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1.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 37(2): 275-291, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243876

RESUMO

For the equine veterinarian, orthopedic emergencies are a common occurrence in clinical practice, with traumatic wounds of the distal limb and penetrating injuries of the hoof being some of the most common medical conditions to affect horses. Intravenous regional limb perfusion is a technique widely used for the treatment of orthopedic infections in horses. The objectives of this review are to discuss some of the clinical applications for this treatment modality in the field and to review the technique for the practitioner.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Casco e Garras/lesões , Cavalos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Perfusão/veterinária
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 680, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter fetus is an uncommon Campylobacter species, and its infections mainly cause infective endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, and meningitis rather than enteritis. It is more likely to be detected in blood than Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, specifically reported in 53% of patients. In our case, C. fetus was detected in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old woman, who was on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), presented to our clinic with chief complaints of severe headache and nausea. Blood and CSF cultures revealed C. fetus. We administrated meropenem 2 g intravenously (IV) every 8 h for 3 weeks, and she was discharged without neurological sequelae. CONCLUSION: We encountered a case of C. fetus meningitis without gastrointestinal symptoms, neck stiffness or jolt accentuation in a patient with ALL. Undercooked beef was considered the source of C. fetus infection in this case, suggesting that the need for a neutropenic diet and safe food handling be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter fetus/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Meningites Bacterianas , Meropeném/administração & dosagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Campylobacter/sangue , Infecções por Campylobacter/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4239-4250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194227

RESUMO

Purpose: Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) perform important functions during bacterial infections. Among various virulence-targeting therapies, nanosponges (NSs) have excellent neutralization effects on multiple PFTs. To enhance treatment efficacy, NSs tend to be incorporated into other biomaterials, such as hydrogels. Methods: In the present work, red blood cell (RBC) vesicles were harvested to wrap polymer nanoparticles, leading to the formation of NSs, and the optimal Pluronic F127 hydrogel concentration was determined for gelation. Then, a novel detoxification system was constructed by incorporating NSs into an optimized Pluronic F127 hydrogel (NS-pGel). Next, the system was characterized by rheological and sustained release behavior as well as micromorphology. Then, the in vitro neutralization effect of NS-pGel on various PFTs was examined by a hemolysis protocol. Finally, therapeutic and prophylactic detoxification efficiency was evaluated in a mouse subcutaneous infection model in vivo. Results: A thermosensitive, injectable detoxification system was successfully constructed by loading NSs into a 30% Pluronic F127 hydrogel. Characterization results demonstrated that the NS-pGel hybrid system sustained an ideal fluidity and viscosity at lower temperatures but exhibited a quick sol-gel transition capacity near body temperature. In addition, this hybrid system had a sustained release behavior accompanied by good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Finally, the NS-pGel system showed neutralization effects similar to those of NSs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating a good preservation of NS functionality. Conclusion: In conclusion, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive detoxification system with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, which may be applied to the clinical treatment of PFT-induced local lesions and infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/química , Poloxâmero/química , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Eritrócitos/química , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Nanopartículas/química , Testes de Neutralização , Reologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Temperatura , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Viscosidade
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208697

RESUMO

Traditional antimicrobial therapies for periodontitis (PD) have long focused on non-selective and direct approaches. Professional cleaning of the subgingival biofilm by instrumentation of dental root surfaces, known as scaling and root planning (SRP), is the mainstay of periodontal therapy and is indisputably effective. Non-physical approaches used as adjuncts to SRP, such as chemical and biological agents, will be the focus of this review. In this regard, traditional agents such as oral antiseptics and antibiotics, delivered either locally or systemically, were briefly reviewed as a backdrop. While generally effective in winning the "battle" against PD in the short term, by reducing its signs and symptoms, patients receiving such therapies are more susceptible to recurrence of PD. Moreover, the long-term consequences of such therapies are still in question. In particular, concern about chronic use of systemic antibiotics and their influence on the oral and gut microbiota is warranted, considering antibiotic resistance plasmids, and potential transfer between oral and non-oral microbes. In the interest of winning the "battle and the war", new more selective and targeted antimicrobials and biologics for PD are being studied. These are principally indirect, blocking pathways involved in bacterial colonization, nutrient acquisition, inflammation or cellular invasion without directly killing the pathogens. This review will focus on current and prospective antimicrobial therapies for PD, emphasizing therapies that act indirectly on the microbiota, with clearly defined cellular and molecular targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos , Periodontite/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 2005-2007, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218872
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209202

