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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1862-1870, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290324

RESUMO

Plant sterol (PS) (1 g/100 mL) enriched milk-based fruit beverages with or without galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (1.8 g/100 mL) were used in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Their potential cytopreventive effect against oxidative stress induced by cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and their anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated. Preincubation (24 h) with bioaccessible fractions from beverages without and with GOS (MfB and MfB-G) completely prevented the COPs (60 µM/4 h) induced oxidative stress independent to GOS presence with exception to calcium influx and GSH content, where a partial protective effect was observed. Besides, MfB produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of IL-8 (40%) and IL-6 (50%) after IL-1ß-induction (1 ng/mL/24 h) through the inhibition of NF-κB p65 translocation into the nucleus (16%) compared to control cells, while GOS presence compromised their anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, PS-enriched milk-based fruit beverage could be an interesting strategy to prevent intestinal injury produced by COPs and to attenuate the pro-inflammatory process in intestinal human diseases. GOS addition had no extra beneficial antioxidant effect and even reduced their anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Bebidas/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fitosteróis/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112282, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604138

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Extracts of Smilax campestris Griseb (Smilacaceae) have been employed in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases as a traditional herbal medicine. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the observed effects remain elusive. Macrophages are known to play a central role in inflammatory responses. These cells are activated in response to a diversity of danger signals and produce several mediators of inflammation that eventually regulate the immune response. For all the above mentioned, scientific evidence is required to support the popular use of S. campestris. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of S. campestris aqueous extract (SME) in activated THP-1 human macrophages, on the production of some mediators of inflammation and oxidative stress in order to provide scientific support for its popular use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of SME was assessed by HPLC-MS/MS. The production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was evaluated by ELISA. The activity of metalloproteases was evaluated by zymography. The subcellular localization of the NF-κB transcription factor was analysed by Western blot. The superoxide anion and glutathione levels were assessed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity induced by SME in THP-1 macrophages was also investigated by the LDH release test. RESULTS: In the present study, we have identified catechin and glycosylated derivatives of quercetin (quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, rutin and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) as major components of the aqueous SME. We found that SME significantly decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and the activity of the metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages derived from the monocytic cell line THP-1. Furthermore, SME diminished the expression of NF-κB p65 subunit in the nuclear fraction. In addition, SME decreased the production of superoxide anion in THP-1 macrophages, without altering the levels of reduced glutathione. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in human activated macrophages by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases and the NF-κB transcription factor pathway along with a reduction of oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, catechin and glycosylated derivatives of were identified by HPLC-MS/MS in SME. Our findings provide scientific support for the traditional use of the S. campestris extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Smilax/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Argentina , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/química
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36887-36902, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745804

RESUMO

The occurrence of anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals (AIAPs) in the effluents of 16 hospitals, influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the contribution and mass load of each hospital to WWTP influent, and the removal efficiencies in WWTP were investigated. Environmental risk was also evaluated by toxicity tests using organisms from three different trophic levels. Acetaminophen had the highest concentration in summer and winter samples, followed by ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. The total daily load of AIAPs detected in influent of WWTP was 1677 mg/day/1000 inhabitants in summer and 5074 mg/day/1000 inhabitants in winter. The contribution of 16 hospitals to the total AIAP load in influent of WWTP was 11.30% in summer and 7.09% in winter. The highest mass loads were calculated as 203 mg/bed.day in general hospital in summer and 300 mg/bed.day in pediatric hospital in winter. The removal efficiencies of AIAPs in WWTP ranged between 13% and 100% in summer and 0.88% and 99% in winter. WWTP is not sufficient to remove all the AIAPs. Diclofenac (in summer), mefenamic acid, indomethacin, and phenylbutazone exhibited poor removal below 50%. The effluents of the WWTP exhibited a low risk for fish and Daphnia magna and an insignificant risk for algae.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Diclofenaco , Hospitais , Humanos , Ibuprofeno , Cetoprofeno , Naproxeno , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estações do Ano , Águas Residuárias/análise
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109968, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622855

