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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108790, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400342

RESUMO

Preclinical assays play a key role in research in research on the neurobiology of pain and the development of novel analgesics. Drugs available for the treatment of inflammatory pain are not fully effective and show adverse effects. Thus, we investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of bis(3-amino-2-pyridine) diselenide (BAPD), a new analgesic drug prototype. BAPD effects were investigated using nociception models induced by chemical (glutamate), immunologic (Freund's Complete Adjuvant - CFA) and thermal stimuli in Swiss mice. Mice were orally (p.o.) treated with BAPD (0.1-50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the glutamate and hot-plate tests and a time-course (0.5 up to 8 h) of the antinociceptive effect of BAPD (50 mg/kg, p. o.) was evaluated in a CFA model. In the CFA model, BAPD effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, oxidative (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels) and histological parameters were evaluated. The safety of the compound (50 and 300 mg/kg, p. o.) was verified for 72 h. BAPD reduced the licking time induced by glutamate and caused an increase in latency response to thermal stimulus. Naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of BAPD. Paw edema formation induced by glutamate or CFA injection was reduced by BAPD. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA was attenuated by BAPD. BAPD did not protect against the increase in MPO activity and decrease of the 2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels induced by CFA. BAPD protected against histological alterations and reduction on the levels of gene expression COX-2 and INF-γ in the paw of mice exposed to CFA. BAPD was safe at the doses and time evaluated. BAPD exerts acute antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic actions, suggesting that it may represent an alternative in the future development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pé/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112076, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351331

RESUMO

Biotransformation of lupane-type triterpenoid betulin was carried out with Mucor subtilissimus CGMCC 3.2456. Yielded nine previously undescribed hydroxylated compounds. M. subtilissimus biotransformation provided C-7, C-11, C-15 and C-24 hydroxylated compounds along with C-7 oxidized and C-28 acetylated derivatives. The structures of the metabolites were established based on extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analyses. Furthermore, we found that most of the metabolites exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharides-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Mucor/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Biotransformação , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/química
3.
Planta Med ; 85(13): 1054-1072, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261421

RESUMO

The Lauraceae family is predominantly found in Asia and in the rainforests of the Americas, and consists mostly of aromatic trees. Being an essential oil producer, this family is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. This work presents a systematic review of the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oils from the Lauraceae family. Medline, Scielo, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Scopus were employed to identify articles published between 2000 and 2018, using "Lauraceae", "essential oil", and "biological activity" as key words. From 177 studies identified, 53 met the inclusion criteria. These studies indicated a predominance of the compounds ß-caryophyllene and 1,8-cineole in Lauraceae species, and highlighted the antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Essential oils extracted from this family thus have high potential for pharmacological applications.


Assuntos
Lauraceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7855-7868, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274310

RESUMO

Bee pollen (BP) collected from different floras possesses various potential bioactivities, but the mechanism-related research on anti-inflammatory effects is limited. Here, three types of BP originating from Camellia sinensis L. (BP-Cs), Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (BP-Nn), and Brassica campestris L. (BP-Bc) were assessed using molecular and metabolomics methods to determine their anti-inflammatory effects. The differences in polyphenolic abundance of three types of BP extracts were determined by HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of three BP extracts were evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells model. BP-Cs extract with the most abundant polyphenols was found to be the most effective in reducing inflammation by downregulating inflammatory-related genes expression and blocking the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Polyphenol-rich BP-Cs was further evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory effect in a LPS-induced acute lung injury mouse model. An UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach was applied to analyze metabolite changes in mouse serum. Weshowed that the pretreated BP-Cs extract alleviated inflammation and regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly. Our findings provide a foundation for developing and justifying BP as a potential anti-inflammatory ingredient in functional foods or nutraceutical formulations.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pólen/química , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Abelhas , Brassica/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Nelumbo/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8339-8347, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291543

