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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 975-986, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. If antibiotics are commenced promptly, infection can be eradicated. The aim of the trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin versus oral ciprofloxacin in the eradication of P aeruginosa. METHODS: We did a multicentre, parallel group, open-label, randomised controlled trial in 72 cystic fibrosis centres (70 in the UK and two in Italy). Eligible participants were older than 28 days with an isolate of P aeruginosa (either the first ever isolate or a new isolate after at least 1 year free of infection). Participants were excluded if the P aeruginosa was resistant to, or they had a contraindication to, one or more of the trial antibiotics; if they were already receiving P aeruginosa suppressive therapy; if they had received any P aeruginosa eradication therapy within the previous 9 months; or if they were pregnant or breastfeeding. We used web-based randomisation to assign patients to 14 days intravenous ceftazidime and tobramycin or 12 weeks oral ciprofloxacin. Both were combined with 12 weeks inhaled colistimethate sodium. Randomisation lists were generated by a statistician, who had no involvement in the trial, using a computer-generated list. Randomisation was stratified by centre and because of the nature of the interventions, blinding was not possible. Our primary outcome was eradication of P aeruginosa at 3 months and remaining free of infection to 15 months. Primary analysis used intention to treat (powered for superiority). Safety analysis included patients who received at least one dose of study drug. TORPEDO-CF was registered on the ISRCTN register, ISRCTN02734162, and EudraCT, 2009-012575-10. FINDINGS: Between Oct 5, 2010, and Jan 27, 2017, 286 patients were randomly assigned to treatment: 137 to intravenous antibiotics and 149 to oral antibiotics. 55 (44%) of 125 participants in the intravenous group and 68 (52%) of 130 participants in the oral group achieved the primary outcome. Participants randomly assigned to the intravenous group were less likely to achieve the primary outcome, although the difference between groups was not statistically significant (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·65-1·09; p=0·18). 11 serious adverse events occurred in ten (8%) of 126 participants in the intravenous antibiotics group and 17 serious adverse events in 12 (8%) of 146 participants in the oral antibiotics group. INTERPRETATION: Compared with oral therapy, intravenous antibiotics did not achieve sustained eradication of P aeruginosa in a greater proportion of patients with cystic fibrosis and was more expensive. Although there were fewer hospitalisations in the intravenous group than the oral group during follow-up, this confers no advantage over oral treatment because intravenous eradication frequently requires hospitalisation. These results do not support the use of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate P aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceftazidima/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tobramicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028570

