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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(2): 289-303, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432236

RESUMO

CD4 T-helper (Th) cells secret a variety of inflammatory cytokines and play critical roles in host defense against invading foreign pathogens. On the other hand, uncontrolled inflammatory responses mediated by Th cells may result in tissue damage and inflammatory disorders including autoimmune and allergic diseases. Thus, the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression becomes an important "brake" to repress and/or terminate aberrant and/or unnecessary immune responses. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines to limit inflammatory Th cells and immunopathology and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that Th cells can be a major source of IL-10 under specific conditions both in mouse and human and that extracellular signals and cell intrinsic molecular switches are required to turn on and off Il10 expression in different Th cells. In this review, we will highlight the recent findings that have enhanced our understanding on the mechanisms of IL-10 induction in distinct Th-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, as well as the importance of these IL-10-producing anti-inflammatory Th cells in immunity and inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
2.
Life Sci ; 234: 116773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422095

RESUMO

AIMS: NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The anti-aging protein Klotho is suggested to modulate tissue inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of Klotho on DCM. MAIN METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model was established to assess the effects of Klotho in vivo, which was administered for 12 weeks. The characteristics of type 1 DCM were evaluated by general status, echocardiography, and histopathology. The expression of associated factors was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Parallel experiments to determine the molecular mechanism through which Klotho prevents DCM were performed using H9C2 cells exposed to high glucose (35 mM). KEY FINDINGS: Diabetes-induced increases in serum creatine kinase-muscle/brain and lactate dehydrogenase levels, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction were ameliorated by Klotho. Additionally, Klotho suppressed TXNIP expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ɑ, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-18 in vivo. In high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes, Klotho and N-acetylcysteine significantly downregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pretreatment of H9C2 cells with NLRP3 siRNA or Klotho prevented high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the protective effect of Klotho on diabetes-induced cardiac injury is associated with inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, suggesting its therapeutic potential for DCM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Glucuronidase/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/imunologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Glucuronidase/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
3.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 985-996.e2, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proactive monitoring of drug trough concentrations and antibodies against drugs might help determine whether patients are likely to respond to treatment and increase efficacy. We investigated whether proactive drug monitoring is associated with higher rates of clinical remission in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We performed a nonblinded, randomized controlled trial of 78 children with CD (6-18 years old; 29% female; mean age, 14.3 ± 2.6 years) who had not received prior treatment with a biologic agent but had responded to adalimumab induction therapy, under scheduled monitoring of clinical and biologic measures (based on clinical factors and levels of C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin), at pediatric gastroenterology units in Israel from July 2015 through December 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to groups that received proactive monitoring (trough concentrations measured at weeks 4 and 8 and then every 8 weeks until week 72, n = 38) or reactive monitoring (physicians were informed of trough concentrations after loss of response, n = 40). In both groups, doses and intervals of adalimumab were adjusted to achieve trough concentrations of 5 µg/mL. The primary endpoint was sustained corticosteroid-free clinical remission at all visits (week 8 through week 72). RESULTS: The primary endpoint was achieved by 31 children (82%) in the proactive group and 19 children (48%) in the reactive group (P = .002). Sixteen patients in the proactive monitoring group (42%) achieved a composite outcome of sustained corticosteroid-free remission, C-reactive protein ≤0.5 mg/dL, and level of fecal calprotectin ≤150 µg/g compared with 5 patients in the reactive monitoring group (12%) (P = .003). By week 72 of treatment, 33 patients in the proactive monitoring group had received adalimumab intensification (87%) compared with 24 patients in the reactive monitoring group (60%) (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of pediatric patients with CD, we found that proactive monitoring of adalimumab trough concentrations and adjustment of doses and intervals resulted in significantly higher rates corticosteroid-free clinical remission than reactive monitoring (measuring trough concentration after loss of response). Clinicaltrials.gov no.: NCT02256462.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/sangue , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos/sangue , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/sangue , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/imunologia , Adalimumab/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacocinética , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(5): 1653-1670, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119329

