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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1322-1333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016441

RESUMO

Antibiotics and estrogens are recognized as emerging contaminants in the water environment because of their potentially adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. The concentrations of four steroid estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17ß-estradiol, estrone, and estriol) and eight antibiotics (norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, metronidazole, sulfapyridine, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole) in the Chaohu Lake basin in Anhui province, China, were analyzed along with adjacent wastewater. The levels of the target antibiotics and estrogens were below detection limits (not detected [nd])-89.86 and nd-118.09 ng L-1 , respectively, in the lake water. All of the target antibiotics and estrogens were detected in sediment, and the concentrations ranged widely (nd-35,544 and nd-16,344 ng kg-1 , respectively). Antibiotics and estrogens varied spatially in the study area and mostly came from untreated wastewater. Antibiotics and estrogens were associated with water parameters such as pH and total nitrogen. A significant positive correlation was observed between estriol and levofloxacin concentrations (r = .65; p < .01), indicating that levofloxacin from the same source might have inhibited the microbiological degradation of estriol in the surface water. Overall, the estrogens pose a more severe risk than antibiotics to the Chaohu Lake system. However, co-occurrence of antibiotics may affect the fate of estrogens in the same lake media. More attention should be given to estrogens than to antibiotics in wastewater-affected lake systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Lagos/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127416, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947674

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotics as pollutants in the environment is one of the worldwide concerns because the bacterial strains generate a threat to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. In this study, an alkylated chitosan polyelectrolyte (ChA-PE) was used in conjunction with ultrafiltration membranes to remove three commonly used antibiotics, including amoxicillin (AMX), tetracycline (TET), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), in aqueous systems. The removal study considered diverse experimental variables through two methods: washing (pH, ionic strength, polymer ratio, and antibiotic concentration) and enrichment (maximum retention capacity). The retention percentage reached 80% at a pH of 11.0 at different polymer/antibiotic molar ratios. The ChA-PE presented irreversibly bound antibiotic interaction values of 0.51, 0.74, and 0.92 for CIP, AMX, and TET, respectively, at a pH of 11, showing that the polymer presents stronger permanent interactions with AMX and TET. On the other hand, the ChA-PE presented maximum retention capacity values of 185.6, 420.2, and 632.8 mg g-1 for CIP, AMX, and TET, respectively, in accordance with the association efficiency percentage values of 73.54, 87.08, and 93.83% for CIP, AMX, and TET, respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Polieletrólitos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Amoxicilina , Quitosana , Ciprofloxacino , Ecossistema , Humanos , Polímeros , Tetraciclina , Ultrafiltração/métodos
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461364, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797843

RESUMO

A new type of restricted access media-imprinted nanomaterials (RAM-MIPs) were successfully prepared on the surface of metal-organic framework by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technology. Then it was applied as a dispersed solid phase extraction (DSPE) material in analysis of fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and gatifloxacin) in untreated milk and river water by HPLC-UV detection. The resulted material has a good binding amounts (60.81 mg g-1), rapid binding kinetic (15 min) and satisfactory selectivity as well as has a good ability to eliminate matrix interference. Several major factors affecting DSPE efficiency, pH of sample solution, dosage of RAM-MIPs, adsorption time and volume ratios of elution solvent were primarily optimized. In optimization conditions, RAM-MIPs-DSPE was combined with HPLC-UV to enrich fluoroquinolones in untreated milk and river water, achieving satisfactory linear correlation (R2 > 0.9988), good limits of detection (LOD, 1.02-3.15 µg L-1 for milk and 0.93-2.87 µg L-1 for river water) and better recoveries (80.7-103.5% and 85.1-105.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of not higher than 5.3% and 4.7% for milk and river water samples, respectively). The research results illustrate that it provides a simple and efficient method for the direct detection of FQs in complex samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Leite/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Impressão Molecular , Polimerização
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140592, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629269

