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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 665-676, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003081

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are of particular concern due to their ubiquitous occurrence and propensity to interact and concentrate various waterborne contaminants from aqueous surroundings. Studies on the interaction and joint toxicity of MPs on engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are exhaustive, but limited research on the effect of MPs on the properties of ENPs in multi-solute systems. Here, the effect of MPs on adsorption ability of ENPs to antibiotics was investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated that MPs enhanced the adsorption affinity of ENPs to antibiotics and MPs before and after aging showed different effects on ENPs. Aged polyamide prevented aggregation of ZnONPs by introducing negative charges, whereas virgin polyamide affected ZnONPs with the help of electrostatic attraction. FT-IR and XPS analyses were used to probe the physicochemical interactions between ENPs and MPs. The results showed no chemical interaction and electrostatic interaction was the dominant force between them. Furthermore, the adsorption rate of antibiotics positively correlated with pH and humic acid but exhibited a negative correlation with ionic strength. Our study highlights that ENPs are highly capable of accumulating and transporting antibiotics in the presence of MPs, which could result in a widespread distribution of antibiotics and an expansion of their environmental risks and toxic effects on biota. It also improves our understanding of the mutual interaction of various co-existing contaminants in aqueous environments.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Óxido de Zinco , Adsorção , Microplásticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Nanopartículas/química , Modelos Químicos , Antibacterianos/química , Substâncias Húmicas
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 582-596, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003073

RESUMO

As an emerging environmental contaminant, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in tap water have attracted great attention. Although studies have provided ARG profiles in tap water, research on their abundance levels, composition characteristics, and potential threat is still insufficient. Here, 9 household tap water samples were collected from the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) in China. Additionally, 75 sets of environmental sample data (9 types) were downloaded from the public database. Metagenomics was then performed to explore the differences in the abundance and composition of ARGs. 221 ARG subtypes consisting of 17 types were detected in tap water. Although the ARG abundance in tap water was not significantly different from that found in drinking water plants and reservoirs, their composition varied. In tap water samples, the three most abundant classes of resistance genes were multidrug, fosfomycin and MLS (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin) ARGs, and their corresponding subtypes ompR, fosX and macB were also the most abundant ARG subtypes. Regarding the potential mobility, vanS had the highest abundance on plasmids and viruses, but the absence of key genes rendered resistance to vancomycin ineffective. Generally, the majority of ARGs present in tap water were those that have not been assessed and are currently not listed as high-threat level ARG families based on the World Health Organization Guideline. Although the current potential threat to human health posed by ARGs in tap water is limited, with persistent transfer and accumulation, especially in pathogens, the potential danger to human health posed by ARGs should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Metagenômica , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Água Potável/microbiologia , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 498-511, 2025 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003065

RESUMO

The land application of livestock manure has been widely acknowledged as a beneficial approach for nutrient recycling and environmental protection. However, the impact of residual antibiotics, a common contaminant of manure, on the degradation of organic compounds and nutrient release in Eutric Regosol is not well understood. Here, we studied, how oxytetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) affect the decomposition, microbial community structure, extracellular enzyme activities and nutrient release from cattle and pig manure using litterbag incubation experiments. Results showed that OTC and CIP greatly inhibited livestock manure decomposition, causing a decreased rate of carbon (28%-87%), nitrogen (15%-44%) and phosphorus (26%-43%) release. The relative abundance of gram-negative (G-) bacteria was reduced by 4.0%-13% while fungi increased by 7.0%-71% during a 28-day incubation period. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that antibiotic exposure disrupted microbial interactions, particularly among G- bacteria, G+ bacteria, and actinomycetes. These changes in microbial community structure and function resulted in decreased activity of urease, ß-1,4-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, alkaline protease, chitinase, and catalase, causing reduced decomposition and nutrient release in cattle and pig manures. These findings advance our understanding of decomposition and nutrient recycling from manure-contaminated antibiotics, which will help facilitate sustainable agricultural production and soil carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gado , Esterco , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Sequestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Fósforo , Reciclagem , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Suínos , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxitetraciclina
4.
Int Wound J ; 21(7): e14961, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949168