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mycobacterium vaccae (NCTC 11659) is an environmental saprophytic bacterium with anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and stress resilience properties. Previous studies have shown that whole, heat-killed preparations of M. vaccae prevent allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. Recent studies also demonstrate that immunization with M. vaccae prevents stress-induced exaggeration of proinflammatory cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated ex vivo, prevents stress-induced exaggeration of chemically induced colitis in a model of inflammatory bowel disease, and prevents stress-induced anxiety-like defensive behavioral responses. Furthermore, immunization with M. vaccae induces anti-inflammatory responses in the brain and prevents stress-induced exaggeration of microglial priming. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of M. vaccae are not known. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify and characterize novel anti-inflammatory molecules from M. vaccae NCTC 11659. METHODS: We have purified and identified a unique anti-inflammatory triglyceride, 1,2,3-tri [Z-10-hexadecenoyl] glycerol, from M. vaccae and evaluated its effects in freshly isolated murine peritoneal macrophages. RESULTS: The free fatty acid form of 1,2,3-tri [Z-10-hexadecenoyl] glycerol, 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid, decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 ex vivo. Meanwhile, next-generation RNA sequencing revealed that pretreatment with 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid upregulated genes associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, in association with a broad transcriptional repression of inflammatory markers. We confirmed using luciferase-based transfection assays that 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid activated PPARα signaling, but not PPARγ, PPARδ, or retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α signaling. The effects of 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of IL-6 were prevented by PPARα antagonists and absent in PPARα-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Future studies should evaluate the effects of 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid on stress-induced exaggeration of peripheral inflammatory signaling, central neuroinflammatory signaling, and anxiety- and fear-related defensive behavioral responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/prevenção & controle , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente
5.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 421: 139-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123888

RESUMO

Infectious diseases have been paramount among the threats to human health and survival throughout evolutionary history. Bacterial cell-surface molecules are key factors in the microorganism-host crosstalk, as they can interact with host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The best-studied PRRs are toll-like receptors (TLRs). Because TLRs play an important key role in host defense, they have received increasing interest in the evolutionary and population genetics literature, and their variation represents a potential target of adaptive evolution. Helicobacter pylori is one of the commensal bacteria in our body and can have pathogenic properties in a subset of infected people. The history of H. pylori research indicated that humans and bacteria co-evolved during evolution. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) has opened the way for investigating the genomic evolution of bacterial pathogens during the colonization and infection of humans. Recent GWAS research emphasized the importance of TLRs, especially TLR10 during pathogenesis in H. pylori infection. We demonstrated that TLR10, whose ligand was unknown for a long time, can recognize H. pylori LPS. Our results of H. pylori research suggest that TLR10 might play an important role to also recognize other commensal bacteria. In this review, we discuss the importance of TLRs in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by H. pylori infection. Especially, we highlight the TLR10 interaction with H. pylori infection, providing new insights about TLR10 signaling.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Humanos , Receptores Toll-Like/genética
6.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(9): 1589-1601, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111568

RESUMO

A variety of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists may represent a potential pharmacologic target in the prevention or treatment of skin cancer. In particular, recent reports suggest that PPARγ activation may exert at least some of its anti-neoplastic effects through the suppression of tumor promoting chronic inflammation as well as by strengthening antitumor immune responses. This activity is thought to occur through a distinct mode of ligand interaction with PPARγ that causes transrepression of transcription factors that are involved in inflammatory and immunomodulatory signaling. However, current thiazolidinedione (TZD)-type PPARγ agonists have significant safety concerns that limit their usefulness as a preventive or therapeutic option. Due to the relatively large ligand binding pocket of PPARγ, a diverse group of ligands can be seen to interact with distinct modes of binding to PPARγ, leading to the phenomenon of partial agonist activity and selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγM). This has led to the development of ligands that are tailored to deliver desired pharmacologic activity, but lack some of the negative side effects associated with full agonists, such as the currently utilized TZD-type PPARγ agonists. In addition, there is evidence that a number of phytochemicals that are currently being touted as antineoplastic nutraceuticals also possess PPARγ activity that may partially explain their pharmacologic activity. We propose that one or more of these partial agonists, SPPARγMs, or putative phytochemical PPARγ ligands could presumably be used as a starting point to design more efficacious anti-neoplastic PPARγ ligands that lack adverse pharmacological effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ligantes , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 205-208, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078967