RESUMO

In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated, and applied for measuring cortisol in human hair. Baseline levels of cortisol in hair were taken from 12 control subjects, with concentrations for adult controls (n = 8) of 1.7 to 9.1 pg/mg and a median of 4.7 pg/mg and for child controls (n = 4) of 1.1 to 7.2 pg/mg and a median of 3.1 pg/mg. However, the concentrations in the hair of two children whose mother had been applying a cortisol-containing hand cream 2-3 times per week ranged from 30 to 390 pg/mg. No external contamination was observed with the children as judged from wash water concentrations. The mother had hair cortisol concentrations of 80-220 pg/mg. External contamination was observed in her proximal hair segments (0-4 cm) but not in distal ones (8-12 cm). In an experiment, cortisol cream (1%) was applied on the fingers of a subject, who then scratched the head hair once in a while. Hair was collected 1, 5, and 30 days after exposure to the cream. The cortisol level in the hair one day after exposure was 20-186 times higher than the pre-exposure level. High levels in the wash fraction agreed with external contamination. Cortisol concentrations in the hair at 5 and 30 days after exposure were 15-38 and 9-11 times higher, respectively, than the pre-exposure levels. However, no external contamination was suggested from the wash water concentrations in the hair collected 5 and 30 days after exposure. The results showed that the externally applied cortisol had, after some time, been incorporated into the hair matrix and was not removed by a pre-analysis washing. Therefore, the use of a standard decontamination procedure prior to analysis of hair may not be able to prevent the spread of cortisol from applied hand cream within a family.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Creme para a Pele , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Família , Feminino , Dermatoses da Mão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480762

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the lipophilicity of selected antiparasitic, antihypertensive and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by means of reversed phase-thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) as well by using Soczewinski-Wachtmeister's and J. Oscik's equations. The lipophilicity parameters of all examined compounds obtained under various chromatographic systems (i.e., methanol-water and acetone-water, respectively) and those determined on the basis of Soczewinski-Wachtmeister's and Oscik's equations (i.e., RMWS and RMWO) were compared with the theoretical ones (e.g., AlogPs, AClogP, milogP, AlogP, MlogP, XlogP2, XlogP3) and the experimental value of the partition coefficient (logPexp). It was found that the RMWS parameter may be a good alternative tool in describing the lipophilic nature of biologically active compounds with a high and low lipophilicity (i.e., antihypertensive and antiparasitic drugs). Meanwhile, the RMWO was more suitable for compounds with a medium lipophilicity (i.e., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). The chromatographic parameter 0(a) can be helpful for the prediction of partition coefficients, i.e., AClogP, XlogP3, as well as logPexp of examined compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , Antiparasitários/análise , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Lipídeos/química
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109315, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545256

RESUMO

Qingyan formulation (QF) is a common preparation that is often used to control inflammation in the haze environment. However, the efficacy and effective constituents of QF are still uncertain and difficult to identify. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy by simulating a haze environment and determine its anti-inflammatory compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS combing with bioactivity screening. The therapeutic effect of QF in the simulated haze environment was confirmed from the aspects of lung histomorphology and inflammatory factor expression levels. QF showed strong anti-inflammatory activity with the minimum effective concentration reaching 1.5 g/kg. Potential anti-inflammatory components were screened by the NF-κB activity assay system and simultaneously identified based on mass spectral data. Then, the potential active compounds were verified by molecular biological methods, the minimum effective concentration can reach 0.1 mg/L. Six structural types of NF-κB inhibitors (phenolic acid, scopolamine, hydroxycinnamic acid, flavonoid, dihydroflavone and steroid) were identified. Further cytokine assays confirmed their potential anti-inflammatory effects of NF-κB inhibitors. This strategy clearly demonstrates that QF has a significant therapeutic effect on respiratory diseases caused by haze, so it is necessary to promote its commercialization and wider application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fumaça , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/patologia , Brônquios/fisiopatologia , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquite/patologia , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiopatologia
7.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(11): e4635, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257616

