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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(2): 50-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902236

RESUMO

Introduction: Exudative tonsillitis is a common clinical picture during childhood. The majority of these cases are caused by viruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus), and only some infections are caused by bacteria, mainly group A streptococci (GAS). On the basis of international guidelines, routine use of early antibiotic treatment is not recommended in these cases, because it seems not to prevent GAS-associated complications. Aim: Our aim was to determine those laboratory results which are useful to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections in children with exudative tonsillitis to reduce antibiotic overuse. Method: In our study, we evaluated 135 clinical data from 133 children with exudative tonsillitis. Patients were grouped according to the following criteria: the first group contained patients with acute CMV or EBV infections, while in the second group, CMV or EBV infections were not confirmed using serology. Results: On the basis of our results, EBV or CMV infections (66/135, 48.8%) were serologically confirmed in the majority of cases with exudative tonsillitis between 2016 and 2017, while the causative role of GAS was minimal in this patient group (3/65, 4.61%). In spite of this finding, the majority of patients (92%) were treated with antibiotics. Conclusion: Our retrospective findings confirmed that it is not possible to determine the causative agent of this clinical picture on the basis of symptoms, and physical findings, moreover laboratory results, such as high white blood cell count could not confirm bacterial infection. At the same time, elevated transaminase levels may refer to viral origin of infection, especially EBV or CMV with high predictive value; the use of extended laboratory tests may reduce the unnecessary antibiotic consumption. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(2): 50-55.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Tonsilite/etiologia , Viroses/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Faringe/microbiologia , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 41-45, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905475

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of eradication therapy based on Helicobacter pylori (Hp) susceptibility and CYP2C19 genotype in children with refractory Hp infection. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 156 children with Hp refractory to amoxicillin+clarithromycin+omeprazole triple regimen in Baoding Children's Hospital from December 2017 to May 2018 were enrolled. Ninety-two of them underwent Hp culture and CYP2C19 detection. Seventy-five cases with positive Hp culture were defined as culture successful group and were treated according to Hp susceptibility and CYP2C19 genotype. Seventeen cases with negative Hp culture were defined as culture failed group and were treated only based on the results of CYP2C19 genotype. Sixty-four children who did not have Hp culture and CYP2C19 gene testing were defined as the empirical eradication therapy group and were treated with quadruple regimen (amoxicillin+metronidazole+omeprazole+bismuth). Bacterial resistance, CYP2C19 polymorphism and therapeutic effectiveness between the three groups were compared using chi-square test. Results: Among the 75 positive Hp culture results, 72 (96%) were resistant to clarithromycin, 3 (4%) were resistant to metronidazole, 5 (7%) were resistant to levofloxacin, 5 (7%) were resistant to rifampicin, 1 (1%) was resistant to tetracycline, and none was resistant to amoxicillin and furazolidone. The CYP2C19 polymorphism in 92 patients showed that 43 (47%) were extensive metabolizer (EM), 9 (10%) were poor metabolizer (PM), and 40 (43%) were intermediate metabolizer (IM). In terms of the effectiveness, eradication rate in the culture successful group,culture failed group and empirical eradication therapy group were 99% (74/75), 88% (15/17) and 72% (46/64), respectively (χ(2)=21.325, P<0.05). The eradication rate in the culture successful group was significantly higher than that in empirical eradication therapy group (χ(2)=21.005, P<0.05), while there was no difference between empirical eradication therapy group and culture failed group (χ(2)=1.154, P=0.283). Conclusion: Eradication regimen based on bacterial susceptibility and CYP2C19 genotype should be considered in children with refractory Hp infection.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Criança , Claritromicina/administração & dosagem , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMJ ; 368: l6768, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924664

RESUMO

The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Motivação , Pais , Atenção Primária à Saúde
6.
Food Chem ; 308: 125633, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644968

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different bran extracts and concentrations, and their influence on the parameters of a mayonnaise-type emulsion. To that end, first ethanol and then water were used to extract two rice bran extracts (RBE) from rice bran. Both these extracts were then added at two different concentrations (0.5 and 2%) to the emulsions that were subsequently analysed after seven days under two different storage temperatures, 4 °C and 20 °C. The antioxidant and antimicrobial ability of the extracts were evaluated, along with a control and a synthetic antioxidant. Results indicate the positive effect of rice bran extracts as additives in the food matrix. Ethanolic rice bran extract (EE) at 2% decreased the oxidation as well as mould and yeast proliferation and preserved the emulsion structure, while the other treatments acted in a similar way although their effect was less pronounced.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Condimentos , Emulsões , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Food Chem ; 308: 125682, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655479

