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1.
Gene ; 806: 145921, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454033

RESUMO

Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 h for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via ß-adrenergic receptors in vivo.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Efedrina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-10/agonistas , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(5): 288-291, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470933

RESUMO

Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a member of the IL-10 family and is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, epithelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, receptors for IL-19, IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-20 receptor 2, are also expressed in the cells mentioned above. The last 10 years from the finding of IL-19, investigations underline the anti-inflammatory role of IL-19 in the human diseases such as psoriasis, asthma, arteriosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. If it is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, therapeutic applications may include the use of neutralizing antibodies, however, because IL-19 exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, recombinant products may be useful in therapeutic applications. However, the therapeutic applications of IL-19 for human disease have not yet been developed. In this review, we present the new findings on the preventive and therapeutic effects of IL-19 on various mouse disease models. Increasing knowledge about mouse disease models will increase the feasibility of future human disease applications.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Psoríase , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucinas , Camundongos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3034-3042, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467693

RESUMO

To explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium based on network pharmacology and inflammatory or pain mouse models. The effective components of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were screened out by TCMSP database. And their potential corresponding targets were predicted by PharmMapper software. The possible targets relating to inflammation and pain were mainly collected through DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The "active ingredient-gene-disease" network diagram was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.0 software. The network pharmacology results showed 5 potential effective compounds, which were related to 29 targets; 132 targets relating to inflammation and pain were screened out in the DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The network analysis results indicated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform(PIK3 CG) gene may be the key to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were explored through the mouse model of inflammation induced by xylene or carrageenan and the mouse model of pain induced by acetic acid or formalin. The experimental results showed that essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium could reduce xylene-induced ear swelling and carrageenan-induced paw swelling and decrease the number of writhing responses in mice induced by acetic acid and the licking foot time of mice in phase Ⅱ induced by formalin. Western blot results showed that Zanthoxyli Pericarpium extract could inhibit the expressions of PIK3 CG, phosphonated nuclear factor kappaB(p-NF-κB) and phosphonated p38(p-p38 MAPK) protein. The present study showed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium through multiple components and targets, so as to provide a pharmacodynamic basis for the study of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium and its mechanism.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9270-9286, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347467

RESUMO

The in vitro anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activity and the content and profile of bioaccessible (poly)phenols and catabolites of raw and sous-vide-cooked red cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) were investigated during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Raw cardoon after in vitro GI digestion had 0.7% bioaccessible (poly)phenols, which protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by counteracting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 secretions in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Contrarily, GI-digested sous vide cardoon showed higher (poly)phenol bioaccessibility (59.8%) and exerted proinflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells. (Poly)phenols were highly metabolized during the first 8 h of in vitro fermentation, and nine catabolites were produced during 48 h of fermentation. Colonic-fermented raw and sous-vide-cooked cardoon did not show anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells but presented potential prebiotic activity, comparable to the commercial prebiotic FOS, by stimulating health-promoting bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. and by increasing the production of total SCFAs, especially acetate.


Assuntos
Cynara , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Colo/química , Humanos , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361560

RESUMO

The extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Schisandraceae) have various therapeutic effects, including inflammation and allergy. In this study, gomisin M2 (GM2) was isolated from S. chinensis and its beneficial effects were assessed against atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the therapeutic effects of GM2 on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced AD-like skin lesions with BALB/c mice ears and within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes. The oral administration of GM2 resulted in reduced epidermal and dermal thickness, infiltration of tissue eosinophils, mast cells, and helper T cells in AD-like lesions. GM2 suppressed the expression of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12a, and TSLP in ear tissue and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in auricular lymph nodes. GM2 also inhibited STAT1 and NF-κB phosphorylation in DNCB/DFE-induced AD-like lesions. The oral administration of GM2 reduced levels of IgE (DFE-specific and total) and IgG2a in the mice sera, as well as protein levels of IL-4, IL-6, and TSLP in ear tissues. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated keratinocytes, GM2 significantly inhibited IL-1ß, IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL22 through the suppression of STAT1 phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, these results indicate that GM2 is a biologically active compound that exhibits inhibitory effects on skin inflammation and suggests that GM2 might serve as a remedy in inflammatory skin diseases, specifically on AD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica , Dermatophagoides farinae/imunologia , Derme/imunologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Epiderme/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Citocinas/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445416