RESUMO

Therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (IVIg) are used for treatment of wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Versatile mechanisms have been reported to contribute to the immunomodulatory effects of IVIg. Here we demonstrate that IVIg has a strong potential to inhibit pro-inflammatory effect of extracellular heme. Indeed, the presence of immunoglobulins reduced the potential of heme to activate the complement system on the surface of human endothelial cells. Since extracellular heme is considered as one of the principal pathogenic factors in hemolytic disorders, its therapeutic scavenging by IVIg may have significant clinical repercussions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Heme/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos
8.
Neurotox Res ; 36(1): 12-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949950

RESUMO

Microglia are innate immune system cells which reside in the central nervous system (CNS). Resting microglia regulate the homeostasis of the CNS via phagocytic activity to clear pathogens and cell debris. Sometimes, however, to protect neurons and fight invading pathogens, resting microglia transform to an activated-form, producing inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, iNOS/NO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Excessive inflammation, however, leads to damaged neurons and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from Curcuma longa. It is widely used in Asia and has many therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-amyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory, especially with respect to neuroinflammation and neurological disorders (NDs). Curcumin is a pleiotropic molecule that inhibits microglia transformation, inflammatory mediators and subsequent NDs. In this mini-review, we discuss the effects of curcumin on microglia and explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/imunologia
9.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(4): e12943, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012218

RESUMO

Psoriasis (PS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory skin immune-mediated disease which occurs in 2-4% of the worldwide population. PS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and depression, and 30% of PS patients are affected with psoriatic arthritis. PS presents excessive keratinocyte proliferation, abnormal differentiation, and elevated mast cell (MC) number. In PS, there are enhanced type I interferon (IFN), angiogenesis, and over-expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-1 family members generated by several immune cells including MCs. MCs are hematopoietic cells that reside in vascularized tissues, which, upon appropriate activation, release proinflammatory cytokines, an effect worsened by acute stress and PS. In recent years, IL-37 emerged as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which binds to alpha chain of the IL-18 receptor alpha (IL-18Rα) and downregulates MyD88. This effect leads to the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activation protein kinase, with the suppression of inflammatory response. These observations candidate IL-37 as a potential new therapeutic cytokine for inflammatory disorders including PS.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1/administração & dosagem , Mastócitos/imunologia , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia
10.
Phytomedicine ; 59: 152789, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemarrhena asphodeloides has been widely used in traditional medicine for thousands of years; it has been reported to improve learning and memory, and to reduce inflammation. However, the role of A. asphodeloides in enhancing the immune response has remained unclear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of A. asphodeloides extract (AA-Ex) on enhancing the immune response in macrophages and to identify the active compounds causing these effects. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: To determine the enhancing immune response of AA-Ex and its active compounds, cell proliferation and cell cycle of RAW 264.7 cells were analyzed by MTS assay and flow cytometry. The gene expression of p53, p27, cyclin D2, and cyclin E2 was measured by real-time PCR. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of AA-Ex and its active compounds, the production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pro-inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by Griess reagent, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. The phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, inhibitory kappa B alpha, and p65 was examined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: AA-Ex increased cell proliferation by extending the cell cycle S-phase; timosaponin B and timosaponin B-II affected cell proliferation and the cell cycle as active compounds of A. asphodeloides. Next, we determined that A. asphodeloides displayed anti-inflammatory effects, including the inhibition of the production of NO, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation downstream of the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Moreover, we identified that timosaponin B and timosaponin B-II were the active compounds for these effects. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that A. asphodeloides promotes the immune response and has anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, timosaponin B and B-II played important roles as the active compounds of A. asphodeloides in enhancing the immune and anti-inflammatory responses in this model.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Phytomedicine ; 57: 364-376, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice callus suspension culture (RCSC) has been shown to exhibit potent antiproliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines. RCSC and its bioactive compounds can fill the need for drugs with no side effects. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The anti-inflammatory potential of RCSC and its bioactive fractions on normal colon epithelial cell lines, was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Three cell lines, InEpC, NCM356 and CCD841-CoN were treated with proinflammatory cytokines followed by RCSC. Cytoplasmic and nuclear ROS were assayed with fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometer. Expression analysis of immune-related genes was performed in RCSC-treated cell lines. RCSC was fractionated using column chromatography and HPLC. Pooled fractions 10-18 was used to test for antiproliferative activity using colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW620 and anti-inflammatory activity using CCD841-CoN. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed to identify candidate compounds in four fractions. RESULTS: RCSC treatment showed differential effects with higher cytoplasmic ROS levels in NCM356 and CCD841-CoN and lower ROS levels in InEpC. Nuclear generated ROS levels increased in all three treated cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide stained cells indicated mitigation of cell death caused by inflammation in RCSC treated groups in both NCM356 and CCD841-CoN. Genes encoding transcription factors and cytokines were differentially regulated in NCM356 and CCD841-CoN cell lines treated with RCSC which provided insights into possible pathways. Analysis of pooled fractions 10-18 by HPLC identified 8 peaks. Cell viability assay with fractions 10-18 using SW620 showed that the number of viable cells were greatly reduced which was similar to 6X and 33X RCSC with very little effect on normal cells which similar to 1X RCSC. RCSC fractions increased nuclear and cytoplasmic ROS vs. both untreated and inflammatory control. Analysis of four fractions by mass spectrometry identified 4-deoxyphloridzin, 5'-methoxycurcumin, piceid and lupeol as candidate compounds which are likely to be responsible for the antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating properties of RCSC. CONCLUSION: RCSC and its fractions showed anti-inflammatory activity on inflamed colon epithelial cells. Downstream target candidate genes which are likely to mediate RCSC effects were identified. Candidate compounds responsible for the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of RCSC and its fractions provide possible drug targets.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Adenocarcinoma , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Fatores Biológicos/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Neoplasias Colorretais , Citocinas/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
J Biol Chem ; 294(13): 5228-5229, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926761