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) raise public concern as emerging contaminants. The abundance and variation of 11 ARGs, intI1 and 16S rRNA gene were deciphered using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in two drinking water treatment systems that include river, wetland, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and tap water from the Yangtze River Delta. The influencing factors for ARG abundance in river water were also explored. All investigated genes were detected in river water and there was no significant difference between the two systems, with sulfonamide ARGs occupying the highest abundance. Temperature had a significant effect on the ARG distribution based on permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Further Spearman analysis demonstrated that temperature was strongly correlated with the abundance of sul1, sul2, tetA and tetC, and these genes were significantly correlated with environmental factors (including temperature, total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO)). Considering the frequency and abundance of ARGs, as well as their correlation with other genes, sul1, sul2, tetA and tetC could be used as indicators of ARGs in river water. No significant reduction was noted for the absolute abundance of ARGs from river water to wetland water. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) combined with PERMANOVA revealed that drinking water treatment was responsible for reducing 16S rRNA gene and ARG abundance resulting in 3-log reductions. However, it should be noted that after transportation of distribution pipeline, both 16S rRNA gene and ARGs still detected in tap water, which indicated persistence of ARGs and will require further research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Rios , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Diálise Renal
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140655, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659557

RESUMO

The discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the aquatic environment from wastewater effluents is a concern in many countries. Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the APIs removal efficiencies and emissions to the environment in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), most of these studies considered the aqueous and sludge phases, disregarding the suspended particulate matter (SPM) phase. To try to understand the role of the SPM, the occurrence of five most common antibiotics and three antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) commonly used in Kenya were investigated in this study. APIs partitioning and mass loading in influents and effluents of three different WWTPs: trickling filters, stabilization ponds, and decentralized fecal sludge system, were evaluated. API concentration levels ranging from ˂LOQ (limit of quantification) to 92 µgL-1 and ˂LOQ to 82.2 mgkg-1 were observed in aqueous samples and solid samples respectively, with SPM accounting for most of the higher concentrations. The use of the aqueous phase alone for determination of removal efficiencies showed underestimations of API removal as compared to when solid phases are also considered. Negative removal efficiencies were observed, depending on the compound and the type of WWTP. The negative removals were associated with deconjugation of metabolites, aggregated accumulation of APIs in the WWTPs, as well as unaccounted hydraulic retention time during sampling. Compound characteristics, environmental factors, and WWTPs operation influenced WWTPs removal efficiencies. Wastewater stabilization ponds had the poorest removals efficiencies with an average of -322%. High total mass loads into the WWTPs influent and effluent of 22,729 and 22,385 mg day-1 1000 PE-1 were observed respectively. The results aims at aiding scientists and engineers in planning and designing of WWTPs. Findings also aim at aiding policy-making on pharmaceutical drug use and recommend proper wastewater management practices to manage the high mass loading observed in the WWTPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Quênia , Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
6.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115147, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673932

RESUMO

With the high production and consumption of antibiotics in recent years due to increasing economic development and improving population health, China is facing serious antibiotic pollution in the environment, and it is becoming a significant threat to ecology and human health. This study explores the spatial distribution patterns of 65 antibiotics in soil, surface water and coastal water based on a systematic review. Potential emission sources of antibiotics are also analyzed using data extracted from the reviewed literature. The results suggest that China has very high antibiotic detection rates of 100%, 98.0% and 96.4% for soil, surface water and coastal water, respectively. Regions with high antibiotic levels are mainly located in Bohai Bay, including the Beijing‒Tianjin‒Hebei region, Liaoning and Shandong Provinces, and Yangtze River. Tetracyclines (TCs) and quinolones (QNs) are the dominant antibiotics observed in soil and are mainly attributed to the use of manure as fertilizer and the reuse of domestic wastewater. Sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides (MLs), TCs and QNs are the dominant antibiotics observed in surface water and are mainly attributed to aquaculture and the emission of domestic sewage. QNs are the dominant antibiotics observed in coastal water and are mainly attributed to marine cultivation. The detection frequencies and concentrations of TCs, QNs, SAs and MLs in both soil and water are much higher than those in other developed countries. Suggestions including restricting antibiotic usages in livestock farming and aquaculture, innovation of wastewater treatment technology to improve antibiotic removal rate, and establishing guidelines on antibiotic concentration for wastewater discharge and organic fertilizer are provided.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Águas Residuárias , Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140713, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693274