RESUMO

In March 2020, a 74-year-old man affected by end-stage renal disease and on peritoneal dialysis was referred to an emergency room in Modena, Northern Italy, due to fever and respiratory symptoms. After ruling out COVID-19 infection, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation was confirmed and he was thus transferred to the nephrology division. Physical examination and blood tests revealed a positive fluid balance and insufficient correction of the uraemic syndrome, although peritoneal dialysis prescription was maximised. After discussion with the patient and his family, the staff decided to start hybrid dialysis, consisting of once-weekly in-hospital haemodialysis and home peritoneal dialysis for the remaining days. He was discharged at the end of the antibiotic course, after an internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement and the first haemodialysis session. This strategy allowed improvement of depuration parameters and avoidance of frequent access to the hospital, which is crucial in limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in an endemic setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Pandemias , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
3.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 5-16, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve treatment outcomes in patients with acute appendicitis (AA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An internet survey was performed. Questionnaire consisted of 15 questions concerning diagnosis and treatment of AA: application of prognostic scales, incidence and technical aspects of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), antibiotic prophylaxis, postoperative management, compliance with international and national clinical guidelines. A total of 690 questionnaires were received and analyzed (3.67% of all surgeons in the Russian Federation). RESULTS: Eighteen percent of respondents use at least one prognostic scale. The vast majority of surgeons (92%) use antibiotic prophylaxis. Almost half of respondents place trocars in the triangulation position (44%), one third of surgeons ligate the mesentery of the appendix (35%), most respondents perform mesoappendectomy (60%) with monopolar and bipolar cautery. Forty-five percent of all respondents do not invert the appendix stump. Significant number of respondents use abdominal drainage routinely. Only 3.5% of surgeons use multimodal postoperative analgesia. Less than 22% of patients are operated under low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. Standardization of surgical technique and perioperative approaches including those specified in the guidelines is absent. We also found insufficient awareness of surgeons about international and national clinical guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study may be useful for standardizing treatment approaches, choosing the best practice, popularizing and improving of current clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Apendicectomia/normas , Apendicite/terapia , Apêndice/cirurgia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Laparoscopia , Assistência Perioperatória , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Federação Russa
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the use of multiple therapeutic agents whose efficacy has not been previously demonstrated. The objective of this study was to analyze whether there is an association between the use of azithromycin and the evolution of the pulmonary disease or the time to discharge, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This was an observational study on a cohort of 418 patients admitted to three regional hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. As primary outcomes, we studied the evolution of SAFI ratio (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the first 48 hours of treatment and the time to discharge. The results were compared between patients treated and untreated with the study drug through subcohort analyses matched for multiple clinical and prognostic factors, as well as through analysis of non-matched subcohorts, using Cox multivariate models adjusted for prognostic factors. RESULTS: There were 239 patients treated with azithromycin. Of these, 29 patients treated with azithromycin could be matched with an equivalent number of control patients. In the analysis of these matched subcohorts, SAFI at 48h had no significant changes associated to the use of azithromycin, though azithromycin treatment was associated with a longer time to discharge (10.0 days vs 6.7 days; log rank: p = 0.039). However, in the unmatched cohorts, the increased hospital stay associated to azithromycin use, was no significant after adjustment using Multivariate Cox regression models: hazard ratio 1.45 (IC95%: 0.88-2.41; p = 0.150). This study is limited by its small sample size and its observational nature; despite the strong pairing of the matched subcohorts and the adjustment of the Cox regression for multiple factors, the results may be affected by residual confusion. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a clinical benefit associated with the use of azithromycin, in terms of lung function 48 hours after treatment or length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 35-49, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994592

RESUMO

AIM: Early recognition and timely management, including prompt administration of antibiotics, has been fundamental in improving the mortality related to sepsis. We aimed to study the effect of the Sepsis Pathway Programme, a set of guidelines for sepsis, on the recognition, early investigation and management of septic patients in the emergency department. METHODS: We conducted a comparative prospective cohort study of patients who presented with suspected sepsis pre- and post-implementation of the Sepsis Pathway. Patients where the Sepsis Pathway was used were identified and followed prospectively to analyse outcomes. This group was compared to a pre-intervention control group who were identified retrospectively before the Sepsis Pathway was implemented to determine if there was any difference in outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients were identified to be septic in the emergency department following the implementation of the Sepsis Pathway. Of these, 52 cases involved the initiation and completion of the Sepsis Pathway. One hundred and fifty-seven cases were identified in the pre-intervention group of which 18 cases were excluded. The time to antibiotic administration decreased from 182 to 75 minutes (p<0.00001). The proportion of cases where antibiotics were given within the hour was higher in the pathway group (36.5% vs 8.6%, OR 6.09, 95% CI 2.69-13.81, p<0.0001). Similarly, the time to lactate measurement decreased from 64 minutes to 54.5 minutes (p=0.0117) and the proportion of cases where lactate was measured improved from 64% to 92.3% (p=0.0005). Blood culture rates improved from 79.1% to 100%. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the Sepsis Pathway improved time taken to perform investigations and manage patients with sepsis. Although it had improved, there was still a delay in recognition of sepsis and initiation of investigations and management, demonstrating that further strategies need to be employed to reduce poor outcomes associated with sepsis. However, it did not affect ICU admissions, length of stay or mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22137, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection causes many diseases, such as peptic ulcers, gastritis and gastric cancer, and MALToma. It has been gradually accepted that all HP-infected patients should be treated because HP is regarded as an infection. Therefore, the importance of selecting the optimal treatment regimen has increased. Although the 14-day standard triple therapy (STT) is recommended in the current guidelines, prolonging treatment duration is controversial in real practice because of inconsistent results from previous data and the risk of adverse effects. Additionally, the effect of STT using ilaprazole has not been reported until now. We aimed to compare the eradication rate between 7 and 10 days STT using ilaprazole. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted, which was divided into 2 treatment groups: the control group was 7 days of STT, and the test group was 10 days of STT. The eradication regimen was 10 mg ilaprazole, 500 mg clarithromycin, and 1000 mg amoxicillin twice daily. We included patients who were diagnosed with positive results of H pylori examination. We compared the HP eradication rate according to treatment duration, CYP2C19 subtype and endoscopic diagnosis. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 254 patients consisting of 127 patients in each treatment arm. The eradication rates of the control and test groups were 65.4% (82/127) and 74.8% (95/127), respectively, in the intention-to-treat analysis (P = .1). In the per-protocol analysis, 70.3% (83/118) and 82.6% (94/115) were eradicated in each group, which was statistically significant (P = .027). The CYP2C19 subtype was examined in 230 patients. The eradication rate was 79.2% (57/72), 75.4% (92/122), and 72.2% (26/36) in each group, which was not significantly different (P = .704). CONCLUSION: Ten-day STT was more effective than 7-day STT for HP eradication. The eradication rate was not affected by the CYP2C19 genotype.