RESUMO

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of polyphenols contained in Gynura procumbens (GP) extract were systematically analyzed. Polyphenols in GP were analyzed for nine peaks using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), and quantitatively determined through each standard. A total of nine polyphenolic compounds were identified in the samples and their MS data were tabulated. To determine the potential of bioactive ingredients targeting DPPH and COX-2, we analyzed them by ultrafiltration combined with LC. The results identified the major compounds exhibiting binding affinity for DPPH and COX-2. Caffeic acid, kynurenic acid, and chlorogenic acid showed excellent binding affinity to DPPH and COX-2, suggesting that they can be considered as major active compounds. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effect of GP was confirmed in vitro. This study will not only be used to provide basic data for the application of GP to the food and pharmaceutical industries, but will also provide information on effective screening methods for other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445697

RESUMO

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360988

RESUMO

Replacement and inflammatory resorption are serious complications associated with the delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. In this study, we aimed to assess whether deferoxamine (DFO) can suppress inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in vitro and attenuate inflammation and bone resorption in a replanted rat tooth model. Cell viability and inflammation were evaluated in RAW264.7 cells. Osteoclastogenesis was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in teeth exposed to different concentrations of DFO. In vivo, molars of 31 six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and stored in saline (n = 10) or DFO solution (n = 21) before replantation. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and histological analysis were performed to evaluate inflammation and root and alveolar bone resorption. DFO downregulated the genes related to inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. DFO also reduced ROS production and regulated specific pathways. Furthermore, the results of the micro-CT and histological analyses provided evidence of the decrease in inflammation and hard tissue resorption in the DFO group. Overall, these results suggest that DFO reduces inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in a tooth replantation model, and thus, it has to be further investigated as a root surface treatment option for an avulsed tooth.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Desferroxamina/uso terapêutico , Osteogênese , Avulsão Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Avulsão Dentária/complicações
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360990

RESUMO

Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) signaling pathways play a central role in suppressing or inducing inflammation and angiogenesis processes. Therefore, they are involved in many steps of carcinogenesis through cooperation with multiple signaling molecules and pathways. Targeting both transcription factors simultaneously may be considered an equally important strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Several hundreds of phytochemicals, mainly edible plant and vegetable components, were shown to activate Nrf2 and mediate antioxidant response. A similar number of phytochemicals was revealed to affect NF-κB. While activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB may protect normal cells against cancer initiation and promotion, enhanced expression and activation in cancer cells may lead to resistance to conventional chemo- or radiotherapy. Most phytochemicals, through different mechanisms, activate Nrf2, but others, such as luteolin, can act as inhibitors of both Nrf2 and NF-κB. Despite many experimental data confirming the above mechanisms currently, limited evidence exists demonstrating such activity in humans. Combinations of phytochemicals resembling that in a natural food matrix but allowing higher concentrations may improve their modulating effect on Nrf2 and NF-κB and ultimately cancer prevention and therapy. This review presents the current knowledge on the effect of selected phytochemicals and their combinations on Nrf2 and NF-κB activities in the above context.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361003

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczematous lesions and itching, and it has become a serious health problem. However, the common clinical treatments provide limited relief and are accompanied by adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel and effective therapies to treat AD. Neferine is a small molecule compound isolated from the green embryo of the mature seeds of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It has a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid structure. Relevant studies have shown that neferine has many pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-diabetic activities. However, there are very few studies on neferine in the skin, especially the related effects on inflammatory skin diseases. In this study, we proved that it has the potential to be used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Through in vitro studies, we found that neferine inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and it reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Through in vivo experiments, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model. Our results show that neferine significantly decreased the skin barrier damage, scratching responses, and epidermal hyperplasia induced by DNCB. It significantly decreased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, blood flow, and ear thickness and increased surface skin hydration. Moreover, it also inhibited the expression of cytokines and the activation of signaling pathways. These results indicate that neferine has good potential as an alternative medicine for the treatment of atopic dermatitis or other skin-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzilisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39088-39099, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433242

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrated that building different linking groups between nanodiamond (ND) and TiO2 (P25) could provide more effective protection under oxidative stress and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation compared with the use of TiO2 alone. The establishment of ester (-C-O-O-R), amide (-CONH-), and epoxide-amine adduct (-NHCCO-) groups between ND-TiO2 composites was found to be critical in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by controlling their charge transfer behaviors. We hypothesized that linking groups between the composites dictate the performance of ROS generation from nano-TiO2 under UV-light irradiation due to the differences in linking groups. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals were attenuated by the incorporation of ND. An MTT cell proliferation assay was performed in human cells under the treatment of ND-TiO2 composites to investigate the impacts of composites on cell viability. The results from the luciferase reporter assay suggested they have anti-inflammatory activity and can reduce cellular DNA damage under ROS stimulation. A zebrafish model was also applied with the ND-TiO2 composite treatment to demonstrate the safety aspects of the composites in vivo and their biomedical application potential. Studies exploring ROS generation behaviors in different linking groups suggested that interactive functionalization between nanoparticles might be an ideal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanodiamantes/química , Titânio/química , Amidas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carbodi-Imidas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Esterificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Raios Ultravioleta , Peixe-Zebra
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10138-10150, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459191

