglia activation and polarization, and TLR4 expression were determined. In vitro, primary microglia were stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ or IL-4 to induce polarization of microglia toward M1 or M2 phenotypes. KEY FINDINGS: BCP reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, and neurologic deficits in WT mice after I/R. The optimal dose of BCP, 72 mg/kg body weight, inhibited microglial activation and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 by microglia of WT mice. BCP inhibited the level of TLR4 in WT mice, and partially reduced neurologic deficits, infarct volume, and brain edema in TLR4 KO mice. Importantly, BCP reduced the number of activated M1-type microglia and increased the number of M2-type microglia in the ipsilateral cortex of both WT and TLR4 KO mice. In vitro, BCP decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS plus IFN-γ, downregulated the level of TLR4 protein, and polarized microglia towards the M2 phenotype. SIGNIFICANCES: The decrease in TLR4 activity mediated, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP and its ability to shift microglia polarization from the M1 to M2 phenotype.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(76): 11358-11361, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482158

RESUMO

We report on a dual ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for in situ sensing of mitochondrial CE activity and pH. Using the probe it is possible to visualize the CE-mediated acidification of hepatoma cells and hepatic tissues during medication with antipyretic anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Carboxilesterase/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Fótons , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(36): 20211-20218, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486459

RESUMO

In spite of their well-known side effects, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly prescribed medications for their antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions. Interaction of NSAIDs with the plasma membrane plays a vital role in their therapeutic actions and defines many of their side effects. In the present study, we investigate the effects of three NSAIDs, aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin, on the structure and dynamics of a model plasma membrane using a combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) techniques. The SANS and NSE measurements were carried out on a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membrane, with and without NSAIDs, at two different temperatures, 11 °C and 37 °C, where the DMPC membrane is in the gel and fluid phase, respectively. SANS data analysis shows that incorporation of NSAIDs leads to bilayer thinning of the membrane in both the phases. The dynamic properties of the membrane are represented by the intermediate scattering functions for NSE data, which are successfully described by the Zilman and Granek model. NSE data analysis shows that in both gel and fluid phases, addition of NSAIDs results in a decrease in the bending rigidity and compressibility modulus of the membrane, which is more prominent when the membrane is in the gel phase. The magnitude of the effect of NSAIDs on the bending rigidity and compressibility modulus of the membrane in the gel phase follows an order of ibuprofen > aspirin > indomethacin, whereas in the fluid phase, it is in the order of aspirin > ibuprofen > indomethacin. We find that the interaction between NSAIDs and phospholipid membranes is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of the drugs and physical state of the membrane. Mechanical properties of the membrane can be quantified by the membrane's bending rigidity. Hence, the present study reveals that incorporation of NSAIDs modulates the mechanical properties of the membrane, which may affect several physiological processes, particularly those linked to the membrane curvature.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Estruturas da Membrana Celular/química , Estruturas da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nêutrons , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo
12.
Life Sci ; 233: 116750, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408659

RESUMO

AIM: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most widespread inflammatory arthropathy, which causes severe disability. It is highly important to ameliorate the side effects caused by different drugs used to treat RA. Therefore, this study assessed the potential role of ß-caryophyllene (BCP) in treating adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), increasing the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) and/or leflunomide (LEF), and ameliorating their side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: AIA was induced in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant. The rats were divided into different groups such as sham group; control group; monotherapy groups, including BCP (300 mg/kg), MTX (1 mg/kg), and LEF (10 mg/kg); and combined groups, including MTX + BCP, LEF + BCP, MTX + LEF, and MTX + LEF + BCP groups. KEY FINDINGS: Monotherapy with BCP or MTX or LEF as well as MTX + LEF significantly reduced paw thickness and arthritic index; the histopathological changes in hind paw joints were recovered; and oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in arthritic rats were reduced. The co-administration of BCP and MTX and/or LEF significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of MTX and/or LEF and significantly reduced the myelosuppressive and hepatotoxic effects of MTX and/or LEF. Taken together, BCP could be used with MTX and/or LEF for the treatment of RA to reduce the side effects of the drugs and increase their efficacy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Leflunomida/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leflunomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111604, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425910

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory glycolipids, among which α-galactosylceramide (KRN7000) is an iconic example, have shown strong therapeutic potential in a variety of conditions ranging from cancer and infection to autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. A main difficulty for those channels is that they often provoke a cytokine storm comprising both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators that antagonize each other and negatively affect the immune response. The synthesis of analogues with narrower cytokine secretion-inducing capabilities is hampered by the intrinsic difficulty at controlling the stereochemical outcome in glycosidation reactions, particularly if targeting the α-anomer, which seriously hampers drug optimization strategies. Here we show that replacing the monosaccharide glycone by a sp2-iminosugar glycomimetic moiety allows accessing N-linked sp2-iminosugar glycolipids (sp2-IGLs) with total α-stereocontrol in a single step with no need of protecting groups or glycosidation promotors. The lipid tail has been then readily tailored by incorporating polyfluoroalkyl segments of varied lengths in view of favouring binding to the lipid binding site of the master p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), thereby polarizing the immune response in a cell-context dependent manner. The compounds have been evaluated for their antiproliferative, anti-leishmanial and anti-inflammatory activities in different cell assays. The size of the fluorous segment was found to be critical for the biological activity, probably by regulating the aggregation and membrane-crossing properties, whereas the hydroxylation profile (gluco or galacto-like) was less relevant. Biochemical and computational data further support a mechanism of action implying binding to the allosteric lipid binding site of p38 MAPK and subsequent activation of the noncanonical autophosphorylation route. The ensemble of results provide a proof of concept of the potential of sp2-IGLs as immunoregulators.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicolipídeos/síntese química , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imino Açúcares/síntese química , Imino Açúcares/química , Imino Açúcares/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/síntese química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109582, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442803