RESUMO

In this work, a multifunctional food packaging composite coating with transparent, biodegradable, antifogging and antibacterial properties was designed and fabricated by quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan (HACC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a facile and environment-friendly solution casting method. A simple quaternization modification enabled the coating simultaneously to achieve excellent antifogging and antibacterial functions. The excellent antifogging property of the HACC/PVA composite coating was attributed to the strong water absorbency of quaternary ammonium chitosan and PVA. A nearly 98% transmittance ratio of coated glasses was achieved during antifogging test. In addition, the inhibition rate of the HACC/PVA composite coating kill against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Botrytis cinerea were up to ~99%. The antibacterial effect was demonstrated by each group of strawberries after storage for 1, 3, 5 days. The multifunctional coating has broad prospects in the application of fruit and vegetable packaging.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Food Chem ; 308: 125573, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639598

RESUMO

In this study an active antimicrobial packaging based on the controlled release of Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) from mustard seed was designed. The effect of fat content and particle size of ground mustard seeds on formation and release of AITC was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were highlighted. A smaller size of mustard particles resulted in more sinigrin conversion to AITC and a higher release of AITC in the headspace. The fat content has an important role on AITC release, a decreased fat content decreased AITC levels in the particles and increased the amount of AITC in the headspace. Based on the results of the sinigrin hydrolysis, the AITC surface exchange rate and the AITC fat solubility, an overall picture of the factors influencing the AITC release from the particles is proposed, which describes formation of AITC and its partitioning between the compartments of the particles and the headspace.


Assuntos
Gorduras/química , Isotiocianatos/química , Mostardeira/química , Antibacterianos , Glucosinolatos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Embalagem de Produtos , Sementes/química
10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 313-323, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675662

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a common phenomenon observed during treatment with antibacterials. Use of nanozymes, especially those with synergistic enzyme-like activities, as antibacterials could overcome this problem, but their synthesis is limited by their high cost and/or complex production process. Herein, vanadium oxide nanodots (VOxNDs) were prepared via a one-step bottom-up ethanol-thermal method using vanadium trichloride as the precursor. VOxNDs alone possess bienzyme mimics of peroxidase and oxidase. Accordingly, highly efficient antibacterials against drug-resistant bacteria can be obtained through synergistic catalysis; the oxidase-like activity decomposes O2 to generate superoxide anion radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), and the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity can further induce the production of OH from external H2O2. Consequently, H2O2 concentration could decrease up to four magnitude orders with VOxNDs to achieve an antibacterial efficacy similar to that of H2O2 alone. Wound healing in vivo further confirms the high antibacterial efficiency, good biocompatibility, and application potential of the synergistic antibacterial system due to the "nano" structure of VOxNDs. The method of synthesis of nanodot antibacterials described in this paper is inexpensive, and the results of this study reveal the multi-enzymatic synergism of nanozymes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Catálise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 313-320, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854932

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants hold a vast pool of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The aim of this study is to analyze the ARB and ARGs in a pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plant using a metagenomic technique. The results of taxonomic annotation revealed that bacteria were the predominant domain. The most abundant phyla and genus was Proteobacteria and Hyphomicrobium, respectively. A total of 74 categories of ARGs were predicted using CARD with the most dominant types being sav 1866, dfrE, and mfd. Furthermore, a network analysis was conducted to investigate the co-occurrence patterns between ARGs and microbial taxa. ARGs were found to be highly connected to microbial taxa at the genus level. With respect to the antibiotic resistance mechanisms, antibiotic-specific efflux pumps appeared to be the most common mechanisms. Among these, resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) was the major type. The most important functional pathway of this microbial community was metabolic correlation. Interestingly, there were many genes related to human diseases, among which bacterial infectious diseases were the main ones. On the one hand, these data further confirmed that pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plants are rich in ARB and ARGs. The accumulation of ARGs increases the potential environmental risks, and hence it is necessary to strengthen the active monitoring of ARB and ARGs in pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plants. On the other hand, research on ARB and ARGs offers important information for the selection of deep processing technology to effectively remove ARB and ARGs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genes Bacterianos , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Preparações Farmacêuticas
12.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 143-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549575