RESUMO

To better understand the occurrence and succession of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, the investigation of ARGs in sediment for a long time scale is urgently needed. In this study, sediment samples were taken in the Yangtze Estuarine area from 2007 to 2019, and the interannual variations in ARGs and their possible physicochemical and socioeconomic influencing factors were analyzed. The results showed that the abundance of ARGs, including sul1, sul2, tetM, tetW, aac(6')-Ib and qnrS, was higher in recent years (from 2015 to 2019) than that in earlier years (from 2007 to 2011), and heavier ARG pollution was found in Wusongkou (WSK) samples than in Liuhekou (LHK) samples. According to the redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) and correlation analysis, the antibiotics (especially individual antibiotic categories, including oxytetracycline, doxycycline hyclate and norfloxacin), metals and a metal resistance gene (zntA) and total organic carbon (TOC) showed significant correlations to ARGs. In addition, antibiotics, metals, TOC and ARGs were also significantly correlated with several socioeconomic indices. Furthermore, the extended STIRPAT model analysis revealed that the second industry product and the first industry product were the major socioeconomic driver factors for the ARG distribution at WSK and LHK, respectively. Overall, with socioeconomic development, antibiotics, metals, TOC and ARGs increased in sediment. In addition, antibiotics, metals and TOC may participate in the regulation of the occurrence and distribution of ARGs in the Yangtze Estuary for the long time scale.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Estuários , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127380, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603916

RESUMO

The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS. Veterinary and human antimicrobials enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline were detected in 100% of the samples, being to our knowledge the first report of clarithromycin in edible fish muscle. Maximum Residual Limits were exceeded for at least one antibiotic in 82% of pacú, 57% of shad, 57% of trout and 50% of salmon samples. Chloramphenicol, furazolidone and nitrofurantoin (banned compounds in food items) were detected in 41%, 22% and 4% of the samples, respectively. Based on the estimated daily intake calculation, samples do not pose a serious risk to public health. Further investigation on the chronic impact and risk calculation of the mixture of antibiotics on the aquatic environment and human health is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Argentina , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(5): 2320-2328, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608850

RESUMO

To understand the pollution characteristics and removal effect of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment process of large-scale pig farms in Guizhou, solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) was used to investigate the removal of ten veterinary antibiotics from the influent and effluent of each treatment unit during the wastewater treatment process in two large-scale pig farms (named Farm A and Farm B). The results showed that the removal rates of conventional pollutants[including chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)] in Farm A and Farm B were above 88.10%. The antibiotics concentrations detected in the influent and effluent ranged from ND-120842.74 ng·L-1. The main antibiotics were sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfamethoxazole (SMD), oxytetracycline (OTC), and ofloxacin (OFL), and the SMM concentration was highest at 120842.74 ng·L-1. The removal rate of the ten antibiotics was 99.23%-100.00% in Farm A and Farm B. In the wastewater treatment process of Farm A, the treatment section "USR+2A/O+disinfection pond+oxidation pond" removed antibiotics in wastewater effectively, with the total removal rate of SMM, SMD, and OTC reaching 100.00%. In the wastewater treatment process of Farm B, the treatment section "ultrafiltration (UF)+nanofiltration (NF)" removed antibiotics effectively by more than 99.23%. However, the concentrations of antibiotics investigated in the effluent were higher than the EU water environment antibiotic threshold (10 ng·L-1). Finally, through redundancy analysis, it was found that conventional indicators (COD, NH4+-N, TN, TP, and pH) in wastewater were related to the degradation of some antibiotics.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fazendas , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127483, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634723

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water system posed potential risks to human health. However, the occurrence of ARGs and OPs in drinking water biofilms is still at its infancy. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of ARGs and OPs in both water and biofilm samples from a drinking water system, and the correlation between ARGs and microbial communities was analyzed. The quantitative PCR results showed that the drinking water treatment process effectively decreased the absolute abundances of ARGs. However, the relative concentration of ARGs did not show a significant difference between raw water and treated water samples. Compared with bulk water and tap water samples, biofilms had higher relative abundances of ARGs. 16 S Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that microbial communities of biofilms were distinguished with water samples. Meanwhile, qPCR results of OPs also showed that biofilms had higher relative abundances of OPs compared with water samples. Furthermore, the Spearman correlation analysis indicated that Dechloromonas, Desulfovibrio, Methylobacterium and Propionivibrio correlated well with the relative abundance of ARGs. The absolute concentrations of OPs and ARGs also showed a significant correlation. Results of this study suggest that biofilms could serve as the reservoirs for the spread of ARGs and the interaction between biofilms and bulk water requires further research.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Água Potável/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Antibacterianos/análise , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Microbiota , Prevalência , Purificação da Água
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 952-961, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608757