RESUMO

Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. is traditionally used as a raw material for making dumplings or steamed stuffed buns, and its fresh leaves are boiled with water for tea. Herein, we established an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) combined with characteristic ion filtration (CIF) strategy to rapidly screen active ingredients with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in G. procumbens. This strategy involved screening the active part of G. procumbens using antioxidation and anti-inflammatory activity assays; discovering the active compounds by speculating on the active site's chemical composition by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS plus CIF; and verifying the active compounds' activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EEAF) of G. procumbens was the major active site. Eighty-one compounds were identified from the EEAF using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS plus CIF. Furthermore, polyphenols such as cynarine, isochlorogenic acids A and isochlorogenic acids C have excellent antioxidizing and anti-inflammatory activities. This study provides a practical strategy for rapid in vitro screening of the antioxidizing and anti-inflammatory activities of traditional vegetables and herbs and identification of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Food Chem ; 299: 125124, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288163

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a key role in diseases such as diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Diet can influence different stages of inflammation and can have an important impact on several inflammatory diseases. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that polyphenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, which are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, or cocoa, can have anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoids can inhibit regulatory enzymes or transcription factors important for controlling mediators involved in inflammation. Flavonoids are also known as potent antioxidants with the potential to attenuate tissue damage or fibrosis. Consequently, numerous studies in vitro and in animal models have found that flavonoids have the potential to inhibit the onset and development of inflammatory diseases. In the present review, we focused in flavonoids, the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, to give an overview of the most recent scientific knowledge about their impact on different inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cacau/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dieta , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Verduras/química
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 162, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baltic amber teething necklaces have been popularized as a safe and natural alternative to conventional or pharmacological medicines for the management of teething pain. However, claims made by retailers regarding the efficacy and mechanism of action of these necklaces lack scientific or clinical basis. The claim most closely resembling science is the assertion that succinic acid will leach out of the beads and through the skin of the wearer and carry out anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The objective of the current research is to scientifically assess this claim. METHODS: Beads from necklaces were powdered for identification by infrared spectroscopy, and dissolved in sulfuric acid for quantification of succinic acid using HPLC. Succinic acid release from beads was assessed by long-term submersion of amber beads (separated according to light, medium and dark brown colour) in solvents relevant to human skin conditions. The potential for succinic acid to have anti-inflammatory effects was assessed by measuring the release of inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNFα, and the inflammatory messenger PGE2, from THP-1 human macrophages after treatment with succinic acid and LPS. RESULTS: Amber teething necklaces were positively identified as Baltic amber, by comparison of the beads' infrared spectrum to the literature, and by their succinic acid content (1.5 mg per bead; 1.44% w/w). However, whole amber beads submerged in octanol or pH 5.5 phosphate buffered saline did not release any measurable succinic acid, except for the light-coloured beads in octanol which broke into tiny fragments. Additionally, treatment of macrophages with succinic acid did not reduce the release of any inflammatory cytokines measured, and displayed toxicity to the cells at high concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: While amber teething necklaces are genuine Baltic amber, we have found no evidence to suggest that the purported active ingredient succinic acid could be released from the beads into human skin. Additionally, we found no evidence to suggest that succinic acid has anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Âmbar/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Ácido Succínico/análise , Âmbar/química , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Erupção Dentária
10.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261645