RESUMO

Brevinin-GR23 (B-GR23) was a brevinin-2 like antimicrobial peptide, which had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 µM. B-GR23 increased the bacterial membrane permeation, leading to the damage of membrane integrity and the leakage of genomic DNA, then causing the cell death. The peptide nearly inhibited all plantonic bacteria to start the initial attachment of biofilm at the concentration of 1 × MIC. Whereas the disruption rates on immature and mature biofilm decreased from 60% to 20%. B-GR23 reduced the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the planktonic growth of S. aureus, which is a crucial structure of biofilm formation. B-GR23 with the concentration of ½ × MIC inhibited 50% water-soluble EPS, and 48% water-insoluble EPS, which contributed to the antibiofilm activity. B-GR23 had no significant toxicity to human blood cells under-tested concentration (200 µM), making it a potential template for designing antimicrobial peptides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Anfíbios/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/antagonistas & inibidores , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos da radiação , Ranidae , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108375, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669767

RESUMO

Recently, oxo-biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention due to taking less time to break down after disposal in comparison to ordinary polymers. Polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (PVA/G) nanocomposite films, containing ZnO, TiO2 or ZnO/TiO2 nanoparticles supported on 4A zeolite (4A z), are novel active packaging that can control the release of antimicrobial compounds. The present study assessed the efficacy of PVA/G nanocomposite films with 1.5% (w/w) ZnO/4A z (treatment 1), 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/4A z (treatment 2), or 1% (w/w) ZnO, TiO2/4A z (treatment 3) in controlling the microbial load and maintaining the sensory qualities of white shrimp during storage at 4 ±â€¯1 °C. Firstly, the optimum concentration of each material for addition to the film was determined by micro-dilution and disc diffusion. Secondly, the specimens were checked for total viable count (TVC), as well as the counts of each of Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Shewanella putrefaciens, inoculated Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. According to the results, the PVA/G nanocomposite films containing treatments 1-3 significantly decreased the number of bacteria in the treatment group in comparison to the control group (P < .05). The results of the antimicrobial activity of the three treatments by using the disc diffusion method revealed that the inhibition zone varied from 8.11 ±â€¯0.02 to 12.63 ±â€¯0.04 mm. Also it should be noted that, the finding of micro-dilution test varied from 1 ±â€¯0.01 to 3 ±â€¯0.01. The ZnO, TiO2/4A z nanocomposite had a significantly greater antimicrobial impact against Gram-negative bacteria compared to Gram-positive bacteria (P < .05). Finally, the microbiological and sensory investigation of the efficacy of the PVA/G nanocomposite films as active packaging materials revealed a considerable improvement in shrimp shelf life (12 days) in comparison to the control (6 days). Therefore, these nanocomposite films can be used as novel active packaging in the maintenance of the microbial load and sensory qualities of shrimp.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Zeolitas/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gelatina/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Álcool de Polivinil/farmacologia , Refrigeração , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 228-237, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791495

RESUMO

The prevalent presence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted considerable attention because of their harmful effects on humans and the ecological environment. Magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals were found to act as a simple and effective adsorbent to remove low-concentration ciprofloxacin (CIP) in aqueous solution. The as-prepared Mg(OH)2 nanocrystals exhibited excellent CIP adsorption performance and high selectivity toward CIP molecules compared with other antibiotics or aromatics, e.g., norfloxacin (NOR) and eosin B (EB). The adsorbent showed pH-dependent adsorption, indicating that the adsorption process is probably dominated by an electrostatic interaction mechanism. In addition, structural analysis of the adsorbent indicated that coordination and hydrogen bonding between CIP and Mg(OH)2 nanocrystal might also be involved in the adsorption process. Moreover, the adsorbent could be easily recovered by pyrolysis and hydration without significant reduction of adsorption capacity. The superior adsorption behavior of Mg(OH)2 nanocrystal indicates that it may serve as a potential adsorbent material candidate for the selective removal of CIP from aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Antibacterianos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Fluoroquinolonas , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124570, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437629