RESUMO

Poxviruses have evolved efficient proteins that bind mammalian cytokines and chemokines to suppress host immunity. Here Pontejo et al. examine in detail how one such poxviral protein, CrmD, that has activity against both mammalian tumor necrosis factor and chemokines, interacts with its host targets. They apply their findings to refine a human anti-cytokine therapeutic and increase its specificity, providing an elegant example of the benefits of mining viral proteins for therapeutically useful information.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Poxviridae/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Poxviridae/química , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/química
13.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 423: 35-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790077

RESUMO

Over 80 different autoimmune disorders have been identified. A common denominator across most of these disorders is the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies. The pathogenic and inflammatory nature of antibodies is well accepted, and over the last three decades, evidence in humans and rodent models has revealed that antibodies can induce anti-inflammatory activities. The discovery of the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycovariants and disease activity in autoimmune patients has provided insight into the structural and functional characteristics of IgG associated with its pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. In this chapter, we discuss evidence of the anti-inflammatory nature of IgG and the mechanisms by which this activity is exerted. Current clinical evidence of this anti-inflammatory activity is also discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Glicosilação , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Imunoglobulina G/química
14.
J Pept Sci ; 25(4): e3153, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734396

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, and insulin-releasing activities of seven phylloseptin-TR peptides and plasticin-TR, first isolated from the frog Phyllomedusa trinitatis. The most cationic peptides, phylloseptin-1.1TR and phylloseptin-3.1TR, showed greatest cytotoxic potency against A549, MDA-MB231, and HT-29 human tumor-derived cells and against mouse erythrocytes. Phylloseptin-4TR was the most hydrophobic and the most effective peptide at inhibiting production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß by mouse peritoneal cells but was without effect on production of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. Phylloseptin-2.1TR and phylloseptin-3.3TR were the most effective at stimulating the production of IL-10. The noncytotoxic peptide, plasticin-TR, inhibited production of TNF-α and IL-1ß but was without effect on IL-10 production. The results of CD spectroscopy suggest that the different properties of plasticin-TR compared with the immunostimulatory activities of the previously characterized plasticin-L1 from Leptodactylus laticeps may arise from greater ability of plasticin-TR to oligomerize and adopt a stable helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic environment. All peptides stimulated release of insulin from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal ß cells with phylloseptin-3.2TR being the most potent and effective and phylloseptin-2.1TR the least effective suggesting that insulinotropic potency correlates inversely with helicity. The study has provided insight into structure-activity relationships among the phylloseptins. The combination of immunomodulatory and insulinotropic activities together with low cytotoxicity suggests that phylloseptin-3.3TR and plasticin-TR may represent templates for the development of agents for use in antiinflammatory and type 2 diabetes therapies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Anuros , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Olho/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Olho/química , Proteínas do Olho/imunologia , Proteínas do Olho/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
15.
Immunol Lett ; 205: 9-15, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702147

