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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016358

RESUMO

The United States, particularly the southern portion, has recently suffered drastic population expansion of wild pigs causing destruction of prime farmland. An associated concern, which has been understudied, is the potential transfer of nutrients and pathogens to surface water. This study aimed to identify the abiotic and biotic impacts of captive wild pigs on water quality, including nutrients, fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Overall, the study demonstrated that wild pigs harbored Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens, which were found in water runoff collected directly beneath the hog paddock, often 2 log10 greater than above-paddock levels. However, the impacts to downstream water quality were limited, perhaps because of a relatively large riparian buffer between the paddock and surface water. A higher rate of ammonium concentration changes over time was detected in the runoff water below the paddock; additionally, microbial releases detected in runoff were also time dependent, possibly associated with increasing pig numbers. Antibiotic resistance was generally not associated with the wild pigs. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in upstream as well as downstream surface water, suggesting that nonpoint sources of microbial contamination were present. Interestingly, intI1 levels were greater in below-paddock runoff by nearly 2 log10 . Overall, it appears that wild pigs potentially pose a threat to water quality but only if they have direct access to the water. Pathogen, fecal indicator bacteria, and some nutrient release were significantly associated with wild pigs, but riparian buffers limited water quality impairment.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Suínos , Estados Unidos
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 754-761, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016404

RESUMO

Land application of manure introduces gastrointestinal microbes into the environment, including bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Measuring soil ARGs is important for active stewardship efforts to minimize gene flow from agricultural production systems; however, the variety of sampling protocols and target genes makes it difficult to compare ARG results between studies. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to characterize and/or quantify 27 ARG targets in soils from 20 replicate, long-term no-till plots, before and after swine manure application and simulated rainfall and runoff. All samples were negative for the 10 b-lactamase genes assayed. For tetracycline resistance, only source manure and post-application soil samples were positive. The mean number of macrolide, sulfonamide, and integrase genes increased in post-application soils when compared with source manure, but at plot level only, 1/20, 5/20, and 11/20 plots post-application showed an increase in erm(B), sulI, and intI1, respectively. Results confirmed the potential for temporary blooms of ARGs after manure application, likely linked to soil moisture levels. Results highlight uneven distribution of ARG targets, even within the same soil type and at the farm plot level. This heterogeneity presents a challenge for separating effects of manure application from background ARG noise under field conditions and needs to be considered when designing studies to evaluate the impact of best management practices to reduce ARG or for surveillance. We propose expressing normalized quantitative PCR (qPCR) ARG values as the number of ARG targets per 100,000 16S ribosomal RNA genes for ease of interpretation and to align with incidence rate data.


Assuntos
Esterco , Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 745-753, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016408

RESUMO

Manure is commonly used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner; however, land application of untreated manure may introduce pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) into the soil, with harmful implications for public health. Composting is a manure management practice wherein a carbon-rich bulking agent, such as corn (Zea mays L.) stalk residue, is added to manure to achieve desirable carbon/nitrogen ratios to facilitate microbial activities and generate enough heat to inactivate pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, when comparing compost piles and stockpiles for ARB reduction, we noticed that bulking agents added ARB to composting piles and compromised the performance of composting in reducing ARB. We hypothesized that ARB could be prevalent in corn stalk residues, a commonly used bulking agent for composting. To test this hypothesis, corn stalk residue samples throughout Nebraska were surveyed for the presence of ARB. Of the samples tested, 54% were positive for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli or enterococci using direct plating or after enrichment. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend wherein the use of pesticides tended to result in a greater prevalence of some ARB. Results from this study suggest that bulking agents can be a source of ARB in manure composting piles and highlight the importance of screening bulking agents for effective ARB reduction in livestock manure during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Esterco , Nebraska , Zea mays
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1322-1333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016441