RESUMO

Dietary flavonoids are known to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects, but their influences on human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a vital proinflammatory cytokine recognized as a therapeutic target for infectious diseases and cancers, have been rarely reported. Here, we identified 24 dietary flavonoids that could inhibit the tautomerase activity of MIF, five of which exerted IC50 values lower than the positive control ISO-1 in the micromolar range: morin (IC50 = 11.01 ± 0.45 µM) and amentoflavone (IC50 = 13.32 ± 0.64 µM) exhibited the most potent efficacy followed by apigenin (IC50 = 42.74 ± 4.20 µM), naringin (IC50 = 51.38 ± 2.12 µM), and fisetin (IC50 = 51.99 ± 0.63 µM). X-ray crystallography, molecular docking, and cellular experiments were utilized to illustrate the molecular binding details and structure-activity relationships. Scaffold modifications of flavonoids significantly influenced the potency. What stands out for morin is the unique 2'-OH substitution. In addition, amentoflavone situated at the MIF trimer pore may impact MIF-CD74 signaling. The results also showed that flavonoids could suppress cell chemotaxis and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. Our results elucidate the molecular mechanism of flavonoids acting on MIF and shed light on developing lead compounds against MIF-involved diseases.


Assuntos
Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(7): 1417-1425, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446144

RESUMO

A highly efficient method for constructing indomethacin-peptide conjugates was developed using the natural amino acid tyrosine (Y) as the anchor for indomethacin (Idm). With pH = 6, Idm-YEE conjugate self-assembled in a low critical micelle concentration (CMC, 0.037 mg/mL) and formed a transparent hydrogel (0.4 wt%). The formed Idm-YEE hydrogel presented sustained drug release of indomethacin with a maximum of 40% during first 24 hours, which was superior to the reported Idm-containing supramolecular hydrogel systems. As kept at 4 °C, the Idm-YEE hydrogel showed good storage stability up to 30 days without obvious hydrolysis. As shown by MTT assay, the Idm-YEE hydrogel exhibited good cell compatibility against retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). Ocular irritation test (i.e., clinical observations, fluorescein staining and H&E histological analysis) results showed good integrity of corneal architecture and no edema after Idm-YEE hydrogel treatment, which proved its good ocular biocompatibility. Besides, the LPS-stimulated levels of key inflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE2 and IL-6, were greatly reduced by Idm-YEE hydrogel even in a low concentration (50 µM) in Raw264.7 cells, which indicated its comparable in vitro anti-inflammatory activity to indomethacin. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of Idm-YEE hydrogel was evaluated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rabbit model. By treating with dm-YEE hydrogel, the rabbit eyes had significantly lowered inflammation and exudation in the anterior chamber. The results of histological analysis, clinical score, inflammatory cell counts, aqueous protein concentration and immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated its good in vivo therapeutic activity towards ocular inflammation. Therefore, with good ocular biocompatibility and comparable anti-inflammatory effect towards ocular inflammation, the novel indomethacin-tripeptide hydrogel (Idm-YEE) developed in this work provides a potential treatment for anterior uveitis.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Uveíte , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Indometacina , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Coelhos , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444919

RESUMO

Flaxseed is an oilseed (45-50% oil on a dry-weight basis) crop. Its oil has demonstrated multiple health benefits and industrial applications. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the free polyphenol fraction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds (PLU), based on their use in traditional medicine. Mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were used to study the antidiabetic activity of PLU in vivo, with an oral administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg over 28 days. Measurements of body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were carried out weekly, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Inhibitory activities of PLU on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro. The anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vivo in Wistar rats using the paw edema induction Test by carrageenan, and in vitro using the hemolysis ratio test. PLU administration to diabetic mice during the study period improved their body weight and FBG levels remarkably. In vitro inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes indicated that they may be involved in the proposed mode of action of PLU extract. Qualitative results of PLU revealed the presence of 18 polyphenols. These findings support daily consumption of flaxseed for people with diabetes, and suggest that polyphenols in flaxseed may serve as dietary supplements or novel phytomedicines to treat diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Linho/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356599

RESUMO

Artemisia annua L. (AA) has shown for many centuries important therapeutic virtues associated with the presence of artemisinin (ART). The aim of this study was to identify and quantify ART and other secondary metabolites in ethanolic extracts of AA and evaluate the biological activity in the presence of an inflammatory stimulus. In this work, after the extraction of the aerial parts of AA with different concentrations of ethanol, ART was quantified by HPLC and HPLC-MS. In addition, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, lignans, low-molecular-weight phenolics, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and terpenes were identified and semi-quantitatively determined by UHPLC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics. Finally, the viability of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was evaluated in the presence of the different ethanolic extracts and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results show that ART is more concentrated in AA samples extracted with 90% ethanol. Regarding the other metabolites, only the anthocyanins are more concentrated in the samples extracted with 90% ethanol. Finally, ART and all AA samples showed a protective action towards the pro-inflammatory stimulus of LPS. In particular, the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract of AA with 90% ethanol was also confirmed at the molecular level since a reduction in TNF-α mRNA gene expression was observed in SH-SY5Y treated with LPS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Artemisia annua/química , Etanol/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361611