Assuntos
2-Piridinilmetilsulfinilbenzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Claritromicina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 857-869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981622

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic now affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As obesity rates continue to increase, emergency physicians are called on with increasing frequency to resuscitate obese patients. This article discusses important anatomic, physiologic, and practical challenges imposed by obesity on resuscitative care. Impacts on hemodynamic monitoring, airway and ventilator management, and pharmacologic therapy are discussed. Finally, several important clinical scenarios (trauma, cardiac arrest, and sepsis), in which alterations to standard treatments may benefit obese patients, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Consumo de Oxigênio , Farmacocinética , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 661, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894069

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a serious disease caused by intraocular infection that can rapidly progress to cause blindness. This study evaluated the clinical features, surgical and antibiotics treatment strategies, and treatment outcomes in patients with endophthalmitis caused by liver abscess. METHODS: Between April 2014 and April 2019, the clinical data of 16 patients (19 eyes) with endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess who underwent surgery at Shengjing Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated the final visual outcomes in the patients to determine the efficacy of surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (18 eyes) underwent intravitreal injection followed by vitrectomy after admission. One patient (1 eye) only underwent intravitreal injection. Of the 16 patients, 3 patients (3 eyes) had recurrent intraocular inflammation and eventually underwent evisceration. Systemic antibiotics were administered for all patients based on the results of vitreous humor culture, blood culture, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Outpatient follow-ups were performed until the patients were stable (6 months). Of the 19 eyes, 1 eye (5%) had visual acuity restored to 20/200, 6 eyes (31%) had visual acuity restored to counting fingers (CF), 2 eyes (11%) had visual acuity restored to hand motion (HM), 4 eyes (22%) showed only light perception (LP), and the remaining 6 eyes (31%) showed no light perception (NLP). Drug susceptibility tests suggested that the carbapenems exhibited significant effects in the inflammatory reaction. CONCLUSION: Endogenous endophthalmitis caused by liver abscess is a very serious condition, and the final visual outcome is poor. Timely surgical intervention combined with antibiotic treatment is essential, and the primary disease must be treated to control disease progression at the earliest.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/etiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Hepático/complicações , Vitrectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Carbapenêmicos/administração & dosagem , Endoftalmite/cirurgia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual , Corpo Vítreo/microbiologia
10.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 126-130, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901900

RESUMO

We present a case of osteomyelitis of the condyle secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. A 77-year-old female was referred to our clinic with complaints of swelling in the left mandibular molar regions. The patient had been suffering from myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPOANCA) associated vasculitis and had been treated with glucocorticoids for 8 years, and oral bisphosphonates had been prescribed to prevent osteopenia secondary to glucocorticoids. Imaging examinations showed radiolucency of the left mandibular body. Based on the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the mandibular body secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, the patient received antimicrobial therapy and was well-healed. However, the patient returned 8 weeks later complaining of acute left preauricular swelling. Computed tomography showed the destructive changes in the mandibular condyle. We speculated that the infection was caused by the local spread from osteomyelitis of the left mandibular body. The risk of jaw necrosis related to antiresorptive therapy is well known. In recent years, the number of older patients being administered glucocorticoids with bisphosphonates has increased; therefore, we must be attentive to the signs of infectious diseases of the jawbone in the aging because it can easily shift to osteomyelitis or osteonecrosis and spread infection through the marrow.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Arcada Osseodentária , Côndilo Mandibular , Osteomielite/etiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(18): e793-e802, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898359