RESUMO

An analytical approach was developed to simultaneously determine 13 antibiotics in sulfonamides, quinolones, and macrolides in leafy vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After optimizing extracted solutions, purification methods, and eluents of antibiotics in vegetable substrates, and taking into account the influence of environmental changes and experimental conditions on the results, the optimal experimental scheme was determined. This involved ①weighing 500 mg of vegetable samples and adding 20 mL of methanol-Mcllvaine-Na2 EDTA solution; ② conducting ultrasonic and centrifugal extraction three times; ③ Allowing rotary evaporation to 20 mL to pass a HLB solid phase extraction column; ④ Eluting the extraction column using 6 mL of methanol, upon which the eluent was dried almost completely; ⑤ Re-dissolving the eluent with a mixed solution of acetonitrile:water (volume ratio of 2:8); ⑥ Detecting by UPLC-MS/MS after centrifugation and filtering. Phase A and B of UPLC-MS/MS used an aqueous solution of 1‰ formic acid and acetonitrile, respectively to conduct gradient elution. Results showed that when the pakchoi spiked at 300 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries of 13 antibiotics were 38.05%-96.97%. At 150 ng·g-1, the spiked recoveries were 34.52%-111.10%. At 50 ng·g-1, the recoveries of standard addition were 41.75%-107.13%, and the relative deviation (RSD) values were all below 8.68%. The detection limit was 0.4-1 ng·g-1, and the limit of quantification was 1.5-3 ng·g-1. This demonstrated good extraction and recovery efficiency on different types of leafy vegetables, and presented a good analytical application effect. The antibiotic residues were detected in four kinds of leafy vegetables in found in markets. The total content ranged from 1.59 ng·g-1 to 32.01 ng·g-1, and the antibiotic content in samples was calculated by dry weight. The content of antibiotics in pakchoi was the highest, followed by Chinese cabbage, lettuce, and coriander. Among the antibiotics detected, sulfadimidine was the most abundant from the selected leafy vegetables. The content of antibiotics was very low, however the potential health risks caused by long-term consumption could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 1005-1012, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608763

RESUMO

The widespread use of antibiotics in feed results in a large number of antibiotic residues in feces. Composting technology can degrade these residual antibiotics. A pilot-scale aerobic composting device was used to analyze the antibiotic residues and composting degradation characteristics of four types of feces (maggot manure, chicken manure, pig manure, and cow manure). Results showed that sulfonamides (SAs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), tetracycline (TCs), and macrolides (MAs) were the main antibiotics, and different type of feces had different dominant antibiotics. The contents of FQs and oxytetracycline (OTC) were none on the seventh day of the compost, and their degradation rates were the fastest. After composting, the degradation rate of doxycycline (DOX) in the four types of fecal composts was more than 85%. Meanwhile, the degradation rates of SAs in chicken, pig, and cow manure composts were also more than 80%, which was much lower in the one in maggot manure compost. MAs were only found in maggot manure, and the degradation rate was 70.79% after composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the water content and bulk density were the most important environmental factors affecting the degradation rates of antibiotics in the four types of fecal composts.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes , Feminino , Suínos
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127427, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619936

RESUMO

A magnetic porous organic framework (M-POF) was rationally designed and served as a sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of six nitroimidazoles from chicken meat prior to their assay by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The M-POF exhibited good magnetic responsiveness and outstanding affinity to nitroimidazoles with large adsorption capacity up to 36 mg g-1. Under optimal conditions, the developed method offered good linearity (r greater than 0.992) in the range of 1.5-100.0 ng g-1, low limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.5-0.8 ng g-1, low limits of quantification of 1.5-2.5 ng g-1 and high enrichment factors of 80-175 for the nitroimidazoles. The method was successfully applied to analyze nitroimidazoles in chicken meat. The recoveries were 80.2-118% with relative standard deviations lower than 12%. The adsorption mechanism was further explored and the results showed that the M-POF exhibited adsorption potential for compounds with strong polar interactions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Magnetismo/métodos , Carne/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nitroimidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bioensaio , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Músculo Esquelético/química , Nitroimidazóis/análise , Porosidade , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
14.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110820, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721297