RESUMO

In recent years, the consumption of chocolate and, in particular, dark chocolate has been "rehabilitated" due to its high content of cocoa antioxidant polyphenols. Although it is recognized that regular exercise improves energy metabolism and muscle performance, excessive or unaccustomed exercise may induce cell damage and impair muscle function by triggering oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. The aim of this review was to revise the available data from literature on the effects of cocoa polyphenols on exercise-associated tissue damage and impairment of exercise performance. To this aim, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched with the following keywords: "intervention studies", "cocoa polyphenols", "exercise training", "inflammation", "oxidative stress", and "exercise performance". We selected thirteen randomized clinical trials on cocoa ingestion that involved a total of 200 well-trained athletes. The retrieved data indicate that acute, sub-chronic, and chronic cocoa polyphenol intake may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress but not inflammation, while mixed results are observed in terms of exercise performance and recovery. The interpretation of available results on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of cocoa polyphenols remains questionable, likely due to the variety of physiological networks involved. Further experimental studies are mandatory to clarify the role of cocoa polyphenol supplementation in exercise-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Chocolate/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercício , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosite/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/análise , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miosite/etiologia , Miosite/metabolismo , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 277-286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278560

RESUMO

Obesity is a major worldwide health threat. It is characterized by an abnormal adipose tissue overgrowth together with increased monocytes infiltration, causing inflammation and oxidative stress, events associated with several illnesses. Investigations have focused on the benefits of native fruit consumption, claiming these to be natural sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics. It has been widely stated that berries are a source of the most antioxidant compounds, and, thus, seem highly promising to endure research efforts on these vegetal matrices. The present article describes botanical, chemical and biomedical features of the Chilean native berries, Aristotelia chilensis, Ugni molinae, and Berberis microphylla. This work aims to potentiate incoming research focused on the search for novel treatments for first-order diseases with these particular plant sources.


Assuntos
Berberis/química , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Frutas/química , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chile , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344979

RESUMO

The bamboo shoot of Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) Keng f. is a medicinal and edible plant product in China. In this study, the chemical composition of the total alkaloids from bamboo shoots and bamboo shoot shells of P. amarus (Keng) Keng f. (ABSP and ABSSP, respectively) were separated and investigated by UHPLC/QTOF-MS/MS. The results showed that a total of 32 alkaloids were extracted, with 15 common to both ABSP and ABSSP and 10 and 7 alkaloids distinct to ABSP and ABSSP, respectively. ABSP and ABSSP both decreased the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 µg/mL)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 murine macrophages with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 78 and 55 µg/mL, respectively. We also found that ABSP and ABSSP (100 µg/mL) could decrease the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both mRNA and protein levels in LPS-exposed RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, 100 µg/mL of ABSP and ABSSP also significantly inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Additionally, ABSP and ABSSP (100 µg/mL) decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, the total alkaloids from the bamboo shoots and shells of P. amarus exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells through the inhibition of ERK signaling. This result can provide support for the medicinal use and further study of P. amarus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Sasa/química , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Análise Espectral
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1847130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240205

RESUMO

Over years, various biological constituents are isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine and confirmed to show multifunctional activities. Magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl natural compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, has been extensively documented and shows a range of biological activities. Many signaling pathways include, but are not limited to, NF-κB/MAPK, Nrf2/HO-1, and PI3K/Akt pathways, which are implicated in the biological functions mediated by magnolol. Thus, magnolol is considered as a promising therapeutic agent for clinic research. However, the low water solubility, the low bioavailability, and the rapid metabolism of magnolol dramatically limit its clinical application. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the last five-year progress of the biological activities of magnolol, including anti-inflammatory, antimicroorganism, antioxidative, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardiovascular protection, metabolism regulation, and ion-mediating activity.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignanas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnolia/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/análise , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(6): 565-574, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209500

RESUMO

Eucalyptus barks contain complex biomass of constituents with considerable chemical and structural diversity. Reports about Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls bark composition and biological activities are limited. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-PDA-MS) enabled first-time detection of 41 secondary metabolites of which 31 were identified including; 6 flavonoids, 4 ellagic acid derivatives, 8 triterpenes, 10 fatty acids and 3 miscellaneous. The isolation and structure elucidation of methyl morolate, ß-sitosterol, syringaldeyhde and 7'-deoxyguajavadial A were reported. The bark methylene chloride: methanol (8:2) extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity through membrane stabilization, protein denaturation inhibition, anti-lipoxygenase, and proteinase inhibition assays. The strongest anti-inflammatory activity was via membrane stabilization (34.4%) as compared to diclofenac sodium (26%) at the same concentration (125 µg/mL). Our study represents the sole complete map for E. sideroxylon bark components and represents it as new anti-inflammatory drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Eucalyptus/química , Floroglucinol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Floroglucinol/química , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146372