RESUMO

Patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) are at risk of foot infections, which is associated with an increase in amputation rates. The use of antibiotics may lead to a higher incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in subsequent episodes of ischaemic foot infections (IFI). This retrospective single-centre cohort study included 130 patients with IFI undergoing endovascular revascularisation. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the two most common pathogens, accounting for 20.5% and 10.8% of cases, respectively. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multi-drug resistance did not significantly increase between episodes (10.2% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.42). In 59% of subsequent episodes, the identified pathogens were unrelated to the previous episode. However, the partial concordance of identified pathogens significantly increased to 66.7% when S. aureus was identified (p = 0.027). Subsequent episodes of IFI in the same patient are likely to differ in causative pathogens. However, in the case of S. aureus, the risk of reinfection, particularly with S. aureus, is increased. Multi-drug resistance does not appear to change between IFI episodes. Therefore, recommendations for empirical antimicrobial therapy should be based on local pathogen and resistance statistics without the need to broaden the spectrum of antibiotics in subsequent episodes.


Assuntos
Isquemia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12469, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952482

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are particularly susceptible to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and are often the first to be affected by an emerging resistant pathogen. Unfortunately, their prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality according to the type of graft is not systematically reported from high-as well as from low and middle-income countries (HIC and LMIC). Thus, epidemiology on MDRO in SOT recipients could be subjected to reporting bias. In addition, screening practices and diagnostic resources may vary between countries, as well as the availability of new drugs. In this review, we aimed to depict the burden of main Gram-negative MDRO in SOT patients across HIC and LMIC and to provide an overview of current diagnostic and therapeutic resources.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento
6.
Iran J Med Sci ; 49(6): 369-376, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952643

RESUMO

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a fatal complication of ascites fluid infection. The causes of SBP in children differ from those in adults, and these bacteria are frequently resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, this study investigated the clinical findings, bacterial etiology, and antimicrobial resistance in children with SBP. Methods: This study was conducted on all new pediatric ascites patients, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Namazi Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from 2021 to 2022. Required data such as demographic information, and clinical information such as complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Gram staining, blood culture by Automated Blood Culture System (BACTEC), and antibiogram of ascites fluids by disc diffusion method were all collected. Finally, the data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Software (version 26). Besides, the t test, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Chi square tests were used for data analysis. In all tests, P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study examined 62 children with ascites of which 18 (29%) had SBP. The median (IQR) age was 2.5 (8.1) years. Thirty-four (54.8%) of the participants were girls. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical manifestation in patients (54%), and there was a significant association between abdominal pain and SBP (P=0.02). In 12 positive ascites fluid cultures, coagulase-negative staphylococci had the highest frequency (25%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.7%). Third-generation cephalosporins had a 25% sensitivity in the total positive cultures. This sensitivity was 33.3% for Gram-negative cultures and 16.6% for Gram-positive cultures. Conclusion: Although third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as the primary antibiotic for the empirical treatment of SBP, the present study found high bacterial resistance. Finally, empirical therapy should be tailored to each region's bacterial resistance features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Peritonite , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/microbiologia , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Irã (Geográfico) , Pré-Escolar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Lactente , Adolescente , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 6427-6447, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952675

RESUMO

Background: Implants are widely used in the field of orthopedics and dental sciences. Titanium (TI) and its alloys have become the most widely used implant materials, but implant-associated infection remains a common and serious complication after implant surgery. In addition, titanium exhibits biological inertness, which prevents implants and bone tissue from binding strongly and may cause implants to loosen and fall out. Therefore, preventing implant infection and improving their bone induction ability are important goals. Purpose: To study the antibacterial activity and bone induction ability of titanium-copper alloy implants coated with nanosilver/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (NSPTICU) and provide a new approach for inhibiting implant-associated infection and promoting bone integration. Methods: We first examined the in vitro osteogenic ability of NSPTICU implants by studying the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, the ability of NSPTICU implants to induce osteogenic activity in SD rats was studied by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, masson staining, immunohistochemistry and van gieson (VG) staining. The antibacterial activity of NSPTICU in vitro was studied with gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Sa was used as the test bacterium, and the antibacterial ability of NSPTICU implanted in rats was studied by gross view specimen collection, bacterial colony counting, HE staining and Giemsa staining. Results: Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that NSPTICU promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The in vitro antimicrobial results showed that the NSPTICU implants exhibited better antibacterial properties. Animal experiments showed that NSPTICU can inhibit inflammation and promote the repair of bone defects. Conclusion: NSPTICU has excellent antibacterial and bone induction ability, and has broad application prospects in the treatment of bone defects related to orthopedics and dental sciences.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Escherichia coli , Osteogênese , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Camundongos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Próteses e Implantes , Ligas/farmacologia , Ligas/química , Ratos , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/química , Cobre/farmacologia , Masculino , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Linhagem Celular , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
9.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(27)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953674