RESUMO

Projections indicate an increase in primary and revision total joint arthroplasties (TJAs). Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are one of the most common and devastating causes of failure after TJA. Perioperative administration of systemic and/or local antibiotics is used for both prophylaxis and treatment of PJI. Antibiotic stewardship is a term that has been met with clinical acceptance and success in other specialties of medicine. Identifying antibiotic best practice use in the fight against PJI is limited by studies that are extremely heterogeneous in their design. Variations in studies include antibiotic selection and duration, surgical débridement steps, type of antibiotic delivery (intra-articular, local, intravenous, and prolonged oral), mix of primary and revision surgery cohorts, both hip and knee cohorts, infecting organisms, and definitions of treatment success/failure. This review highlights the current challenges of antibiotic stewardship in TJA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22475, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991486

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although bronchiectasis is conventionally considered a chronic pulmonary disease of adulthood, knowledge of pediatric bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis started to emerge. Limited information in this field is available and the management is based on expert opinion. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 8-year-old girl admitted for 7 days history of wet cough, purulent fetid sputum, shortness of breath and low-grade fever. The wet cough has presented for the past 4 years, during which she had frequent hospitalization for recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. DIAGNOSIS: Chest high-resolution computerized tomography revealed diffuse bronchial dilations accompanied by inflammation in the bilateral lung fields. Microbiologic investigation for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. INTERVENTIONS: With a working diagnosis of bronchiectasis with secondary pulmonary infection, sensitive cefoperazone-sulbactam was administrated for 14 days with gradual improvement of clinical symptoms. Bronchoscopy washing substantially soothed the symptoms, reducing the cough and sputum volumes. OUTCOMES: The child was discharged after 14 days, and treated on long-term prophylactic antibiotic use (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 20 mg/kg/d, ≥ 4 weeks). LESSONS: Although bronchiectasisis are condition in childhood, the diagnosis is suspected in children with persistent wet or productive cough, and should be confirmed by a chest high-resolution computerized tomography scan. Antibiotics and airway clearance techniques represent the milestones of bronchiectasis management although there are only a few guidelines in children.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bronquiectasia/microbiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4450, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895379

RESUMO

Hollow multishelled structures (HoMSs), with relatively isolated cavities and hierarchal pores in the shells, are structurally similar to cells. Functionally inspired by the different transmission forms in living cells, we studied the mass transport process in HoMSs in detail. In the present work, after introducing the antibacterial agent methylisothiazolinone (MIT) as model molecules into HoMSs, we discover three sequential release stages, i.e., burst release, sustained release and stimulus-responsive release, in one system. The triple-shelled structure can provide a long sterility period in a bacteria-rich environment that is nearly 8 times longer than that of the pure antimicrobial agent under the same conditions. More importantly, the HoMS system provides a smart responsive release mechanism that can be triggered by environmental changes. All these advantages could be attributed to chemical diffusion- and physical barrier-driven temporally-spatially ordered drug release, providing a route for the design of intelligent nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Difusão , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microesferas , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/farmacocinética
14.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926781, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and is associated with severe respiratory disease. There are extensive publications on the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of COVID-19 pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities (GGO) and mixed GGO and consolidation being the most common findings. Those with interstitial thickening manifesting as reticular opacities typically show superimposed ground-glass opacities, giving a crazy-paving pattern. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 77-year-old man with a background of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) who presented with progressive cough and shortness of breath for 2 days. He was in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The initial chest radiograph was negative for lung consolidation and ground-glass opacities. During admission, he had worsening shortness of breath with desaturation, prompting a chest CT examination, which was performed on day 14 of illness. The chest CT revealed an atypical finding of predominant focal subpleural interstitial thickening in the right lower lobe. He was provided supportive treatment along with steroid and antibiotics. He recovered well and subsequently tested negative for 2 consecutive swabs. He was discharged after 34 days. CONCLUSIONS Interstitial thickening or reticular pattern on CT has been described in COVID-19 pneumonia, but largely in association with ground-glass opacity or consolidation. This case demonstrates an atypical predominance of interstitial thickening on chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia on day 14 of illness, which is the expected time of greatest severity of the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Meios de Contraste , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(8): 376-380, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772722