RESUMO

Adenosine is increasingly recognized as a key mediator of the immune response. Signals delivered by extracellular adenosine are detected and transduced by G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptors, classified into four subtypes: A1, A2A, A2B and A3. These receptors, expressed virtually on all immune cells, modulate all aspects of immune/inflammatory responses. These immunoregulatory effects, which are mostly anti-inflammatory, contribute to the general tissue protective effects of adenosine and its receptors. In some instances, however, the effect of adenosine on the immune system is deleterious, as prolonged adenosine signaling can hinder anti-tumor and antibacterial immunity, thereby promoting cancer development and progression and sepsis, respectively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Adenosina/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo
16.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(3): 246-250, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessing influence of anti-adalimumab (ADA) antibodies (AAA) on serum trough ADA levels and uveitis activity in long-term ADA treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This prospective observational study included 20 patients from a single centre treated with ADA for active uveitis refractory to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. AAA, serum ADA trough levels and uveitis activity were evaluated at regular intervals up to 6 years. RESULTS: AAA were detected in nine patients (45%). Permanent AAA in seven were associated with undetectable ADA trough levels and loss of response (LOR). Transient AAA were detected in four with measurable ADA trough levels and response of uveitis to treatment, followed in two by permanent AAA associated with LOR. Use of concomitant immunosuppression was significantly higher in patients without AAA (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AAA-associated LOR frequently occurs in long-term treatment with ADA for JIA-associated uveitis. Concomitant immunosuppressive therapy significantly reduces the risk of LOR due to AAA.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/imunologia , Artrite Juvenil/fisiopatologia , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uveíte/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
17.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(3): 251-255, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infliximab (IFX) has an established role in Crohn's disease (CD), with serum trough levels of IFX (TLI) increasingly used to optimise dosing. We report the utility of routine, proactive TLI in children on combination therapy with immunosuppression (IS) from a single paediatric centre. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of all children with CD receiving IFX therapy conducted betweenJanuary 2014-May 2017. Clinical phenotype, duration of therapy, TLI (µg/mL), drug antibodies, type of IS, biomarkers and changes in management were recorded. RESULTS: 60 children (8-17 years; median 14.1 years) had 206 TLIs recorded. 56/60 (93%) were on IS, with 5/60 (8%) developing antidrug antibodies (ADAs). 63/206 TLIs were recorded duringan episode of relapse (median 3.0 µg/mL) vs 143/206 TLIs recorded in remission (median 5.2 µg/mL). For children with TLI <3 µg/mL, 31/63 (49%) were in relapse vs 30/143 (21%) in remission. For children with TLI >7 µg/mL, 7/63 (11%) were in relapse vs 46/143 (32%) in remission. Change in management resulted from 43/206 (21%) TLIs in 31/60 (52%) children: 21 dose escalations, 12 de-escalations and 10 changed to adalimumab. Of 31 postinduction TLIs, 15/17 (88%) children with TLI >7 µg/mL achieved clinical and biochemical remission for the duration of therapy (median 14 months), while 4/5 (80%) children with TLI <3 µg/mL required early dose escalation. Combination therapy with thiopurines (TP) (median TLI 4.9 µg/mL) versus methotrexate (MTX) (median TLI 5.2 µg/mL) achieved comparable levels with no difference in relapse frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Routine, proactive TLIs guide optimal management in children with CD. Postinduction and during maintenance, levels <3 µg/mL were associated with relapse and levels >7 µg/mL with sustained remission. Combination IS with TP and MTX appears to offer comparable TLI and ADA rates.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/imunologia , Adolescente , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563002