RESUMO

This is a case report of 51-year-old male patient with various symptoms including skin rashes, sensory disturbances, and non-cicatricial hair loss. Despite previous tests, the cause remained elusive until a dermatological examination revealed signs of syphilis. The patient's history, including his sexual relationships, became key in confirming the diagnosis, leading to treatment for neurosyphilis. With a rising incidence of syphilis in Denmark, this case highlights the importance of considering syphilis as a potential diagnosis across medical specialities because of the diverse and challenging clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Neurossífilis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Neurossífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Neurossífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
10.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(26)2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953689

RESUMO

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in neonates occurs in two forms: early-onset disease (EOD), (day 0-6), and late-onset disease (LOD), (day 7-90). This review investigates that risk-based intrapartum screening and antibiotics have reduced the incidence of EOD, but not LOD, in Denmark. No clinical or laboratory tests can rule out GBS disease at symptom onset. Thus, a high proportion of uninfected infants receive antibiotics, although this varies widely, and may be reduced by strategies of antibiotic stewardship. A future GBS vaccine for pregnant women may potentially reduce disease burden and antibiotic exposure.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Humanos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Gravidez , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Lactente , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle
11.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 213(1): 12, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954065

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a major public health concern with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study aimed to evaluate the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance changes, clonal composition, and virulence factors of S. pneumoniae isolates causing pneumococcal disease in northeast China from 2000 to 2021. A total of 1,454 S. pneumoniae isolates were included, with 568 invasive strains and 886 non-invasive strains. The patients from whom the S. pneumoniae were isolated ranged in age from 26 days to 95 years, with those ≤ 5 years old comprising the largest group (67.19%). 19 F, 19 A, 23 F, 14, and 6B were the most common serotypes, of which 19 A and 19 F were the main serotypes of invasive and non-invasive S. pneumoniae, respectively. CC271 was the most common multilocus sequence type. Serotype 14 had the lowest expression of cbpA, rrgA, and psrP genes, but expression levels of 19 A and 19 F genes were similar. All isolates were sensitive to ertapenem, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin but highly resistant to macrolides, tetracyclines, and cotrimoxazole. Simultaneous resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was common pattern among multidrug-resistant isolates. Non-invasive S. pneumoniae had higher resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics than invasive strains. 19 A and 19 F were the main strains of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. The resistance rate of ß-lactam antibiotics decreased from 2017 to 2021 compared to previous periods. Including PCV13 in the national immunization program can reduce the morbidity and mortality rates of pneumococcal disease effectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Fatores de Virulência , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Adulto , Criança , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Feminino , Masculino , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 266, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954124

RESUMO

Recently, the hazardous effects of antibiotic micropollutants on the environment and human health have become a major concern. To address this challenge, semiconductor-based photocatalysis has emerged as a promising solution for environmental remediation. Our study has developed Bi2WO6/g-C3N4 (BWCN) photocatalyst with unique characteristics such as reactive surface sites, enhanced charge transfer efficiency, and accelerated separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. BWCN was utilized for the oxidation of tetracycline antibiotic (TCA) in different water sources. It displayed remarkable TCA removal efficiencies in the following order: surface water (99.8%) > sewage water (88.2%) > hospital water (80.7%). Further, reusability tests demonstrated sustained performance of BWCN after three cycles with removal efficiencies of 87.3, 71.2 and 65.9% in surface water, sewage, and hospital water, respectively. A proposed photocatalytic mechanism was delineated, focusing on the interaction between reactive radicals and TCA molecules. Besides, the transformation products generated during the photodegradation of TCA were determined, along with the discussion on the potential risk assessment of antibiotic pollutants. This study introduces an approach for utilizing BWCN photocatalyst, with promising applications in the treatment of TCA from various wastewater sources.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Oxirredução , Tetraciclina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Antibacterianos/química , Tetraciclina/química , Catálise , Águas Residuárias/química , Bismuto/química , Grafite/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Fotólise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Esgotos/química
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(7)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955383