RESUMO

Legume seeds are rich sources of protein, fiber, and minerals. In addition, their phenolic compounds as secondary metabolites render health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Lowering apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells and decreasing the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol oxidation are mechanisms related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Likewise, low-level chronic inflammation and related disorders of the immune system are clinical predictors of cardiovascular pathology. Furthermore, DNA-damage signaling and repair are crucial pathways to the etiology of human cancers. Along CVD and cancer, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is constantly increasing. Screening the ability of polyphenols in inactivating digestive enzymes is a good option in pre-clinical studies. In addition, in vivo studies support the role of polyphenols in the prevention and/or management of diabetes and obesity. Soybean, a well-recognized source of phenolic isoflavones, exerts health benefits by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation related to the above-mentioned chronic ailments. Similar to soybeans, chickpeas are good sources of nutrients and phenolic compounds, especially isoflavones. This review summarizes the potential of chickpea as a substitute for soybean in terms of health beneficial outcomes. Therefore, this contribution may guide the industry in manufacturing functional foods and/or ingredients by using an undervalued feedstock.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cicer/química , Isoflavonas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Soja/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1074: 89-97, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159943

RESUMO

This work describes the development of a paper-based platform for highly sensitive detection of diclofenac. The quantification of this anti-inflammatory drug is of importance in clinical (e.g. quality and therapeutic control) and environmental (e.g. emerging contaminant determination) areas. The easy-to-handle platform here described consists of a carbon-ink paper-based working electrode and two metallic wires, provided by a gold-plated standard connector, as reference and counter electrodes. The porous paper matrix enables the preconcentration of the sample, decoupling sample and detection solutions. Thus, relatively large sample volumes can be used, which significantly improves the sensitivity of the method. A wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude, between 0.10 and 100 µM, was obtained for diclofenac determination. Due to the predominance of adsorption at the lowest concentrations, there were two linear concentration ranges: one comprised between 0.10 and 5.0 µM (with a slope of 0.85 µA µM-1) and the other between 5.0 and 100 µM (with a slope of 0.48 µA µM-1). A limit of detection of 70 nM was achieved with this simple device that provided accurate results with an RSD of ca. 5%. The platform was applied for diclofenac quantification in spiked tap water samples. The versatility of this design enabled the fabrication of a multiplexed platform containing eight electrochemical cells that work independently. The low cost, small size and simplicity of the device allow on-site analysis, which is very useful for environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Diclofenaco/análise , Papel , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Limite de Detecção , Nanotubos de Carbono
17.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181780