RESUMO

Antibiotics and estrogens are recognized as emerging contaminants in the water environment because of their potentially adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. The concentrations of four steroid estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17ß-estradiol, estrone, and estriol) and eight antibiotics (norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, metronidazole, sulfapyridine, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole) in the Chaohu Lake basin in Anhui province, China, were analyzed along with adjacent wastewater. The levels of the target antibiotics and estrogens were below detection limits (not detected [nd])-89.86 and nd-118.09 ng L-1 , respectively, in the lake water. All of the target antibiotics and estrogens were detected in sediment, and the concentrations ranged widely (nd-35,544 and nd-16,344 ng kg-1 , respectively). Antibiotics and estrogens varied spatially in the study area and mostly came from untreated wastewater. Antibiotics and estrogens were associated with water parameters such as pH and total nitrogen. A significant positive correlation was observed between estriol and levofloxacin concentrations (r = .65; p < .01), indicating that levofloxacin from the same source might have inhibited the microbiological degradation of estriol in the surface water. Overall, the estrogens pose a more severe risk than antibiotics to the Chaohu Lake system. However, co-occurrence of antibiotics may affect the fate of estrogens in the same lake media. More attention should be given to estrogens than to antibiotics in wastewater-affected lake systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Lagos/análise
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 580, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19, pregnant women who are susceptible to COVID-19 should be highly concerned. The issue of vertical transmission and the possibility of neonatal infection is a major concern. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 35-year-old pregnant woman with a gestational age of 37 weeks and 6 days was admitted to our hospital at the point of giving birth. Except for the abnormalities in her chest CT image, she was asymptomatic. She had an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery, and her infant was discharged home for isolation. Because of the positive result of the maternal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 obtained on the 2nd day after sampling, we transferred the mother to the designated hospital and followed up with her by telephone interviews. Luckily, it was confirmed on February 23 that the newborn did not develop any COVID-19 symptoms after observation for 14 days after birth. Case 2: Another pregnant woman, with a gestational age of 38 weeks and 2 days, was also admitted to our hospital because of spontaneous labor with cervical dilation of 5 cm. Since she had the typical manifestations of COVID-19, including cough, lymphopenia, and abnormal chest CT images, she was highly suspected of having COVID-19. Based on the experience from case 1, we helped the mother deliver a healthy baby by vaginal delivery. On the 2nd day after delivery, the maternal nasopharyngeal swab result was positive, while the infant's result was negative. CONCLUSION: There is still insufficient evidence supporting maternal-fetal vertical transmission for COVID-19-infected mothers in late pregnancy, and vaginal delivery may not increase the possibility of neonatal infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Linfopenia , Máscaras , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Testes Sorológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1352-1353, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021663
7.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1353-1354, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021666
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 975-986, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. If antibiotics are commenced promptly, infection can be eradicated. The aim of the trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin versus oral ciprofloxacin in the eradication of P aeruginosa. METHODS: We did a multicentre, parallel group, open-label, randomised controlled trial in 72 cystic fibrosis centres (70 in the UK and two in Italy). Eligible participants were older than 28 days with an isolate of P aeruginosa (either the first ever isolate or a new isolate after at least 1 year free of infection). Participants were excluded if the P aeruginosa was resistant to, or they had a contraindication to, one or more of the trial antibiotics; if they were already receiving P aeruginosa suppressive therapy; if they had received any P aeruginosa eradication therapy within the previous 9 months; or if they were pregnant or breastfeeding. We used web-based randomisation to assign patients to 14 days intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin or 12 weeks oral ciprofloxacin. Both were combined with 12 weeks inhaled colistimethate sodium. Randomisation lists were generated by a statistician, who had no involvement in the trial, using a computer-generated list. Randomisation was stratified by centre and because of the nature of the interventions, blinding was not possible. Our primary outcome was eradication of P aeruginosa at 3 months and remaining free of infection to 15 months. Primary analysis used intention to treat (powered for superiority). Safety analysis included patients who received at least one dose of study drug. TORPEDO-CF was registered on the ISRCTN register, ISRCTN02734162, and EudraCT, 2009-012575-10. FINDINGS: Between Oct 5, 2010, and Jan 27, 2017, 286 patients were randomly assigned to treatment: 137 to intravenous antibiotics and 149 to oral antibiotics. 55 (44%) of 125 participants in the intravenous group and 68 (52%) of 130 participants in the oral group achieved the primary outcome. Participants randomly assigned to the intravenous group were less likely to achieve the primary outcome, although the difference between groups was not statistically significant (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·65-1·09; p=0·18). 11 serious adverse events occurred in ten (8%) of 126 participants in the intravenous antibiotics group and 17 serious adverse events in 12 (8%) of 146 participants in the oral antibiotics group. INTERPRETATION: Compared with oral therapy, intravenous antibiotics did not achieve sustained eradication of P aeruginosa in a greater proportion of patients with cystic fibrosis and was more expensive. Although there were fewer hospitalisations in the intravenous group than the oral group during follow-up, this confers no advantage over oral treatment because intravenous eradication frequently requires hospitalisation. These results do not support the use of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate P aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceftazidima/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Global Health ; 16(1): 94, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has rapidly and radically changed the face of human health and social interaction. As was the case with COVID-19, the world is similarly unprepared to respond to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the challenges it will produce. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to examine how the international community might better respond to the growing AMR threat. MAIN BODY: The impacts of COVID-19 have manifested in health system, economic, social, and global political implications. Increasing AMR will also present challenges in these domains. As seen with COVID-19, increasing healthcare usage and resource scarcity may lead to ethical dilemmas about prioritization of care; unemployment and economic downturn may disproportionately impact people in industries reliant on human interaction (especially women); and international cooperation may be compromised as nations strive to minimize outbreaks within their own borders. CONCLUSION: AMR represents a slow-moving disaster that offers a unique opportunity to proactively develop interventions to mitigate its impact. The world's attention is currently rightfully focused on responding to COVID-19, but there is a moral imperative to take stock of lessons learned and opportunities to prepare for the next global health emergency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Previsões , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1068-1073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the pathogenic distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and prognostic factors for acute leukemia (AL) patients with Gram negative (G-) bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI), in order to provide theoretical basis for reducing the infection-related mortality of AL patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 1 055 AL patients with BSI admitted to the hematology ward of three large-scale hospitals in Hunan Province from January 2010 to December 2018 were collected. The etiology, antibiotic susceptibility data and clinical features of patients with G- bacterial infection were analyzed. RESULTS: G- bacterial infection accounted for 622 AL patients with BSI, and the main pathogens were Escherichia coli (277 strains, 44.53%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (138 strains, 22.19%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (81 strains, 13.02%). Most G- bacteria were highly sensitive to carbapenems and ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor. State of disease, Pitt score ≥4, treatment with vasoactive agents and sensitive antibiotic >48 h were independent risk factors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Rational antibacterial treatment of G- bacterial BSI in AL patients requires adequate acquaintance of the local pathogenic epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility-monitored data. Broad-spectrum antibiotics covering the most common and more virulent pathogens should be timely applicated and adjusted according to antibiotic susceptibility results and efficacy.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prognóstico
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD008359, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001448