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are hormones that regulate several functions in living organisms and synthetic glucocorticoids are the most powerful anti-inflammatory pharmacological tool that is currently available. Although glucocorticoids have an immunosuppressive effect on immune cells, they exert multiple and sometimes contradictory effects on neutrophils. From being extremely sensitive to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids to resisting glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, neutrophils are proving to be more complex than they were earlier thought to be. The aim of this review is to explain these complex pathways by which neutrophils respond to endogenous or to exogenous glucocorticoids, both under physiological and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Apoptose , Glucocorticoides , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia
19.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(12): 2134-2144, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) therapeutics can reduce neutrophil activity in various inflammatory conditions. This 'novel' anti-inflammatory effect of C1-inh is attributed to the tetrasaccharide sialyl LewisX (SLeX) present on its N-glycans. Via SLeX, C1-inh is suggested to interact with selectins on inflamed endothelium and prevent neutrophil rolling. However, C1-inh products contain plasma glycoprotein α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) as a co-purified protein impurity. OBJECTIVE: This article investigates the contribution of ACT to the effects observed with C1-inh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have separated C1-inh and ACT from a therapeutic C1-inh preparation and investigated the influence of these proteins on SLeX-selectin interactions in a specific in vitro model, which makes use of rolling of SLeX-coated beads on immobilized E-selectin. RESULTS: We find that ACT and not C1-inh, shows a clear sialic acid-dependent interference in SLeX-selectin interactions, at concentrations present in C1-inh therapeutics. Furthermore, we do not find any evidence of SLeX on C1-inh using either Western blotting with anti-SLeX antibodies (CSLEX1 and KM93) or by mass spectrometric analysis of N-glycans. C1-inh reacts weakly to antibody HECA-452, which detects a broad range of selectin ligands, but ACT gives a much stronger signal, suggesting the presence of a selectin ligand on ACT. CONCLUSION: The 'novel' anti-inflammatory effects of C1-inh are unlikely due to SLeX on C1-inh and can in fact be due to SLeX-like glycans on ACT, present in C1-inh products. In view of our results, it is important to assess the role of ACT in vivo and revisit past studies performed with commercial C1-inh.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Ligação Competitiva , Sistema Livre de Células , Humanos , Migração e Rolagem de Leucócitos , Microesferas , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Selectinas/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
20.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2198, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356670

RESUMO

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpes virus associated with certain malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV maintains latency in B cells with occasional reactivation, in part by overcoming the host immune response with viral homologs of several human proteins. EBV interleukin 10 (vIL-10), a lytic phase protein, is a homolog of human IL-10 (hIL-10). The effect of vIL-10 on human monocytes, which are one of the first immune cells to respond to infection, is not known. To understand the role of vIL-10, monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with hIL-10 or vIL-10. Human IL-10 stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation, which is required for suppression of inflammatory responses. However, vIL-10 induced significantly lower phosphorylation of STAT3 compared to hIL-10, and was less efficient in downregulating inflammatory genes. vIL-10 significantly reduced the expression of scavenger receptor CD163 on monocytes, suggesting inhibition of M2 polarization. Furthermore, uptake of apoptotic cells was reduced in vIL-10-stimulated monocytes compared to hIL-10-stimulated monocytes. A neutralizing antibody to IL-10R1 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation induced by either hIL-10 or vIL-10, suggesting that vIL-10 signals through IL-10R1. Interestingly, vIL-10 suppressed hIL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited upregulation of suppressors of inflammatory response by hIL-10. We further show that vIL-10 levels were significantly higher in plasma samples from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared to matched unaffected controls. vIL-10 levels did not correlate with hIL-10 levels, but were associated with levels of IgA antibodies to EBV viral capsid antigen, which is an indirect measure of viral reactivation. We propose that the suppression of hIL-10- induced anti-inflammatory genes by vIL-10, together with an increase in inflammatory gene expression, may overcome the anti-inflammatory effects of hIL-10 and exacerbate autoimmune responses in systemic autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia
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