RESUMO

Inhibition of anammox activities was tested with two ranges of chloramphenicol (CAP) concentration (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg L-1) and (100, 500, and 1000 µg L-1). In a short-term study, strong inhibition of activity was dependent of CAP concentration in both attached-growth (SBR-A) and suspended-growth (SBR-S) systems. The activities of attached-growth cultures at all CAP concentrations were reversible after 1 day, while activities for suspended-growth cultures were only gradually reversible dependent on the CAP concentrations. In long-term studies with daily additions of 6 mg L-1 CAP, the anammox activity on day 41 in SBR-A had decreased to 18% baseline (SAA reduced from 0.528 to 0.096 mg N mg-1 VSS d-1). More rapid reduction of anammox activity was observed in SBR-S, down to 17% baseline after only 27 days (SAA decreased from 0.576 to 0.096 mg N mg-1 VSS d-1). Inhibition was irreversible in both SBR-S and SBR-A after the long-term study. With lower CAP additions (100-1000 µg L-1), the activities in both reactors were stable during daily CAP addition for two weeks. Attached-growth cultures tended to be more tolerant of CAP addition than suspended-growth cultures. Both un-competitive and non-competitive models could be used to compare anammox activities with the higher CAP concentrations. The SAAmax [fx] (the maximum specific anammox activity) and hKi (the inhibition constant) of SBR-A were 0.48 mg N mg-1 VSS d-1 and 98.3 mg L-1, respectively. The SAAmax[fx] and Ki of SBR-S were 1.25 mg N mg-1 VSS d-1and 71.1 mg L-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Anaerobiose , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
16.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103286, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500709

RESUMO

Hispanic style soft non-fermented cheeses, such as queso fresco (QF) have been linked to outbreaks and recalls. Salmonella is one of the main causes of these incidents. Due to lack of ripening or post-processing antimicrobial treatments, incorporating GRAS antimicrobials to production process may be a suitable approach to minimize microbial risk in QF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of nisin (N), caprylic acid (CA) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CN) as single or combined treatments to reduce Salmonella populations in QF during storage. Batches of QF were inoculated after curding with approx. 4 Log CFU/g of 5-strain cocktails of Salmonella and stored at 8 °C for 20 days. The final Salmonella counts in control samples ranged from 6.96 to 7.14 Log CFU/g. Application of CN at 0.6 g/kg inhibited Salmonella growth during storage, resulting in at least 3 Log CFU/g difference with the untreated controls (p < 0.05). Addition of N (0.5 g/kg) and CA (0.4 g/kg) with CN (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) further enhanced the antimicrobial activity resulting in complete suppression of growth and even caused a 1 Log CFU/g reduction by the end of the experimental period compared to initial counts. Samples treated with the combined treatment (N, CA, CN) were evaluated in a consumer panel (n = 112). Participants preferred the control and commercial QF to the treated samples. However, treated samples with 0.3 g/kg CN were still within the acceptable range of neutral to like slightly. Results obtained, revealed that combined treatment of N, CA and CN can provide a solution to reduce the count of Salmonella in QF, whether in process or during storage.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Nisina/farmacologia
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124694, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524628

RESUMO

Techniques for reutilization of the discarded bischofite are limited while efficient recovery of the Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles from water during the synthesis and reuse processes is a challenge. In this study, the Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were firstly prepared from discarded bischofite and used as catalyst for improving the ozonation of metronidazole (MNZ). The removal rate constant of MNZ increased by 694.7% using Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 control, the MNZ removal rate constant of Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2 treatment was almost tripled. The persistent high catalytic activity of the Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2 catalyst was observed since the MNZ removal rate constant decreased by just 13.2% in the third reuse run. The Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2 primarily enhanced ozone decomposition through producing hydroxyl radicals. The MNZ removal rate constant increased from 0.075 min-1 to 0.643 min-1 as catalyst dose increased from 0 to 0.6 g L-1 while it decreased by 96.0% when its initial concentration increased from 10 to 200 mg L-1. The maximum removal rate constant was observed at 25 °C when temperature increased from 15 °C to 35 °C. The Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ ions could jeopardize MNZ degradation. The antibacterial activity of MNZ was eliminated after catalytic ozonation while the mineralization efficiency was almost doubled. The nitro group reduction and the cleavage of hydroxyethyl bond were two main transformation pathways of MNZ. These findings suggest that Fe3O4@Mg(OH)2 nanoparticle made from discarded bischofite is the promising catalyst for the ozonation of antibiotics in the terms of water purification practice and reutilization of the bischofite.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Hidróxido de Magnésio/química , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Catálise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124680, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545213