RESUMO

Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), widely used as a plasticizer, is a ubiquitous artificial pollutant. DEHP can induce biological toxicity in various organs, with an especially high potential for toxicity to the cardiovascular system. Taxifolin (TAX) is used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative capacities. However, it is not clear whether TAX can alleviate apoptosis induced by DEHP exposure through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in cardiomyocytes. To understand the role of TAX in attenuating cardiomyocyte toxicity induced by DEHP, primary cardiomyocytes were divided into 4 groups (control group, DEHP group, TAX group and DEHP + TAX group). The results showed that in the cardiomyocytes, DEHP initiated apoptosis by increasing the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, cyt c, and Bax at both the mRNA and protein levels and by decreasing the Bcl-2 levels compared with that of the control group. In addition, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were clearly decreased (P < 0.05), while in the DEHP group, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were observably increased (P < 0.05), compared with those in control group. Furthermore, compared with the control group, the DEHP group demonstrated a clear partial decrease in the expression of the mRNA levels of CYP1B1 and CYP2C18 (P < 0.05), and DEHP/TAX cotreatment partially prevented apoptosis and oxidative stress damage (P < 0.05). These results showed that exposure to DEHP induced apoptosis in chicken cardiomyocytes, while TAX could antagonize the toxicity of DEHP on cardiomyocytes by attenuating oxidative stress responses and modulating CYPs.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Homeostase , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3453-3463, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444923

RESUMO

Targeting the function of membrane transporters in cancer stemlike cells is a potential new therapeutic approach. Cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT expressed in CD44 variant (CD44v)-expressing cancer cells contributes to the resistance to oxidative stress as well as cancer therapy through promoting glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant defense. Amino acid transport by xCT might, thus, be a promising target for cancer treatment, whereas the determination factors for cancer cell sensitivity to xCT-targeted therapy remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that high expression of xCT and glutamine transporter ASCT2 is correlated with undifferentiated status and diminished along with cell differentiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The cytotoxicity of the xCT inhibitor sulfasalazine relies on ASCT2-dependent glutamine uptake and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD)-mediated α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) production. Metabolome analysis revealed that sulfasalazine treatment triggers the increase of glutamate-derived tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α-KG, in addition to the decrease of cysteine and GSH content. Furthermore, ablation of GLUD markedly reduced the sulfasalazine cytotoxicity in CD44v-expressing stemlike HNSCC cells. Thus, xCT inhibition by sulfasalazine leads to the impairment of GSH synthesis and enhancement of mitochondrial metabolism, leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and, thereby, triggers oxidative damage. Our findings establish a rationale for the use of glutamine metabolism (glutaminolysis)-related genes, including ASCT2 and GLUD, as biomarkers to predict the efficacy of xCT-targeted therapy for heterogeneous HNSCC tumors.


Assuntos
Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Adesão Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/análise , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111601, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445233

RESUMO

The cyclic enaminone moiety has been identified as a new scaffold for selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The designed cyclic enaminones have been synthesized conveniently through the development of a new catalyst-free methodology and evaluated for cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activities. Three compounds 7d, 8, and 9 predominantly inhibited COX-2 with selectivity index of 74.09, 19.45 and 108.68, respectively, and were assessed for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of 7d was comparable to that of celecoxib at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg. However, the compounds 8 and 9 were more/equally effective as anti-inflammatory agent compared to celecoxib at the doses of 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that of diclofenac. The therapeutic potential of the most active compound 9 was further assessed by performing in vivo thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia tests using various models that revealed its analgesic activity. The in vivo non-ulcerogenicity of 9 revealed the gastrointestinal safety as compared to the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin. The in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo experiments on heart rate and blood pressure provided the cardiovascular safety profile of 9. The molecular docking studies rationalize the COX-2 selectivity of the newly found anti-inflammatory compounds 7d, 8, and 9.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/síntese química , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Carragenina , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 1015-1031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468464