RESUMO

This Cochrane review has been withdrawn. The Cochrane review is out of date and included a retracted article in the analysis. Withdrawn by Cochrane Colorectal Group. A new update is expected. The editorial group responsible for this previously published document have withdrawn it from publication.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2468-2476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029089

RESUMO

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first announced in Wuhan, and has rapidly evolved into a pandemic. However, the risk factors associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are yet to be described in detail. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the information of 1525 cases from the Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were generated to explore the relationship between procalcitonin (PCT) level and the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the relationship between disease severity in hospitalized patients and their PCT levels. Survival curves and the cumulative hazard function for COVID-19 progression were conducted in the two groups. To further detect the relationship between the computed tomography score and survival days, curve-fitting analyses were performed. Results: Patients in the elevated PCT group had a higher incidence of severe and critical severity conditions (P < 0.001), death, and higher computed tomography (CT) scores. There was an association between elevated PCT levels and mortality in the univariate ((hazard ratio [1], 3.377; 95% confidence interval [2], 1.012-10.344; P = 0.033) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR, 4.933; 95% CI, 1.170-20.788; P = 0.030). Similarly, patients with elevated PCT were more likely to have critically severe disease conditions in the univariate (odds ratio [2], 7.247; 95% CI, 3.559-14.757; P < 0.001) and multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR, 10.679; 95% CI, 4.562-25.000; P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed poorer prognosis for patients with elevated PCT (P = 0.024). The CT score 1 for patients with elevated PCT peaked at day 40 following the onset of symptoms then decreased gradually, while their total CT score was relatively stable. Conclusion: PCT level was shown as an independent risk factor of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients. Compared with inpatients with normal PCT levels, inpatients with elevated PCT levels had a higher risk for overall mortality and critically severe disease. These findings may provide guidance for improving the prognosis of patients with critically severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 632-635, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025931