RESUMO

The antibiotic resistance induced by the release of antibiotics to the environment has urged research towards developing effective technologies for antibiotic removal from wastewater. Traditional technologies such as activated sludge processes are not effective for antibiotic removal. Recently, microalgae-based technology has been explored as a potential alternative for the treatment of wastewater containing antibiotics by adsorption, accumulation, biodegradation, photodegradation, and hydrolysis. In this review, the toxicities of antibiotics on microalgae, the mechanisms of antibiotic removal by microalgae, and the integration of microalgae with other technologies such as ultraviolet irradiation (photocatalysis), advanced oxidation, and complementary microorganism degradation for antibiotic removal were discussed. The limitations of current microalgae-based technology and future research needs were also discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Hidrólise , Fotólise , Esgotos/química , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 82-85, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887844

RESUMO

A 43-year-old male presented with elevated serum creatinine for 4 years and developed abdominal pain for 3 days. He started peritoneal dialysis 2 months ago. Dialysis-related peritonitis was ruled out and acute gastroenteritis was diagnosed. The patient was administrated with ertapenem 500 mg/d. An acute mental abnormality developed 3 days later. After excluded organic encephalopathy, ertapenem was discontinued for the suspicion of antibiotic-related encephalopathy. The frequency of peritoneal dialysis was increased to accelerate the clearance of antibiotics. However, the metal abnormality became even more severe. Then a diagnosis of Wernick-Korsakoff syndrome was considered. After the administration of high dose vitamin B(1), the mental disorder dramatically relieved. Vitamin B(1) 30 mg/d is maintained during peritoneal dialysis and the mental disorder does not relapse.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome de Korsakoff/tratamento farmacológico , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ertapenem/uso terapêutico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Síndrome de Korsakoff/diagnóstico , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Peritonite , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Encefalopatia de Wernicke/diagnóstico
20.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 91-97, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovial sepsis of unknown origin is a rare cause of lameness in the adult horse, and a haematogenous pathogenesis has been proposed in previous cases. OBJECTIVES: To describe the features and outcome of synovial sepsis of unknown origin in adult Thoroughbred racehorses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Hospital records for admissions between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed to identify adult horses diagnosed with synovial sepsis of unknown origin. Presentation, clinicopathological, microbiological and diagnostic imaging findings were recorded. Treatment methods, surgical findings, complications and long-term outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: Eleven cases were identified over the study period. Diagnosis was established from clinical examination and clinicopathologic findings, which were comparable to other aetiologies of synovial sepsis. Affected structures included synovial joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. Concurrent osteochondritis dissecans or articular cartilage lesions were evident during arthroscopic surgery in three cases. Significant intrasynovial haemorrhage was not identified. Microbial culture of synovial fluid or synovial biopsy was positive in 6/11 of cases, with all isolates being Gram-positive cocci. Of the 6 positive microbial cultures, all isolates demonstrated in vitro sensitivity to a cephalosporin antimicrobial agent. A concurrent remote wound was present in a single case. No other potential origins of bacteraemia were identified. Treatment methods included endoscopic surgery, standing multineedle lavage, intravenous regional limb perfusion, intrasynovial medication and/or systemic antimicrobial administration. All horses survived to hospital discharge. For the 6/11 cases that raced following synovial sepsis, the median period for return to racing was 221 days. MAIN LIMITATIONS: A small study population, which was retrospectively reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial sepsis of unknown origin is rare in the adult Thoroughbred racehorse and can affect a range of synovial structures. A concurrent potential source of bacteraemia is rarely identified. With appropriate management, the prognosis to return to racing is fair.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Sinovectomia/veterinária , Sinovite/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Membrana Sinovial , Sinovite/patologia , Sinovite/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
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