RESUMO

Different pre-conditioning treatments were evaluated in order to stabilize red mud, a waste product from bauxite processing, for obtaining heterogeneous catalysts (named as B1-B3) that can be employed as suitable activators of sodium persulfate (SPS) for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a model antibiotic, in water. The presence of Fe3O4 in the composition of the catalysts was found to be a key factor for a suitable activation of SPS, according to the XPS measurements. The oxidation of SMX was successfully fitted to a pseudo-first-order kinetic model (r2 > 0.96), obtaining a 68% removal after 180 min when 0.8 mg/L of SMX was oxidized with 2 g/L of SPS and 2 g/L of catalyst B3. The presence of organic and/or inorganic constituents in the water matrix significantly hindered the degradation rate of SMX, the apparent kinetic constants being from 2 to 3 times lower than that determined in ultrapure water test. The use of ultrasound irradiation coupled to the addition of B3 catalyst improved importantly the SMX oxidation in real aqueous matrices, thus attaining values of removal which almost triplicated the ones obtained in absence of ultrasounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , Oxirredução , Sulfametoxazol , Água
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139802, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535279

RESUMO

Artificial recharge to groundwater with reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion and over-exploitation. However, the occurrence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) was ubiquitous in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water threating human health and ecology. In this study, the occurrence of six selected FQs in reclaimed water effluent and their removal by tertiary treatment units were investigated. The overall removal efficiencies in average of the tertiary treatment processes in Beijing and Changzhou were ranging from 21.2% to 55.2%. Activated carbon exhibited better performance for FQs removal than ozone and biological treatment such as membrane bioreactor, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic and biofilter. The results of two pilot study showed that the impact of reclaimed water to groundwater quality in terms of FQs concentration by direct injection in GBD was stronger than surface spreading in Changzhou, which might be due to the recharge strategy and the physical and chemical characteristics of sediment and aquifer soil. The hazard quotient (HQ) values of ofloxacin (OFL) in reclaimed water was up to 12.54, indicating the extreme eco-toxicological risk, while enrofloxacin (ENR) exhibited medium risk. After recharge with reclaimed water, the HQ values of OFL and ENR in groundwater ranged from low to medium ecological risk to the environment. Thus, the FQs in reclaimed water need to be paid more attention during their reuse for groundwater recharge, especially by direct injection. It is suggested that FQs should be considered in the priority substances lists in standards and guidelines of reclaimed water reuse for groundwater recharge to ensure the safety of groundwater.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Pequim , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias , Água
16.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114930, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544789

RESUMO

The purpose of this long-term experiment was on gaining more insights into the environmental behaviour of veterinary antibiotics in the subsurface after application with manure. Therefore, manure spiked with a bromide tracer and eight antibiotics (enrofloxacin, lincomycin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, tiamulin, tilmicosin and tylosin) in concentrations of milligrams per litre were applied at an experimental field site. Their pathway was tracked by continuous extraction of soil pore water at different depths and systematic sampling of groundwater for a period of two years. Seven target compounds were detected in soil pore water of which four leached into groundwater. Concentrations of the detected target compounds were, with few exceptions, in the range of nanograms per litre. It was concluded that a large fraction of the investigated antibiotics sorbed or degraded already within the first meter of the soil. Further, it was inferred from the data that long and warm dry periods cause attenuation of the target compounds through increased degradation or sorption occurring in the soil. In addition, the comprehensive data-set allowed to estimate a retardation factor between 1.1 and 2.0 for sulfamethazine in a Plaggic Anthrosol soil, and to classify the individual compounds by environmental relevance based on transport behaviour and persistence. According to the distribution of resistant genes in the environment, sulfamethazine was found to be the most mobile and persistent substance.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Drogas Veterinárias , Agricultura , Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esterco/análise , Solo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110739, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505047