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of three different intracanal medicaments, namely, modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), and aloe vera, on the root dentine microhardness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 extracted mandibular bicuspids were prepared using ProTaper Next rotary files. The roots of the bicuspids were alienated to three groups (n = 10 each) and one control group (untreated; n = 20). In three groups, the root canals were filled with MTAP, Ca(OH)2, and aloe vera medicaments. After 21 days, medicaments were removed by Endo activator. Mean Knoop hardness numbers were calculated after treatment and compared with the untreated control group. Data were evaluated using the Student's t test (paired), ANOVA (one-way) followed, and the post hoc test. RESULTS: All treated groups except the aloe vera group had shown significant reduction (p < 0.05) in microhardness of the root dentin as compared with the untreated control group. The aloe vera group showed least reduction of microhardness and was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Aloe vera shows promising results in terms of fewer effects on microhardness of the root dentin compared to MTAP and Ca(OH)2. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Elimination of most of the bacterial infection from the root canal and very minimum to no effect on the microhardness of the dentin in the root part are the basics of success in any endodontic treatment. Further in vivo studies are required to compare the efficacy of these intracanal medicaments.


Assuntos
Aloe , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Dentina , Humanos
14.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 583-598, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025952

RESUMO

Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are one of the most common types of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The standard of care for ABSSSI includes glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin, oxazolidinones and fluoroquinolones, which are potent broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Unfortunately, due to indiscriminate utilization, resistance to these agents is rising and identification of novel agents is an urgent unmet medical need. In this context, levonadifloxacin (WCK-771) is a novel, hydrate arginine salt of nadifloxacin with improved bactericidal activity against MRSA as well as fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus by targeting bacterial DNA supercoiling enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Levonadifloxacin displays a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and bioterror pathogens with a very low frequency of mutation. Levonadifloxacin also displays improved activity under low pH biofilm environments. The drug has successfully completed phase I, phase II and phase III clinical trials in India. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation to levonadifloxacin for the treatment of MRSA infections in August 2014.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 760-764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020359