RESUMO

The dried seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. have been traditionally used as food and medicine. To explore its chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity, four new compounds (1-4) along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the seeds in the present study. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified as follows: methyl 3-((7H-purin-2-yl) amino)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl) propanoate (1), 8-(amino(4-isopropylphenyl)methyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid (2), (3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-((4-isopropylbenzyl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl (E)-3-(4-propoxyphenyl)acrylate (3), and (3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-((5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-methoxypropanoate (4). Compound 2, an atypical nitrogen-containing flavonoid, exhibited the most active inhibitory effect on nitride oxide, with IC50 of 5.25 µM in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cell assay. Compound 2 was found to suppress the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, it was revealed that both nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase were involved in the anti-inflammatory process of compound 2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cuminum/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8810-8818, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318199

RESUMO

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck is a popular fruit cultivated around the world, and its peels are sometimes used for the treatment of cough, abdominal pain, and indigestion in China. However, the peel is discarded after fruit consumption in most cases, and its chemical constituents and biological activities have not been validated before. The present study focused on evaluation of the chemical and pharmacological profile of coumarins from peels of C. grandis against inflammation. The extracts and phytochemicals from peels of C. grandis were prepared, and anti-inflammatory activities were carried out in vivo and in vitro, including inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß, prostaglandin 2, and tumor-necrosis factor α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results indicated that methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and four major coumarins (compounds 7, 8, 13, and 16) inhibited swelling induced by xylene and carrageenan, separately, in vivo. Furthermore, 18 coumarins inhibited inflammatory factor secretion in macrophages primed by LPS, in which compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, 17 showed the most pronounced change, which were comparable to dexamethasone. In summary, peel of C. grandis showed an anti-inflammatory effect and coumarin compounds were responsible for regulating inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which might provide a novel nutritional strategy for inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Resíduos/análise
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110594, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226431

RESUMO

The phytochemical composition and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a mixture of 23 plants, named Horchata, traditionally consumed in Ecuador, have been evaluated. The study was carried out using the hydroalcoholic extract (HHext) and infusion (IHext) of the horchata plant mixture. It was verified that thermal treatment affected the contents of vitamin C and carotenoids, but hardly those of polyphenols, which would be the main bioactive compounds in the infusion, the common form of preparation of horchata for consumption. Among phenolic compounds, caffeoylquinic acids, flavones and flavonols (mostly quercetin glycosides) were prominent. Both HHext and IHext extracts managed to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against LPS-induced cytotoxic damage, increasing the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Greater protective effects were obtained for HHext compared to IHext, which was in agreement with its higher content of phenolic compounds favoured by a more efficient extraction in the hydroalcoholic medium. Nonetheless, the infusion still maintained a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which would support the protective effects on health traditionally attributed to its consumption by the population.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Equador , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Nitritos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Células RAW 264.7 , Temperatura Ambiente , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247385

RESUMO

The effects of topically administered snake (Deinagkistrodon acutus) oil and its main fatty acid components on skin photodamage were explored. Epidermal thickness, mice body weight, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase), inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6), skin histology, collagen content, and metalloproteinase-1 indicators were analyzed. The results show that topical application of both snake oil and its main fatty acids recovered ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced antioxidant enzymes depletion, prevented metalloproteinase-1. Snake oil and its main fatty acids suppressed dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels. Notably, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity but a significant difference in the anti-inflammatory activity between fatty acids and snake oil under the same dose. Finally, snake oil and its main fatty acids inhibited UVB-induced histological damage such as epidermal thickening, collagen fiber and elastic fiber destruction. Our study demonstrated for the first time in KM mice that snake oil exhibited prominent photoprotection activity by protecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting inflammatory factors, as well as reducing the generation of MMP-1. What's more, the main fatty acids in snake oil play an important role in preventing photo-damage especially in protecting antioxidant enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Serpentes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104190, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163199

RESUMO

The genus Tripterygium belongs to the family Celastraceae, and contains three species, i.e. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Levl.) Hutch. and Tripterygium regelii Sprague et Takeda. All three species are reported to have excellent medicinal properties that help to cure rheumatoid arthritis, nephrotic syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and widely used as a folk medicine in China. Phytochemical studies have led to discovering more than 500 secondary metabolites in this genus, including five main types: sesquiterpenoids, diterpenes, triterpenoids, flavonoids, lignans. This work provides structurally grouping statistic of 198 secondary metabolites of Tripterygium species published from 2008 to the present, as well as pharmacological knowledges in the past five years. The information will be helpful for developing the new discoveries of medicinal value related to the genus Tripterygium.