RESUMO

Taurine haloamines (N-chlorotaurine, N-bromotaurine) due to their strong antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties are good candidates for topical application in treatment of skin inflammatory/infectious disorders. Recently, we have demonstrated that more stable N-bromotaurine analogs (N-dibromo-dimethyl taurine, N-monobromo-dimethyl taurine) and bromamine T show strong microbicidal and anti-inflammatory properties at concentrations well tolerated by human cells and tissue. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity are commonly used in various inflammatory diseases. However, systemic administration of NSAIDs may result in adverse side effects. For example, the use of ibuprofen in children with varicella is associated with enhanced serum levels of TNF-α and with increased risk of necrotizing soft tissue infections and secondary skin infections caused by invasive streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine combined immunomodulatory effects of bromamines and ibuprofen on J774.A1 macrophages. We have shown that the primary activity of ibuprofen, the inhibition of PGE2 production by activated macrophages was intensified in the presence of bromamines. Most importantly, the stimulatory effect of ibuprofen on production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) was inhibited by all tested bromamines. These observations indicate that bromamines may neutralize massive production of TNF-α at sites of inflammation, a side effect of ibuprofen. Therefore, we suggest that systemic administration of ibuprofen (NSAIDs) in treatment of inflammatory/infectious skin diseases should be supported by topical application of bromamines as an adjunctive therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Taurina/farmacologia
18.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(7): 474-485, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365139

RESUMO

The effect of quercetin was assessed in rats induced with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis scores, paw oedema, latency, activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), and ectoadenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in lymphocytes were determined. Furthermore, nucleotide and nucleoside levels as well as the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Animals were treated with saline and quercetin in doses of 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg for 45 days. The result revealed that quercetin (50 mg/kg) reduced arthritis score and paw oedema, and increased the latency in the thermal hyperalgesia test. Histopathological analysis showed that all the doses of quercetin reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. MPO activity was increased in the arthritis group; however, quercetin reduced this activity. E-NTPDase activity was increased in lymphocytes of arthritis rats, and treatment with quercetin reversed this increase. However, E-ADA activity was reduced in the arthritis group, and treatment with quercetin modulated the activity of this enzyme in arthritis rat groups. Serum adenosine levels were increased in arthritis, and the levels were lowered with quercetin treatment. Quercetin treatment in arthritis groups decreased the elevated levels of cytokines in the arthritis control group. Thus, quercetin demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect, and this flavonoid may be a promising natural compound for the treatment of arthritis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Quercetin may represent a potential therapeutic compound in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Findings from this study indicate that quercetin suppresses swelling and attenuates the underlying inflammatory responses. This is the first report where quercetin was shown to modulate the immune response to arthritis via attenuation of the purinergic system (E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities) and the levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4. Thus, this work is relevant to basic research and may be translated into clinical practice.


Assuntos
AMP Desaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , AMP Desaminase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 54(7): 464-469, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365959

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of parthenolide on estradiol-synthesizing enzyme, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and ER isoforms,VEGF in human endometriotic stromal cells. Methods: Primary endometriotic stromal cells were treated with different concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L) of parthenolide. The mRNA of StAR, ER isoforms (ERα and ERß), PR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1, TNFR2 were measured by real-time PCR. The levels of estradiol and progesterone in the cell supernatant were measured by ELISA. Results: Different concentrations of parthenolide could up-regulate the mRNA of StAR in primary endometriotic stromal cells (F=5.722, P<0.05); the mRNA of StAR in the group of 20 µmol/L was significantly higher than that of the control group [2.6±0.3 versus 1.0, P<0.01]. Different concentrations of parthenolide could down-regulate the mRNA of ERα (F=6.921, P<0.01); the mRNA of ERα in the group of 20 µmol/L and 10 µmol/L were significantly lower than those of the control group [0.2±0.3 versus 0.3±0.3 versus 1.0, all P<0.05]. Different concentrations of parthenolide could down-regulate the ratios of ERα/ERß mRNA levels (F=4.209, P<0.05). Different concentrations of parthenolide could up-regulate the mRNA of VEGF and TNFR1 (F=10.964, P<0.01; F=7.286, P<0.01). There were no statiscal significances with different concentrations of parthenolide on the mRNA of ERß, PR, IL-6, TNFα and TNFR2, and the levels of estradiol and progesterone in the cell supernatant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Parthenolide may regulate the expression of estradiol-synthesizing enzyme, ER isoforms and angiogenesis in endometriotic stromal cells. Parthenolide may promote the development of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Endometriose , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Endometriose/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Estradiol , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 233: 116666, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325427

RESUMO

AIM: Pirfenidone (PFD) has been used as medication for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis due to its ability in reducing lung fibrosis. However, the underlying mode of action in renal fibrosis during chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD) requires further investigation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effects of PFD on renal injury induced by CRAD. MAIN METHODS: Initially, the CRAD rat model was established, followed by the intragastric administration of PFD to the rats. Urine and blood samples were collected and tested against indicators of renal functions. The renal tissues were microscopically observed to determine the changes in pathological morphology. The anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidant properties of PFD were explored in the setting of CRAD. KEY FINDINGS: The success rate of model establishment was 92.31%, which was reflected by weight loss, appetite loss, faded fur, and retarded reaction, with the symptoms found to exacerbate with time. PFD treatment could improve renal function, ameliorate inflammation and renal fibrosis as well as promote the anti-oxidant ability of renal allograft, indicating its potential role as an effective therapeutic agent for CRAD. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, PFD was found to have renoprotective effects on renal injury induced by CRAD, which resulted in the alleviation of inflammation and renal fibrosis, providing novelty for CRAD clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Aloenxertos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Fibrose/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew
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