RESUMO

There has been a surging interest in using elastomeric infusion devices to deliver outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), which is more cost-effective than standard antibiotic administration, which requires multiple daily home visits. This has been particularly important since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, because reducing patient contact can also help to minimise transmission of COVID-19 to outpatients who are at a high risk of COVID-19-triggered complications. In this retrospective study, the clinical effectiveness of intravenous (IV) infusion of flucloxacillin using an elastomeric device was explored in a convenience sample of patients. Patients with three primary infective diagnoses-bloodstream infection, non-vertebral osteomyelitis and vertebral osteomyelitis-were included in the analyses. In non-vertebral osteomyelitis patients, Accufuser antibiotic infusion shortened the course of OPAT care relative to standard antibiotic administration (p<.05). In contrast, in vertebral osteomyelitis patients, it prolonged the course of OPAT care relative to standard administration (p<.05). In patients with bloodstream infections, no significant difference was found between the treatment modes (p=.93). Thus, the clinical effectiveness of Accufuser antibiotic infusion varies among patients with different infective diagnoses, and there seems to be a complex relationship between the method of antibiotic delivery and the patient's condition.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Floxacilina/administração & dosagem , Terapia por Infusões no Domicílio/métodos , Bombas de Infusão , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Elastômeros , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/instrumentação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pneumologie ; 74(8): 515-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823360