Assuntos
Tripterygium/química , Tripterygium/classificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Diterpenos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Imunossupressores/química , Lignanas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/química , Triterpenos/química
10.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 947-956, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163459

RESUMO

In this paper, the isolation of five new guaianolides (1:  - 5: ) and four (6:  - 9: ) known sesquiterpenes from Ormenis mixta aerial parts is reported. The structural determination of the guaianolides was obtained by NMR spectroscopic data, as well as MS experiments. Their relative configurations were assigned by a combined quantum mechanical/NMR approach, comparing the experimental 13C/1H NMR chemical shift data and 1 J H-H homonuclear coupling constants with the related predicted values. The isolates were assayed for their anti-inflammatory potential evaluating nitric oxide release and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in J774A.1 macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli. Our results indicated that, among the tested compounds, 1:  - 3: , and 7: were able to inhibit nitric oxide release, while all were able to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression with different potencies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Camomila/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/isolamento & purificação
11.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175947

RESUMO

Clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris are antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory. The finding that they may undergo acid degradation or hepatic metabolization led to an investigation of their degradation products. Purified clerodane diterpenes (casearins J and O) were subjected to in vitro assays to simulate their oral administration. Resulting derivatives were identified using chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. Nitric oxide synthesis by LPS-stimulated macrophages was assayed to verify whether structural modifications alter the anti-inflammatory activity of diterpenes. Nine compounds (1-9) were identified after acid degradation remaining 5.05% of casearin J. Besides the remaining casearin O (13.1%), eight compounds (10-17) were identified. The dialdehydes from each casearin were the major constituents. S9 rat liver treatment of casearins J and O generated two compounds identical to some of those produced by acid degradation, which remained 36.8% and 36.5% intact, respectively. Both casearins and its derivatives were not cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 0.312 µg/mL (0.555 µM for casearin J and 0.516 µM for casearin O) and did not inhibit the nitric oxide production in this concentration. Thus, the structural modifications conducted did not alter the activity of casearins and the anti-inflammatory pathway of diterpenes probably is not involved on nitric oxide modulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Casearia/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Brasil , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
12.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(6): 565-574, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209500

RESUMO

Eucalyptus barks contain complex biomass of constituents with considerable chemical and structural diversity. Reports about Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls bark composition and biological activities are limited. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-PDA-MS) enabled first-time detection of 41 secondary metabolites of which 31 were identified including; 6 flavonoids, 4 ellagic acid derivatives, 8 triterpenes, 10 fatty acids and 3 miscellaneous. The isolation and structure elucidation of methyl morolate, ß-sitosterol, syringaldeyhde and 7'-deoxyguajavadial A were reported. The bark methylene chloride: methanol (8:2) extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity through membrane stabilization, protein denaturation inhibition, anti-lipoxygenase, and proteinase inhibition assays. The strongest anti-inflammatory activity was via membrane stabilization (34.4%) as compared to diclofenac sodium (26%) at the same concentration (125 µg/mL). Our study represents the sole complete map for E. sideroxylon bark components and represents it as new anti-inflammatory drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Eucalyptus/química , Floroglucinol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Floroglucinol/química , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/análise
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 378-392, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121546

RESUMO

In the past decades, triptolide has attracted considerable interests in the organic and medicinal chemistry society owing to its intriguing structure features and promising multiple pharmacological activities. However, its limited water solubility and oral bioavailability, imprecise mechanism of action and sever toxicity, scares from nature and difficulty in the synthesis have greatly hindered its clinical potential. Hence, to circumvent such problems, a lot of elegant total synthesis have been developed. With the advancement of the total synthesis, various triptolide derivatives have been synthesized and tested in the search for more drug-like derivatives for potential anticancer agents, anti-inflammatory agents, immunosuppressive agents and anti-Alzheimer's agents, etc. Meanwhile, through designing and synthesizing of various of bioactive probes, some molecular targets that are responsible for the multiple pharmacology activities as well as toxicity of triptolide have been identified. It is no doubt will help the future development of new drug-like triptolide derivatives. In order to gain a comprehensive and deep understanding of the area and provides suggestions for triptolide's further studies, i) the medicinal chemistry advancement, ii) bioactive probes-based cellular target identification and iii) clinical progress of triptolide derivatives are reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 456-475, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128448