RESUMO

Lucio leprosy is a diffuse non-nodular form of lepromatous leprosy. Lucio phenomenon is a type of reactional state which occurs in untreated cases due to the bacillary invasion of endothelial cells. We hereby describe a histopathologically confirmed case of Lucio leprosy with Lucio phenomenon. The patient presented with pleomorphic clinical features and started taking antileprosy treatment and systemic steroids. After few days of admission, she developed deep ulcers exposing the fascia. She also developed cardiogenic shock secondary to septicaemia. She was managed with inotropes and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The patient was given appropriate wound care and the ulcers healed within a period of 3 months and antileprosy drugs were continued. Our patient is a de novo case of Lucio leprosy with Lucio phenomenon and pleomorphic clinical features who developed near fatal septic shock. She was managed successfully. Despite the extensive disease manifestation, all the wounds healed completely.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Feminino , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(7)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955386

RESUMO

Coinfection of Pseudomonas and Aspergillus has not been previously reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A middle-aged, thinly built woman (Body Mass Index: 18.1 kg/m²) who smokes bidi (a type of tobacco) and has a history of exposure to open log fires for cooking, has been suffering from COPD for the last 4 years. She has been taking inhaled betamethasone and tiotropium. Additionally, she had uncontrolled diabetes for a few months. She presented with fever, productive cough, shortness of breath and chest pain for 5 days. She required non-invasive ventilation support for type-2 respiratory failure. Chest X-ray and CT confirmed pneumonia, cavities and abscesses in both lungs. Repeated sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed coinfections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Along with supportive therapy, she was treated with tablet levofloxacin and injection amikacin for 6 weeks based on culture sensitivity reports, and capsule itraconazole for 6 months. She recovered completely to her baseline COPD and diabetes status. This case study confirms that coinfections can occur in COPD and diabetes, highlighting the need for clinicians to be vigilant for the possibility of such symbiotic coinfections.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus , Coinfecção , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Feminino , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Aspergilose/complicações , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(6): 891-897, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955738

RESUMO

To study the carriage status of drug susceptibility, clonal complex groups, serotypes, surface proteins and virulence genes of Streptococcus agalactiae from respiratory specimen sources. A total of 35 strains of S.agalactiae meeting the criteria were collected from 3 hospitals in 2 locations, Tangshan and Jinan. The age span of the patients was 3 days-92 years, and the percentage of elderly patients≥60 years was 71.5%.The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial drugs was measured and analyzed using the micro broth dilution method. The strains were 100.0% sensitive to penicillin, linezolid, vancomycin, and ceftriaxone; However, it exhibits high resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin and levofloxacin, at 97.1%, 85.7% and 82.9% respectively; and the resistance rates to tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 34.3% and 14.2%, respectively. Genome sequence determination and analysis showed that 16 resistance genes were detected in 35 strains, among which: macrolide and lincosamide resistance genes were mainly ermB, with a carrying rate of 74.2%; tetracycline resistance genes were mainly tetM, with a carrying rate of 25.7%; in addition, the mutation rates of the quinolone resistance determinants gyrA and parC were 88.5% and 85.7%, respectively. 35 strains belonged to 6 ST types and 4 clonal groups, with CC10/ST10 as the main one, accounting for 62.8%; they contained 4 serotypes of Ⅰb, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅴ, as well as 1 untyped strain, with serotype Ⅰb as the main one, accounting for 65.7%. The strains carried three pilus types, PI1+PI2a, PI2a and PI2b types, respectively, and detected five surface proteins, alpha, alp1, rib, srr, and rdf_0594, and seven virulence factors, cba, cfb, cylE, fbsA, hylB, lmb, and pavA. Overall, S.agalactiae isolated from respiratory tract specimens is predominantly sourced from elderly patients, with CC10 strains being most prevalent. These strains harbor multiple drug-resistant and virulence genes, demonstrating elevated resistance rates to macrolides, lincosamides, and quinolones. This emphasizes the necessity for vigilant attention to the health threat posed by S. agalactiae from respiratory tract speciments of elderly patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Recém-Nascido , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(6): 910-916, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955741