RESUMO

UV-B and IR-A radiation are important inducers of biological changes in skin involving ROS generation. The overloading of antioxidant defense mechanisms by ROS production could lead to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis processes. Various traditional usages are reported for Aralia nudicaulis L. extracts, including treatment of dermatological disorders. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have already been reported for other Aralia species possibly due to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the phenolic composition and the potential activity of A. nudicaulis rhizomes extract against oxidative stress and UV/IR damages have not been investigated. The main aims of this study were to prepare a fraction enriched in phenolic compounds (FEPC) from A. nudicaulis rhizomes, to identify its major phenolic compounds and to assess its potential for protective effects against oxidative stress induced by UV-B, IR-A or inflammation. A quantitative LC-MS study of FEPC shows that chlorogenic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids are the main phenolic compounds present, with concentrations of 15.6%, 15.3% and 4.8% of the total composition, respectively. With a validated analytical method, those compounds were quantified over different stages of the growing period. As for biological potential, first this extract demonstrates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, ROS generation induced by IR-A and UV-B were strongly inhibited by A. nudicaulis extract, suggesting that Aralia nudicaulis L. rhizome extract could protect dermal cells against oxidative stress induced by UV-B and IR-A.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aralia/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Pele/citologia
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361655

RESUMO

Pterygium is a corneal alteration that can cause visual impairment, which has been traditionally treated with the sap of Sedum dendroideum D.C. The pharmacological effect of a dichloromethane extract of S. dendroideum was demonstrated and implemented in a pterygium model on the healing process of corneal damage caused by phorbol esters. In mice of the ICR strain, a corneal lesion was caused by intravitreal injection of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). The evolution of the corneal scarring process was monitored with vehicle, dexamethasone, and dichloromethane extract of S. dendroideum treatments by daily ophthalmic administration for fifteen days. The lesions were evaluated in situ with highlighted images of fluorescence of the lesions. Following treatment levels in eyeballs of IL-1α, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines were measured. The effective dose of TPA to produce a pterygium-like lesion was determined. The follow-up of the evolution of the scarring process allowed us to define that the treatment with S. dendroideum improved the experimental pterygium and had an immunomodulatory effect by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1α, and maintaining the level of IL-10 expression, without difference with respect to the healthy control. Traditional medical use of S. dendroideum sap to treat pterygium is fully justified by its compound composition.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/anormalidades , Cloreto de Metileno/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pterígio/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Sedum/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361701

RESUMO

Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by pathological reactions such as swelling, redness, fever, and pain in various joint areas. The drugs currently available to treat arthritis are associated with diverse side-effects. Therefore, there is a need for safer and more effective treatments to alleviate the inflammation of arthritis with fewer side-effects. In this study, a new sterol, Δ8(14)-ergostenol, was discovered, and its glycosides were synthesized and found to be more efficient in terms of synthesis or anti-inflammatory activity than either spinasterol or 5,6-dihydroergosterol is. Among these synthetic glycosides, galactosyl ergostenol inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in TNF-α-stimulated FLS and TNF-α-induced MMPs and collagen type II A1 degradation in human chondrocytes. These results suggest the new galactosyl ergostenol as a treatment candidate for arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Ergosterol/química , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sinoviócitos/citologia , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361712

RESUMO

The genus Maytenus is a member of the Celastraceae family, of which several species have long been used in traditional medicine. Between 1976 and 2021, nearly 270 new compounds have been isolated and elucidated from the genus Maytenus. Among these, maytansine and its homologues are extremely rare in nature. Owing to its unique skeleton and remarkable bioactivities, maytansine has attracted many synthetic endeavors in order to construct its core structure. In this paper, the current status of the past 45 years of research on Maytenus, with respect to its chemical and biological activities are discussed. The chemical research includes its structural classification into triterpenoids, sesquiterpenes and alkaloids, along with several chemical synthesis methods of maytansine or maytansine fragments. The biological activity research includes activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as HIV inhibition, which can provide a theoretical basis for the better development and utilization of the Maytenus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Maytenus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Triterpenos/química , Alcaloides/classificação , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Maitansina/isolamento & purificação , Maitansina/farmacologia , Maytenus/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos/classificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/classificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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