RESUMO

Chitosan, a polysaccharide derived from chitin, has excellent wound healing properties, including intrinsic antimicrobial and hemostatic activities. This study investigated the effectiveness of chitosan dressing and compared it with that of regular gauze dressing in controlling clinically surgical bleeding wounds and profiled the community structure of the microbiota affected by these treatments. The dressings were evaluated based on biocompatibility, blood coagulation factors in rat, as well as antimicrobial and procoagulant activities, and the microbial phylogenetic profile in patients with abdominal surgical wounds. The chitosan dressing exhibited a uniformly fibrous morphology with a large surface area and good biocompatibility. Compared to regular gauze dressing, the chitosan dressing accelerated platelet aggregation, indicated by the lower ratio of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, and had outstanding blood absorption ability. Adenosine triphosphate assay results revealed that the chitosan dressing inhibited bacterial growth up to 8 d post-surgery. Moreover, 16S rRNA-based sequencing revealed that the chitosan dressing effectively protected the wound from microbial infection and promoted the growth of probiotic microbes, thereby improving skin immunity and promoting wound healing. Our findings suggest that chitosan dressing is an effective antimicrobial and procoagulant and promotes wound repair by providing a suitable environment for beneficial microbiota.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bandagens , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
8.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 373-380, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235634

RESUMO

The antibiotic combination of vancomycin (VAN) and piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) has been associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in both adult and pediatric patients. In this review, we highlight some of the limitations of existing pediatric studies evaluating the combination of VAN/PTZ, focusing on AKI risk in specific pediatric patient populations. We also review the variability in defining AKI in children and provide guidance to clinicians for use of prospective surveillance and stewardship in mitigating the risk of AKI in pediatric patients treated with combination of VAN/PTZ. Based on review of available pediatric studies, if the combination of VAN/PTZ is selected as an empirical antibiotic combination, it should be used in those at low risk for AKI and should be used with extreme caution in patients with additional nephrotoxic risks. Systems should be in place to monitor the use of VAN/PTZ and associated renal function in those receiving this antibiotic combination.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/efeitos adversos , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281254

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been imposed as an excellent antimicrobial agent being able to combat bacteria in vitro and in vivo causing infections. The antibacterial capacity of AgNPs covers Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug resistant strains. AgNPs exhibit multiple and simultaneous mechanisms of action and in combination with antibacterial agents as organic compounds or antibiotics it has shown synergistic effect against pathogens bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The characteristics of silver nanoparticles make them suitable for their application in medical and healthcare products where they may treat infections or prevent them efficiently. With the urgent need for new efficient antibacterial agents, this review aims to establish factors affecting antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles, as well as to expose the advantages of using AgNPs as new antibacterial agents in combination with antibiotic, which will reduce the dosage needed and prevent secondary effects associated to both.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Prata/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotecnologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25942, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106664

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Congenital pyriform sinus fistula (CPSF) is a very rare branchial apparatus malformation. Traditional open surgery for fistulectomy might fail to excise the lesion completely, leading to continual recurrence. Herein, we report our experience of endoscopic coblation technique for treatment of CPSF in children.To observe the clinical efficacy of endoscopic coblation treatment of CPSF in children, especially for those in acute infection stage.Retrospective case series with 54 patients (including 20 cases in acute infection stage and 34 cases in non infection stage) who were diagnosed with CPSF between October 2017 to November 2019, all patients were treated with endoscopic coblation to close the piriform fossa fistula, neck abscess incision and drainage performed simultaneously for acute infection stage cases. Data collected including age of diagnosis, presenting symptoms, diagnostic methods, prior and subsequent treatments, length of hospitalization, and recurrence were analyzed.Of the 20 cases in acute infection stage, there were 3 children with transient vocal cord paresis all of which resolved with 1 month. Four children of the 34 cases in non infection stage appeared reddish swelling of the neck on the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th days after coblation and then underwent abscess incision and drainage. All cases experienced no recurrence, vocal cord paralysis, pharyngeal fistula and massive hemorrhage after their first endoscopic coblation of the sinus tract in the follow up of 3 to 28 months.Endoscopic coblation is an effective and safe approach for children with CPSF, neck abscess incision and drainage could be performed simultaneously in acute infection stage. We advocate using this minimally invasive technique as first line of treatment for CPSF.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Fístula/cirurgia , Laringoscopia/métodos , Seio Piriforme/anormalidades , Seio Piriforme/cirurgia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laringoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(23): 26770-26781, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096258