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance poses a serious threat to public health and is one of the major challenges worldwide. As global social, economic, and environmental changes lead to increased exposure of populations to antimicrobials, the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens has accelerated and resulted in weakened clinical infection treatment effects. This article reviews the main mechanisms and driving factors of the production and spread of antimicrobial resistance from the perspective of "One Health"and discusses methods and strategies for controlling antimicrobial resistance from multiple dimensions. It also looks forward to the prospects of research and prevention of drug resistance to explore antimicrobial resistance prevention and control strategies based on "One Health".


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
19.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 40(1): 170, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to find statistically valid criteria to preoperatively divide acute appendicitis into simple and complicated to enable surgeons to administer the most appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis/therapy before surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients who underwent appendectomy from January 2022 to December 2023. Patients included were 0-14 years of age. Exclusion criteria included patients who underwent interval appendectomy or concurrent procedures at the same time of appendectomy. We divided patients into two groups: simple (group S) and complicated (group C) appendicitis according to intraoperative finding. Generalized linear model (GLM) with logit function was developed to identify the predictive variables of the type of appendicitis (S vs C) in terms of CRP value, neutrophils percentage and WBC count adjusted for age and sex of patients. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to identify the cutoff value of statistically significant variables found in the previous analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients were eligible (N female = 49, N male = 71) for the study. 74 and 46 patients were included in groups S and C, respectively. In a preliminary analysis using univariate and multivariate GLM, only CRP (p value = < 0.001) and neutrophils percentage (p value = 0.02) were predictive variables for the type of appendicitis. The GLM shows a statistical lower value of CRP (adjusted odds ratio [OR] per unit, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.08-0.39]) and neutrophil percentage (adjusted OR per unit, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16-0.86]) in the S group compared to C adjusted to age and sex. PCA analysis revealed a P-ROC cutoff of 4.2 mg/dl and 80.1 of CRP value (AUC = 84%) and neutrophil percentage (AUC = 70%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We will perform a prospective study giving preoperative prophylactic cefazolin to patients with a CRP value under 4.2 mg/dl and amoxicillin-clavulanate therapy to patient with CRP value over 4.2 mg/dl.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Apendicectomia , Apendicite , Humanos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Apendicectomia/métodos , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Doença Aguda
20.
Dent Med Probl ; 61(3): 373-383, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentists, through inappropriate antibiotic prescription, may contribute to the global problem of antibiotic resistance (AR). OBJECTIVES: Understanding dentists' antibiotic prescription patterns, source of knowledge, and the driving forces behind their prescription practices may be crucial for the effective implementation of the rational use of antibiotics (RUA) in dentistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Active members of the Turkish Dental Association were invited to participate in an electronic survey comprising questions focusing on their role, knowledge and perceptions regarding RUA, the perceived barriers to adapting RUA in daily dental work, and the actual antibiotic prescription practices. The potential impact of age, gender, professional experience, and the mode of dental practice was also evaluated. Dentists' prescription practices for periodontal disease/conditions were evaluated as well. RESULTS: Based on 1,005 valid responses, there was consensus on the necessity of RUA (99.1%); however, its implementation was low. The main barriers were dentists' own safety concerns (74.4%), strong patients' demands (42.2%) and the fact that prescribing antibiotics became a professional habit (35.8%). Different educational background resulted in clear variances in everyday prescription practices. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of RUA was not sufficient and the perceived barriers had an impact on daily prescribing habits. Support for dental professionals through the efficient dissemination of evidencebased clinical guidelines and decision-making aids is likely to require additional help from professional organizations in order to actively combat AR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos
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