RESUMO

The present guideline aims to improve the evidence-based management of children and adolescents with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (pCAP). Despite a prevalence of approx. 300 cases per 100 000 children per year in Central Europe, mortality is very low. Prevention includes infection control measures and comprehensive immunization. The diagnosis can and should be established clinically by history, physical examination and pulse oximetry, with fever and tachypnea as cardinal features. Additional signs or symptoms such as severely compromised general condition, poor feeding, dehydration, altered consciousness or seizures discriminate subjects with severe pCAP from those with non-severe pCAP. Within an age-dependent spectrum of infectious agents, bacterial etiology cannot be reliably differentiated from viral or mixed infections by currently available biomarkers. Most children and adolescents with non-severe pCAP and oxygen saturation > 92 % can be managed as outpatients without laboratory/microbiology workup or imaging. Anti-infective agents are not generally indicated and can be safely withheld especially in children of young age, with wheeze or other indices suggesting a viral origin. For calculated antibiotic therapy, aminopenicillins are the preferred drug class with comparable efficacy of oral (amoxicillin) and intravenous administration (ampicillin). Follow-up evaluation after 48 - 72 hours is mandatory for the assessment of clinical course, treatment success and potential complications such as parapneumonic pleural effusion or empyema, which may necessitate alternative or add-on therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pneumologia/normas , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/virologia , Sociedades Médicas
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926464, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests primarily as a lung infection, its involvement in acute kidney injury (AKI) is gaining recognition and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Concurrent infection, which may require administration of a potentially nephrotoxic agent, can worsen AKI and lead to poor outcomes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacillus associated with nosocomial infections, especially in severely immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination (TMP/SMX) is considered the treatment of choice but can itself lead to AKI, posing a significant challenge in the management of patients with concomitant COVID-19 and S. maltophilia pneumonia. CASE REPORT A 64-year-old male with end-stage renal disease and post renal transplant presented with severe respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 and was intubated upon admission. His renal functions were normal at the time of admission. The patient subsequently developed superimposed bacterial pneumonia with S. maltophilia requiring administration of TMP/SMX. However, TMP/SMX led to the development of AKI, which continued to worsen despite appropriate management including hemodialysis. This coincided with and most likely resulted in the patient's clinical deterioration and ultimate death. CONCLUSIONS The etiology of kidney disease involvement in patients with COVID-19 is still evolving and appears to be multifactorial. The condition can significantly worsen especially when nephrotoxic agents are given, probably due to a cumulative or synergistic effect. Great caution should be taken when administering nephrotoxic agents in the setting of COVID-19 as it can lead to adverse patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Deterioração Clínica , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Transplantados , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21751, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae is a gram-negative bacteria, known for its intrinsic multidrug resistance, which can lead to treatment difficulties. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old male had an indwelling external ventricular drainage catheter for 6 months and had been frequently treated with antibiotics for nosocomial infections. He showed cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and an abrupt fever during hospitalization. DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed as a ventriculitis caused by Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae (C arthrosphaerae). INTERVENTION: Initially, we used ciprofloxacin as the backbone in combination with minocycline (and rifampin). However, fever and pleocytosis persisted, and improvement was slow. We then switched the minocycline and rifampin regiment to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Following this switch of antibiotics, the patient's pleocytosis rapidly improved, allowing the replacement of his external ventricular drainage catheters. C arthrospharae was no longer growing in cerebrospinal fluid and he was recovered from ventriculitis. OUTCOMES: The patient remains alive without any incidence of C arthrosphaerae recurrence. CONCLUSION: We propose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin to be good candidates for the treatment of ventriculitis by C arthrosphaerae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ventriculite Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Chryseobacterium , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cateteres de Demora , Ventriculite Cerebral/complicações , Ventriculite Cerebral/diagnóstico , Drenagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Leucocitose/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
19.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(4): 356-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare pharmacokinetic characteristics between intermittent infusion and continuous infusion of vancomycin for critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units. METHODS: Intermittent therapy was administered for 60minutes and prescribed as a loading dose of 30mg/kg and continued with 15mg/kg q12h. Continuous infusion was prescribed as a loading dose of 30mg/kg followed by 30mg/kg on constant infusion pump. Blood samples from vancomycin intermittent infusion group were collected 1h before third dose, 1h, 8h and 24h after third dose infusion. Blood samples from vancomycin continuous infusion group were collected 1h after loading dose, 12h, 24h, 36h, and 48h after continuous infusion initiation. RESULTS: Median serum concentration of continuous infusion group at 24-hour was 23.59µg/mL [14.52-28.97], while of intermittent infusion group at 23-hour was 12.30µg/mL [7.27-18.12] and on 25-hour was 17.58µg/mL [12.5-22.5]. Medians AUC24-48h were 357.2mg.h/L and 530.2mg.h/L for intermittent infusion and continuous infusion groups, respectively (p=0.559). CONCLUSION: Vancomycin CI reached steady state earlier, which guaranteed therapeutic levels from the first day and made it possible to manage therapeutic drug monitoring faster.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 721-726, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bibliographic data for the management of acute mastoiditis in infants aged six months or less are very limited. This study investigated the presenting symptomatology, diagnostic and treatment options, and final outcomes in this age group. METHOD: A retrospective review was conducted of all infants aged six months or less suffering from acute mastoiditis, admitted to our department between 2007 and 2017. RESULTS: Eleven infants were identified. All of them developed the typical symptomatology of acute mastoiditis, while a higher rate of subperiosteal abscess formation was observed. Imaging was necessary in three cases only. Parenteral antibiotics and myringotomy were applied in all infants. A drainage procedure was also included in the infants with a subperiosteal abscess. Antrotomy was reserved for non-responsive cases. No intracranial complications were observed. All infants were cured without further complications or sequelae. CONCLUSION: Acute mastoiditis in infants aged six months or less can be safely diagnosed and treated using a standardised algorithmic approach, similar to that used for older children.


Assuntos
Mastoidite/diagnóstico , Mastoidite/terapia , Periósteo/microbiologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mastoidite/complicações , Mastoidite/epidemiologia , Ventilação da Orelha Média/métodos , Otite Média , Estudos Retrospectivos , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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