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are hard-healing chronic wounds and susceptible to bacterial infection. Conventional hydrogel dressings easily lose water at high temperature or freeze at low temperature, making them unsuitable for long-term use or in extreme environments. Herein, a temperature-tolerant (-20 to 60 °C) antibacterial hydrogel dressing is fabricated by the assembly of polyacrylamide, gelatin, and ε-polylysine. Owing to the water/glycerin (Gly) binary solvent system, the resultant hydrogel (G-PAGL) displayed good heat resistance and antifreezing properties. Within the wide temperature range (-20 to 60 °C), all the desirable features of the hydrogel, including superstretchability (>1400%), enduring water retention, adhesiveness, and persistent antibacterial property, are quite stable. Remarkably, the hydrogel wound dressing displayed lasting and broad antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Satisfactorily, the double-network (DN) G-PAGL hydrogel dressing could effectively promote the healing of DFUs by accelerating collagen deposition, promoting angiogenesis, and inhibiting bacterial breed. As far as we know, this is the first time that the extensive temperature-tolerant DN hydrogel with antibacterial ability is developed to use as DFU wound dressing. The G-PAGL hydrogel provides more choices for DFU wound dressings that could be used in extreme environments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Bandagens , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Pé Diabético/patologia , Hidrogéis/química , Ratos , Temperatura
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e25907, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114986

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: If wounds are infected with bacteria resistant to an empirical antibiotic regimen, effective wound treatment will be delayed. This can delay wound healing and lengthen hospital stays, increasing the costs to patients. Long-term antibiotic use can also result in minor and major complications, such as diarrhea, antibiotic resistance, or life-threatening leukopenia. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria make wound treatment even more difficult. Traditionally, surgeons thought that adequate infection control should be established before soft tissue coverage. However, wounds infected by MDR do not heal well with this traditional method and there are no optimal treatment guidelines for MDR bacteria-contaminated wounds.We reviewed 203 patients who underwent vascularized flap surgery from 2012 to 2019 to cover wounds. Class IV and I wounds were compared according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification. Class IV was further classified as antibiotic-resistant (ARB) and antibiotic-sensitive (ASB) bacteria. Wound size, mode, location, pathogens, healing time, and basic demographics were evaluated. Data were compared using Cramer's V and one-way ANOVA or independent t tests.The average healing time was longer in the ARB (19.7 [range 7-44] days) and ASB (17.9 [range 2-36] days) groups than in the Clean group (16.5 [range 7-28] days). Healing time differed in the 3 groups (P = .036). It was longer in the class IV group than in the class I group (P = .01). However, it was not statistically different between the ARB and ASB groups (P = .164).In our study the difference in healing time was small when vascularized tissue transfer was done in ARB-infected wound compared with ASB-infected and clean wound. It is necessary to perform surgery using vascularized tissue for the infected wound of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/métodos , Cicatrização , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/fisiopatologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/terapia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122695

RESUMO

A spontaneous intraperitoneal bladder rupture is a rare, serious and life-threatening surgical emergency of various etiologies, with unspecific clinical presentation, and difficult diagnosis. Surgical treatment is the standard therapy for intraperitoneal bladder rupture; however, there is an increasing tendency toward conservative management in selected patients with favorable characteristics. Herein, we report a rare case of a 65-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with intraperitoneal bladder rupture following an episode of acute urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, and which was successfully managed conservatively with urinary bladder catheterization and antibiotic therapy, without any complication.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Retenção Urinária/complicações , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Tratamento Conservador , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Ruptura Espontânea/etiologia , Ruptura Espontânea/terapia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Cateterismo Urinário , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 284, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122711