RESUMO

H2S donors are substitutes of H2S with various biological activities like inhibiting the inflammatory response and protecting myocardial cells from injury. In order to confirm whether the H2S donors have drug-like properties, two series thiophosphamide H2S donors were evaluated including toxicity, bioactivity and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo and in vitro. The following results were obtained. Firstly, all the compounds released H2S under measuring condition; with the increase of pH value, the H2S release rate of all the compounds decreased and the amount reduced, but pH value had little effect on the maximum release of H2S. Secondly, in the organs and tissues of rats, the compounds released H2S in the same way as in PBS. In plasma, compound 1 reached the Cmax after administration 55 min, and no compound 1 was detected after 12 h; for compound 18, the Cmax reached only after administration 100 min, and after 6 h, compound 18 was not detected; in organs and tissues, the H2S-release rates were different from those in PBS, but the mechanism of H2S release was the same. Thirdly, in the test of toxicity, all the compounds displayed low toxicities to 5 cancer cells and W138 cell lines; compounds 1 and 18 had slight effect on the physiological tissue and function of rat liver at low concentration; the compounds had almost no effect on the hatching rate, survival rate of zebrafish embryos, and the spontaneous movement of zebrafish embryos at below 0.5 µM, but when they were over 1 µM, the compounds displayed inhibitory effect in the manner of concentration dependence. Fourthly, in the course of anti-inflammatory test, all the tested compounds significantly reduced the level of TNF-α and increased the level of IL-10; when they were 100 µM, the levels of IL-10 were three times as high as those in the control group. Among them, compounds 10 and 18 displayed stronger activities than the others. In addition, the compounds protected H9c2 cells from injure and improved myocardial injury through anti-oxidation pathway. In summary, the compounds have druglike properties due to low toxicity, better activity and good pharmacokinetic property. Therefore, they have potential to be as candidates to investigate further.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Cardiotônicos/farmacocinética , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Cardiotônicos/síntese química , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/sangue , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Químicos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/síntese química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Teratogênios/síntese química , Teratogênios/química , Teratogênios/farmacocinética , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Life Sci ; 228: 176-188, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059688

RESUMO

AIM: Inflammatory algesia and pyresia are common pathological consequences of physiological defense. Phenacetin introduced as effective analgesic anti-pyretic agent, was proscribed from therapeutic use because of associated systemic toxicity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of 1,2,3-triazole conjugation in reducing toxicity and increasing efficacy of the phenacetin nucleus. MAIN METHODS: The amide bond implicated as the cause of phenacetin toxicity was bioisosterically replaced with 1,2,3-triazoles to yield a series of PhTCs(PhTC1, PhTC2 and PhTC3). The toxicology of the synthesized conjugates in reference to phenacetin was evaluated in accordance with OECD test guidelines 420, 425 and 407. For the purpose of evaluating anti-inflammatory potency carrageenan induced paw edema and croton oil induced ear edema models were evaluated. Anti-nociceptive efficacy was assessed using Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing experimental models. For anti-pyretic efficacy, the conjugates were submitted to Brewer's yeast antipyretic assay. KEY FINDINGS: Toxicological examination of PhTCs in comparison to phenacetin revealed that, phenacetin treatment caused considerable nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in experimental models PhTCs were devoid of such toxic manifestations. Results of pharmacological assays showed that the entire series of PhTCs possessed better anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-pyretic potential than phenacetin. Furthermore it was revealed that the pharmacological profile of PhTC1 with triazole substitution at para position of the phenol ring exhibited potency even better than that exhibited by the reference standards. CONCLUSION: Bioisosteric replacement of amide bond by 1,2,3-triazole in the phenacetin moiety yields conjugates with superior efficacy and diminished toxicity, thus opening neo avenues in treatment of inflammatory syndromes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Fenacetina/análogos & derivados , Fenacetina/farmacologia , Triazóis/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Fenacetina/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Triazóis/toxicidade
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 90, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papaver nudicaule belongs to the Papaveraceae family, which is planted as an annual herbaceous species generally for ornamental purpose. Papaver rhoeas in the same family has been reported to have various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and analgesic effects. In contrast, little is known about the pharmacological activity of Papaver nudicaule. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of Papaver nudicaule extracts and the action mechanisms were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. METHODS: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of five cultivars of Papaver nudicaule with different flower color, samples were collected from their aerial parts at two growth stages (60 and 90 days) and their ethanol extracts were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were also analyzed by RT-PCR and multiplex assays. Nuclear Factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways were examined using western blotting and luciferase reporter assays to reveal the action mechanism of Papaver nudicaule extracts in their anti-inflammatory activity. RESULTS: All of the Papaver nudicaule extracts were effective in reducing the LPS-induced NO, which is an important inflammatory mediator, and the extract of Papaver nudicaule with white flower collected at 90 days (NW90) was selected for further experiments because of the best effect on reducing the LPS-induced NO as well as no toxicity. NW90 lowered the LPS-induced PGE2 level and decreased the LPS-induced Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). In addition, NW90 reduced the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-6. Furthermore, NW90 inhibited the LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and STAT3. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that NW90 may restrain inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3, suggesting the potential therapeutic properties of Papaver nudicaule against inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Papaver/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052362