RESUMO

In the study, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were examined in wastewater and sludge samples to explore the effect of cephalexin (CFX) on the spreading and removal of ARGs in the Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) reactor treating antibiotics wastewater. The result showed that the addition of CFX in the wastewater affected the removal amount of ß-lactam ARGs and other types ARGs. Besides, the addition of CFX in the wastewater had no obviously effect on total concentration of targeted ARGs in the sludge, but it was related to the accumulation of some typical ARGs. Based on gene cassette array libraries analysis, the diversity of gene cassettes carried by intI1 gene was increased by the addition of CFX in the wastewater. Furthermore, the co-occurrence patterns between ARGs and bacterial genus were also investigated. The results showed the CFX in the wastewater not only affected the number of potential host bacteria of ARGs, but also changed the types of potential host bacteria of ARGs. The correlation analysis of ARG in influent, effluent and sludge showed that, for blaCTX-M, sul2, qnrS and AmpC genes, their removal amount in EGSB reactor treating antibiotic wastewater system might be enhanced by reducing their concentration in the sludge.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalexina/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cefalexina/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/química
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111360, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573452

RESUMO

The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their associated environmental factors in estuaries are poorly understood. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed ARGs in both water and sediments from inlet to outlet of the Yangtze Estuary, China. The relative abundances of ARGs were higher in the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) than other sites, implying that suspended particulate matter (SPM) was the major reservoir for ARGs in water. ARGs showed an increasing trend from inlet to outlet in sediments. Positively correlation between intI1 and sul1 in both water and sediments indicated that sul1 may be regulated by intI1. Correlation analysis and redundancy analysis showed that the spatial variations of estuarine ARGs were positively correlated with sample properties (e.g., temperature, SPM, pH) and chemical pollutants (e.g., heavy metals and antibiotic residues), among which chemical pollutants were the major drivers for the ARG distribution in both water and sediments.


Assuntos
Estuários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Baías , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461175, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505279

RESUMO

An ionic liquid hybrid zwitterionic polymer capillary microextraction (CME) column was prepared for the biomimetic enrichment of glycopeptides by one-step copolymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide, in the presence of crosslinker trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMA). The resultant monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and pore size distribution measurement. Due to the incorporation of zwitterionic MPC owning a unique biomimic structure (i.e. hydrophilic cation/anion and hydrophobic long-alkyl chain), the monolithic column has large pore size and good biocompatibility, exhibiting high extraction efficiency, permeability and fast mass transfer to targets. Besides, the use of ionic liquids (ILs) as co-monomer in the polymerization endows the monolith with enhanced mechanical stability, uniformity and multiple interactions. The prepared column was successfully applied in CME coupled to capillary electrochromatography (CEC) for the efficient enrichment and separation of glycopeptide antibiotics in foodstuff. The method demonstrated a wide linear range (50.0-18000.0 µg L-1), low detection limits (5.0-10.0 µg L-1, S/N = 3) and satisfied recoveries (76.0-109.7%). This work shows the advantage of fine-tuning biomimetic monoliths in application-specific CME-CEC.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Eletrocromatografia Capilar/métodos , Glicopeptídeos/análise , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Materiais Biomiméticos , Fracionamento Químico , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/química , Metacrilatos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Compostos de Vinila/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138296, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481204

RESUMO

A wide variety of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are used in livestock production systems and residues passed to the environment, often unmetabolized, after use and excretion. Antibiotic residues may be transported from manure-treated soils via runoff and are also capable of reaching surface and groundwater systems through a variety of pathways. The occurrence and persistence of antibiotics in the environment is a concern due to the potential for ecological effects and proliferation of environmental antibiotic resistance in pathogenic organisms. In the present study, the occurrence and seasonal variation of 24 commonly-used veterinary antibiotics was evaluated in surface water adjacent to several livestock production systems using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Uptake rates for all compounds, nine of which have not been previously reported, were measured in the laboratory to permit estimation of changes in the time-weighted average (TWA) antibiotic concentrations during exposure. The antibiotics detected in POCIS extracts included sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfamerazine, sulfadiazine, lincomycin, erythromycin, erythromycin anhydro- and monensin. The maximum TWA concentration belonged to sulfadiazine (25 ng/L) in the August-September sampling period and coincided with the highest number of precipitation events. With the exception of monensin that showed an increase in concentration over the stream path, none of the detected antibiotics were prescribed to livestock at the facility. The detection of antibiotics not prescribed by the facility may be attributable to the environmental persistence of previously used antibiotics, transfer by wind from other nearby livestock production sites or industrial uses, and/or the natural production of some antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Água
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