RESUMO

Allium genus plants, such as leek (Allium porrum), are rich sources of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant secondary metabolites; this is of interest because it demonstrates their suitability as pharmacological alternatives for inflammatory processes, including allergy treatment. The composition of methanolic leek extract (LE) was analyzed by GC-MS and LC-IT/MS, and the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were quantified by colorimetric methods. Its pharmacological potential was analyzed in human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells, human mast cells LAD2, and humanized rat basophiles RBL-2H3. LE exhibited a cytotoxic effect on Calu-3 cells and HumRBL-2H3 cells only at high concentrations and in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LE decreased the degranulation of LAD2 and HumRBL-2H3 cells. LE treatment also significantly prevented alterations in transepithelial electrical resistance values and mRNA levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), c-Jun, and NFκB after treatment with H2O2 in ALI-cultured Calu-3 cells. Finally, ALI-cultured Calu-3 cells treated with LE showed lower permeability to Ole e 1 compared to untreated cells. A reduction in IL-6 secretion in ALI-cultured Calu-3 cells treated with LE was also observed. In summary, the results obtained in this work suggest that A. porrum extract may have potential anti-allergic effects due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study provides several important insights into how LE can protect against allergy.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/química , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antialérgicos/análise , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 520-527, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trichinellosis is a severe zoonosis involving the activation of inflammatory cells, accompanied by the prominent expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the host. Semen vaccariae, the seeds of Vaccaria segetalis (Neck.) Garcke. ex Asch. (Caryophyllaceae), is a famous traditional herb that is rich in vaccaria n-butanol extract (VNE). Vaccarin is one major active component of VNE, and it is reported in the treatment of stranguria disease. Hypaphorine is another main active component of VNE and has good anti-inflammatory effect, whereas the potential bioactivity of VNE in trichinellosis treatment is still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed to evaluate the potential anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activity of VNE toward T. spiralis infection. ICR mice were used to assess the effect of VNE on repression larvae and adult worms in vivo. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to evaluate the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. RESULTS: Our results showed that VNE could effectively depress the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. The adult worms were decreased by 79.53%, while the muscle larvae were diminished by 77.70% as compared to the control. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that VNE may be a promising therapeutic agent against the inflammation and diseases caused by T. spiralis infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico , Vaccaria/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Trichinella/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichinella/fisiologia , Triquinelose/genética , Triquinelose/imunologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1573-1587, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090321

RESUMO

UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used to analyze,identify and attribute the chemical constituents in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm × 150 mm,3.5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic solution system at the flow rate of 0.5 m L·min-1. The sample volume was 2 µL. The column temperature was30 ℃. The high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry was used as detector,with electrospray ion source in both positive and negative models,and the MS scanning ranged between m/z 50 and 2 000. Based on the analysis of mass spectrometry and literature reports,79 compounds were confirmed,including 30 alkaloids,28 organic acids,18 flavonoids and 3 coumarins. Finally,39 compounds,such as rutin,esculetin,gallic acid,caffeic acid,cichoric acid,were identified from Taraxacum mongolicum; 11 compounds,such as baicalin,baicalein,apigenin,chrysin,oroxylin A,were identified from Scutellaria baicalensis; 13 compounds,such as arginine,proline,hypoxanthine,epigoitrin,indirubin,were identified from Isatis indigotica; and 18 compounds,such as dehydrocheilanthifoline,oxysanguinarine,corynoline,protopine,spallidamine,were identified from Corydalis bungeana. After the analysis of chemical model and attribution,the contents of some compounds were high in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,such as baicalin,wogonoside,baicalein,wogonin,apigenin,chrysin,skullcapflavonⅡ,oroxylin A,cichoric acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,esculetin,dehydrocheilanthifoline,dihydrosanguinarine,protopine,corynoline and indirubin. The established method is simple,accurate,rapid,sensitive and reproducible,and thus suitable for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,which lays a foundation for the systematic quality control and the establishment of whole-course traceability system of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 1012-1022, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017668

RESUMO

Dietary phenolics are known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, making them promising candidates for protection against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Hydroalcohol extract of Egyptian species of Corchorus olitorius L. (Co) leaves was investigated for its neuroprotective effects in a lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory mouse model. Twenty five metabolites were characterized from the bioactive extract using high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC/PDA/HRESI/MSn , revealing 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (Co11) as one of the major constituents (5.7%), which was isolated and its identity was confirmed by spectral data as first report. Co significantly protected microglia against H2 O2 -induced cytotoxicity and immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and the inflammatory marker, cyclooxygenase-2. These findings correlated with significant improvement of cognitive functions and reduction of LPS-induced neurodegeneration in Co-treated mice as revealed by histopathology. The current study shows promising effects of Co in limiting neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment caused by neuroinflammation and glial cell activation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Information presented here shed light on the promising effects of Corchorus olitorius (Co) for the modulation of neuroinflammatory pathways improving the neuroinflammation-related neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. This makes Co a promising candidate as a nutraceutical supplement to be used against neuroinflammation-related disorders.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Corchorus/química , Dieta , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Egito , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/análise , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química
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