RESUMO

Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and six known sesquiterpenoids (5-10), were isolated from the EtOAc phase of the ethanolic extract of Ainsliaea yunnanensis. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods, including 1-D, 2-D NMR and HPLC-MS. All compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory effect by the inhibition of the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome by blocking the self-slicing of pro-caspase-1, which is induced by nigericin, then the secretion of mature IL-1ß, mediated by caspase-1, was suppressed. Unfortunately none of the compounds showed an anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Asteraceae/química , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Nigericina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035404

RESUMO

Cancer patients frequently suffer from cancer-related fatigue (CRF), which is a complex syndrome associated with weakness and depressed mood. Neuroinflammation is one of the major inducers of CRF. The aim of this study is to find a potential agent not only on the treatment of cancer, but also for reducing CRF level of cancer patients. In this study, total-thirty new Dihydroartemisinin-Coumarin hybrids (DCH) were designed and synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (HT-29, MDA-MB-231, HCT-116, and A549) was evaluated. Simultaneously, we also tested the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of DCH. DCH could inhibit the activated microglia N9 release of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6. The docking analysis was shown that MD-2, the coreceptor of TLR4, might be one of the targets of DCH.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artemisininas/química , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Artemisininas/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035535

RESUMO

Juçara berry is a potential inflammatory modulator, rich in dietary fiber, fatty acids, and anthocyanins. Considering this, we evaluated the high-fat diet (HFD) intake supplemented with different doses of freeze-dried juçara pulp on the TLR4 pathway. Twenty-seven male Wistar rats with ad libitum access to food and water were divided into four experimental groups: control standard chow group (C); high-fat diet control group (HFC); high-fat diet juçara 0.25% group (HFJ0.25%); and high-fat diet juçara 0.5% group (HFJ0.5%). The inflammatory parameters were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting in liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RET). The HFJ0.25% group had the energy intake, aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, and liver triacylglycerol accumulation reduced; also, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression in RET were reduced. However, there were no changes in other protein expressions in liver and adipose tissue. Adiposity and pNFκBp50 had a positive correlation in HFC and HFJ0.5%, but not in the C group and HFJ0.25%. The necrosis hepatic score did not change with treatment; however, the serum (AST) levels and the hepatic triacylglycerol were increased in HFC and HFJ0.5%. These results demonstrated that one week of HFD intake triggered pro-inflammatory mechanisms and liver injury. Additionally, 0.25% juçara prevented inflammatory pathway activation, body weight gain, and liver damage.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Euterpe/química , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 37-42, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078150

RESUMO

Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people's work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Pentobarbital , Células RAW 264.7 , Latência do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química
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