RESUMO

AIM: One of the most vital characteristics of an ideal root filling material is the capability to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is one of the most used root repair materials, with approved antibacterial effect. A newly introduced root repair material is nano-fast cement (NFC) which should be investigated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of NFC were evaluated in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis (PTCC 1394), Escherichia coli (ATTC 15224), and Candida albicans (PTCC 5027) were employed for the antimicrobial assessment. The following were the steps used to conduct the agar diffusion test (ADT): six agar plates were used. 0.5 McFarland concentration of each strain was cultured on two plates by a sterile cotton-tipped swab. Three holes with 5mm diameter were created on each plate. Freshly mixed cement was placed in the holes of the related plate. After two hours, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Then, the diameter of the growth inhibition zones were measured, and the mean values were used for the analysis. Direct contact test (DCT) was done by using the following steps: Freshly mixed materials were placed in the 96-well microtiter plate. 10 µL of each bacterial suspension was added to the tested cement. After one-hour incubation at 37°C, 245 µL of BHI broth was added to each well, and the plate was vortexed for 2 minutes. About 15 µL of this bacterial suspension was added to a new well which contained 215 µL of fresh medium. The kinetics of the bacterial outgrowth were measured by the microplate spectrophotometer hourly for 12 hours. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the diameters of the growth inhibition zones of MTA and NFC groups in ADT. In DCT, the MTA inhibits E. coli more effectively than NFC (p value < 0.001). Both cements had the same inhibitory effect on E. faecalis and C. albicans. CONCLUSION: The MTA and NFC are almost equally effective against the tested microorganisms. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The antibacterial characteristic of any dental material is an important matter. As well, the antibacterial efficacy of the NFC should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Compostos de Alumínio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Silicatos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 721, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen which can invade different mammalian cells and reach to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to meningoencephalitis and brain abscesses. In the diagnosis of L. monocytogenes meningoencephalitis (LMM), the traditional test often reports negative owing to the antibiotic treatment or a low number of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid. To date, timely diagnosis and accurate treatment remains a challenge for patients with listeria infections. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 66-year-old woman whose clinical manifestations were suspected as tuberculous meningoencephalitis, but the case was finally properly diagnosed as LMM by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The patient was successfully treated using a combined antibacterial therapy, comprising ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. CONCLUSION: To improve the sensitivity of LMM diagnosis, we used NGS for the detection of L. monocytogenes. Hence, the clinical utility of this approach can be very helpful since it provides quickly and trust results.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Meningite por Listeria/microbiologia , Meningoencefalite/microbiologia , Idoso , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Meningite por Listeria/diagnóstico , Meningite por Listeria/tratamento farmacológico , Meningoencefalite/diagnóstico , Meningoencefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Essential oils can serve as novel sources of antibiotics for multidrug-resistant bacteria. METHODS: The multidrug-resistance profile of a Klebsiella aerogenes strain was assessed by PCR and sequencing. The antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (CCeo) against K. aerogenes was assessed by broth microdilution and time-kill methods. RESULTS: K. aerogenes showed high antibiotic resistance. The genes bla KPC-2, ampC, bla CTX-M-15, bla OXA-1, and bla TEM were present. CCeo exhibited an inhibitory effect with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 17.57 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The antibacterial activity of CCeo makes it a potential candidate for treating carbapenem- and polymyxin-resistant K. aerogenes strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Enterobacter aerogenes , Infecções por Klebsiella , Carbapenêmicos , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Óleos Voláteis , Polimixinas , beta-Lactamases
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 877-886, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031067

RESUMO

Water pollution from antibiotics has attracted a lot of attention for its serious threat to human health. In this study, a magnetic adsorbent (zinc ferrite/activated carbon (ZnFe2O4/AC) was synthesized via microwave method to effectively remove gemifioxacin mesylate (GEM) and moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX). Based on the porosity of AC and the magnetism of ZnFe2O4, the resulting ZnFe2O4/AC has high adsorption capacities and can be easily separated from the solid-liquid system via a magnetic field. The largest adsorption capacities for GEM and MOX can reach up to 433.4 mg g-1 and 388.8 mg g-1, respectively, higher than those of reported adsorbents such as MIL-101 and MOF-808. Fastest adsorptions of GEM and MOX were found at 5 min, and solution pH and coexisting salts do not have a significant influence on the adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism analysis indicates that electrostatic interaction and H-bond interaction contribute to the effective adsorption.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Magnetismo
20.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1213-1224, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999200

RESUMO

In basic pharmaceutical sciences to achieve drug development, research on the efficient chemical synthesis of small molecules having cyclic skeletons is important. We have been engaged in the development of artificial catalysts for asymmetric ring formation reactions that exclusively synthesize right-handed or left-handed cyclic compounds and have achieved the construction of optically active cyclic skeletons using our original catalysts. The synthesis of biologically active compounds was facilitated through six-membered ring construction by Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky diene; however, no asymmetric variant of the reaction has been achieved. We approached this unresolved issue using multi-coordinated lanthanide metals. A new chiral lanthanide catalyst was developed, and the catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky diene was realized for the first time. By modifying the chemical structure of Danishefsky diene, we applied the lanthanide catalyst to the syntheses of polycyclic compounds and biologically active compounds. We achieved the asymmetric synthesis of natural products, antibacterial and antimalarial compounds, and an anti-obesity drug lead compound. Moreover, the novel catalyst exhibited higher performance than the previously reported ones. The latest generation of the catalyst can be handled stably in air at room temperature. Furthermore, we succeeded in the development of new catalysts by focusing on the properties of its metal precursors, such as nickel and indium, and achieved the construction of polycyclic skeletons by using these catalysts.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Policíclicos/síntese química , Alcenos/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/síntese química , Antimaláricos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Catálise , Reação de Cicloadição , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Índio , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Níquel , Estereoisomerismo
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