RESUMO

Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon complication of urinary tract infection. It mainly affects elderly patients with constipation, chronic urinary catheter and prolonged bed rest. Several bacteria belonging to two different groups, the group converting indoxyl urinary sulphate into indoxyl and the group alkalizing urine by the production of urease, are associated with it. We here report two cases of young patients aged 30 and 16 years, living in Burkina Faso, with uremic encephalopathy associated with severe infection and cloudy urine with purple urine bag. Unlike cases reported in the literature, our cases occurred two and four days after urinary catheterization and in young patients without constipation. Despite early antibiotic therapy, outcome was unfavorable in one patient.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/urina , Urina/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/microbiologia , Burkina Faso , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indicã/urina , Síndrome , Uremia/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Urina/microbiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069756

RESUMO

Hybrid nanostructures can be developed with inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and natural antibacterials. ZnO NPs can also exert antibacterial effects, and we used them here to examine their dual action in combination with a natural antibacterial agent, protocatechuic acid (PCA). To produce hybrid nanoformulations, we functionalized ZnO NPs with four types of silane organic molecules and successfully linked them to PCA. Physicochemical assessment confirmed PCA content up to ~18% in hybrid nanoformulations, with a PCA entrapment efficiency of ~72%, indicating successful connection. We then investigated the in vitro release kinetics and antibacterial effects of the hybrid against Staphylococcus aureus. PCA release from hybrid nanoformulations varied with silane surface modification. Within 98 h, only 8% of the total encapsulated PCA was released, suggesting sustained long-term release. We used nanoformulation solutions collected at days 3, 5, and 7 by disc diffusion or log reduction to evaluate their antibacterial effect against S. aureus. The hybrid nanoformulation showed efficient antibacterial and bactericidal effects that also depended on the surface modification and at a lower minimum inhibition concentration compared with the separate components. A hybrid nanoformulation of the PCA prodrug and ZnO NPs offers effective sustained-release inhibition of S. aureus growth.


Assuntos
Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 195, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184117

RESUMO

Microbial keratitis (MK) is a vision-threatening disease and the fourth leading cause of blindness worldwide. In this work, we aim to develop moxifloxacin (MXN)-loaded chitosan-based cationic mucoadhesive polyelectrolyte nanocapsules (PENs) for the effective treatment of MK. PENs were formulated by polyelectrolyte complex coacervation method and characterized for their particle size, surface charge, morphology, mucoadhesive property, in-vitro and ex-vivo release, ocular tolerance, and antimicrobial efficacy studies. The pharmacodynamic study was conducted on rabbit eye model of induced keratitis and it is compared with marketed formulation (MF). Developed PENs showed the size range from 230.7 ± 0.64 to 249.0 ± 0.49 nm and positive surface charge, spherical shape along with appropriate physico-chemical parameters. Both in-vitro and ex-vivo examination concludes that PENs having more efficiency in sustained release of MXN compared to MF. Ocular irritation studies demonstrated that no corneal damage or ocular irritation. The in-vivo study proved that the anti-bacterial efficacy of PENs was improved when compared with MF. These results suggested that PENs are a feasible choice for MK therapy because of their ability to enhance ocular retention of loaded MXN through interaction with the corneal surface of the mucous membrane.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Moxifloxacina/síntese química , Nanocápsulas/química , Polieletrólitos/síntese química , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Embrião de Galinha , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/metabolismo , Córnea/microbiologia , Cabras , Ceratite/metabolismo , Ceratite/microbiologia , Moxifloxacina/administração & dosagem , Moxifloxacina/farmacocinética , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Polieletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Polieletrólitos/farmacocinética , Coelhos
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3554, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117221

RESUMO

Although the COVID-19 pandemic has left no country untouched there has been limited research to understand clinical and immunological responses in African populations. Here we characterise patients hospitalised with suspected (PCR-negative/IgG-positive) or confirmed (PCR-positive) COVID-19, and healthy community controls (PCR-negative/IgG-negative). PCR-positive COVID-19 participants were more likely to receive dexamethasone and a beta-lactam antibiotic, and survive to hospital discharge than PCR-negative/IgG-positive and PCR-negative/IgG-negative participants. PCR-negative/IgG-positive participants exhibited a nasal and systemic cytokine signature analogous to PCR-positive COVID-19 participants, predominated by chemokines and neutrophils and distinct from PCR-negative/IgG-negative participants. PCR-negative/IgG-positive participants had increased propensity for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation. PCR-negative/IgG-positive individuals with high COVID-19 clinical suspicion had inflammatory profiles analogous to PCR-confirmed disease and potentially represent a target population for COVID-19 treatment strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063773

RESUMO

Flaky graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Hummer's method and then capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) by an esterification reaction, then loaded with Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract. Aiming to investigate their potential use as a smart drug delivery system against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, the spectral and structural characteristics of GO-PEG NPs were comprehensively analyzed by XRD, AFM, TEM, FTIR, and UV- Vis. XRD patterns revealed that GO-PEG had different crystalline structures and defects, as well as a higher interlayer spacing. AFM results showed GONPs with the main grain size of 24.41 nm, while GONPs-PEG revealed graphene oxide aggregation with the main grain size of 287.04 nm after loading N. sativa seed extract, which was verified by TEM examination. A strong OH bond appeared in FTIR spectra. Furthermore, UV- Vis absorbance peaks at (275, 284, 324, and 327) nm seemed to be correlated with GONPs, GO-PEG, N. sativa seed extract, and GO -PEG- N. sativa extract. The drug delivery system was observed to destroy the bacteria by permeating the bacterial nucleic acid and cytoplasmic membrane, resulting in the loss of cell wall integrity, nucleic acid damage, and increased cell-wall permeability.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nigella sativa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Análise Espectral/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X
19.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 395-401, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the incidence of amikacin plasma peak concentration (Cmax) below 60 mg·L-1 in critically ill children receiving an amikacin dosing regimen of 30 mg kg-1·day-1. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with low Cmax and to assess the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in two French pediatric intensive care units. All admitted children who received 30 mg·kg-1 amikacin and had a Cmax measurement were eligible. Clinical and biological data, amikacin dose, and concentrations were collected. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients were included, aged from 3 weeks to 7 years. They received a median amikacin dosage of 30 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 29-33) based on admission body weight (BW), corresponding to 27 mg kg-1·day-1 (range 24-30) based on actual BW. Cmax was < 60 mg·L-1 in 21 (70%) children and none had a Cmax ≥ 80 mg·L-1. Among the 15 patients with a measured minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 13 (87%) had a Cmax/MIC ratio > 8. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with Cmax < 60 mg·L-1 were high estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.015) and low blood urea concentration (p = 0.001). AKI progression or occurrence was observed after amikacin administration in two (7%) and six (21%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the administration of the maximal recommended amikacin dose, Cmax was below the pharmacokinetic target in 70% of our pediatric population. Further studies are needed to develop a pharmacokinetic model in a population of critically ill children to optimize target attainment.


Assuntos
Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Amicacina/sangue , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Estado Terminal/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Amicacina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e25912, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160380

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The incidence of granulomatous mastitis (GLM) in multiparae as seriously affected the quality of life and breastfeeding of pregnant women after delivery, but the treatment is rarely reported. In this article, the development, healing, and lactation of 13 cases were reported and a retrospective analysis was performed. 10 cases of GLM were treated at the Breast Disease Prevention and Treatment Center of Haidian Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Beijing and 3 cases of GLM were treated in the Breast Department of Weihai Municipal Hospital of Shandong province from February 2017 to May 2019.Among the 13 patients, conservative symptomatic treatment was adopted during pregnancy and lactation: anti-infective therapy consisting of oral cephalosporin antibiotic for patients; ultrasound-guided puncture and drainage of pus or incision and drainage after abscess formation. Observation continued during the sinus tract phase. Postpartum breastfeeding was encouraged, especially on the affected side. In this study, the median healing time was 20 months and the average healing time was 30.4 months in 5 healthy breast lactation cases. In 8 cases of bilateral breast lactation, the median healing time was 30 months and the average healing time was 26.5 months. Linear regression test analysis: whether the affected breast was breast-fed after delivery had no effect on the postpartum wound healing time, P = .792. The wounds of 13 patients healed well after lactation, and none of them recurred since the last follow-up visit. There were no adverse events in all infants.Conservative symptomatic treatment for GLM of multiparous women during pregnancy and lactation and encouraging breastfeeding after delivery have no effect on infant health and the recovery time of patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Mastite Granulomatosa/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/cirurgia , Aleitamento Materno , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Mastite Granulomatosa/diagnóstico , Mastite Granulomatosa/epidemiologia , Mastite Granulomatosa/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
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