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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 17-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471024

RESUMO

Is our food safe and free of the crisis of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (AR)? And will the derived food waste (FW) impose AR risk to the environment after biological treatment? This study used restaurant FW leachates flowing through a 200 tons-waste/day biological treatment plant as a window to investigate the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) during the acceptance and treatment of FW. Sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole) and quinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin) were detected during FW treatment, while tetracyclines, macrolides and chloramphenicols were not observable. ARGs encoding resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides emerged in FW leachates. Material flow analysis illustrated that the total amount of antibiotics (except sulfamethazine) and ARGs were constant during FW treatment processes. Both the concentration and total amount of most antibiotics and ARGs fluctuated during treatment, physical processes (screening, centrifugation, solid-liquid and oil-water separation) did not decrease antibiotic or ARGs concentrations or total levels permanently; the affiliated wastewater treatment plant appeared to remove sulfonamides and most ARGs concentrations and total amount. Heavy metals Ni, Co and Cu were important for disseminating antibiotics concentrations and MGEs for distributing ARGs concentrations. Humic substances (fulvic acids, hydrophilic fractions), C-associated and N-associated contents were essential for the distribution of the total amounts of antibiotics and ARGs. Overall, this study implied that human food might not be free of antibiotics and ARGs, and FW was an underestimated AR pool with various determinants. Nonetheless, derived hazards of FW could be mitigated through biological treatment with well-planned daily operations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Metais Pesados/análise , Restaurantes , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9088-9095, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347836

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) have been simultaneously detected in five kinds of foodstuffs using an immunoaffinity purification method coupled with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the first time. Two highly specific monoclonal antibodies against TCC and TCS were produced and coupled to N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose 6B gel to prepare the immunosorbent. Under the optimal conditions, mean recoveries from spiked samples by the IAC-UHPLC-MS/MS method were 70.1-92.8% for TCC and 76.6-102.5% for TCS. Intraday relative standard deviations were below 14.5%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of TCC were 1 ng/L for beverage samples and 0.01-0.02 µg/kg for food samples. The LOQs of TCS were 0.03 µg/L for beverage samples and 0.2-0.3 µg/kg for food samples. The applicability of the method has been proven by analyzing TCC and TCS in different samples from supermarkets in Beijing. The proposed method is sufficiently sensitive and reliable for monitoring trace concentrations of TCC and TCS in food samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Carbanilidas/análise , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triclosan/análise , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bebidas/análise , Carbanilidas/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Técnicas de Imunoadsorção , Triclosan/isolamento & purificação
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 23-30, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150873

RESUMO

This study investigated the removal of antibiotics by sequencing-batch membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for swine wastewater treatment. Nine compounds categorized into three groups of commonly used veterinary antibiotics, namely sulfonamides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, were evaluated. Results showed that both sulfonamides and tetracyclines were efficiently removed by SMBR (>90%) while a lower removal was observed for fluoroquinolones (<70%). Mass balance analysis evidenced that biodegradation/biotransformation was the main mechanism for the removal of antibiotics in SMBR operation. Moreover, sludge adsorption and membrane retention also slightly contributed to antibiotic removal. Of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones were more prone to accumulate in biosolids. It is noteworthy that antibiotics temporarily affected SMBR performance by inhibiting sludge growth and activity as well as increasing the concentrations of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in the mixed liquor. Nevertheless, >60% of organic matter and nutrients in swine wastewater could be removed over SMBR operation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Sulfonamidas/análise , Suínos , Tetraciclinas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Qualidade da Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 58-66, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150876

RESUMO

This study investigated the dissipation and persistence of three groups of residual antibiotics (sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetracyclines) in anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids and compost during 28 days of storage under environmental conditions. Results showed that the total dissipation of sulfonamides was above 70%, which was higher than that of quinolones and tetracyclines. Quinolones were more persistent in compost than in AD biosolids. Similar dissipation rates in AD biosolids and compost were observed for tetracyclines. Of the four commonly used models, the availability-adjusted first-order model (AAFO) was the optimal to fit the dissipation of antibiotics, which was mainly governed by their initial concentrations, matrix pH, and the presence of organic matter and microorganisms. The half-lives of sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetracyclines in AD biosolids were 6-51 days, 1-136 days, and 15-19 days; while those were 3-21 days, 3-74 days, and 7-27 days in compost, respectively. In particular, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most persistent in AD biosolids and compost, respectively. Moreover, tetracyclines were more prone to cause pseudo-persistent pollution due to their much higher residuals in comparison to sulfonamides and quinolones. Thus, both AD biosolids and compost should be further treated before their farmland applications to control antibiotic introduction to the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Compostagem , Fertilizantes/análise , Quinolonas/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclinas/análise , Anaerobiose , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Sus scrofa
5.
Food Chem ; 297: 124969, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253282

RESUMO

The wide use of tetracyclines (TCs) for prevention and therapy of animal diseases may result in excessive residues in animal products, which could pose serious risks to human health. A novel molybdenum disulfide nanoplates (MoS2 NPs)-based fluorescent sensor for tetracycline (TET) is reported. The MoS2 NPs, synthesized via a facile bottom-up hydrothermal route, showed blue fluorescence at 430 nm in aqueous solution. Interestingly, its fluorescence was quenched significantly upon addition of TET, which is mainly due to a combination of the inner filter effect and electron transfer. Thus, the MoS2 NPs based fluorescence sensor was delineated for the detection of TET. The methodology here presented showed a low detection limit of 0.032 µM and satisfied recoveries from 88.46% to 108.62% in spiked milk, milk powder and bovine muscle samples.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Molibdênio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Tetraciclinas/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bovinos , Fluorescência , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110559, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176927

RESUMO

The family Piperaceae is known for presenting in its species flavoring, healing and antimicrobial properties among others. The objective of the present study was: to study the chemical profile of the essential oil of Piper rivinoides (EOPR); to analyze its anti-bacterial and antifungal potential, as well as to evaluate the antifungal and antibiotic-modifying capacity. The chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), allowing the identification of 7 constituents of a total of 86.99%. E-Isoelemicin was identified as the main constituent of petroleum (40.81%). Clinically relevant MIC results were obtained against fungi in which the inhibitory concentration remained <256 µg/mL, as for Candida albicans 4127 (217.6 µg/mL). The association of EOPR with an antifungal showed a high synergistic affinity against the strains of C. tropicalis 40042 and 4262. We concluded that no intrinsic EOPR activity was observed at any concentrations tested against bacteria. However, EOPR associated with Gentamicin acted synergistically against S. aureus 10 and Escherichia coli 06, but with Erythromycin there was a synergistic effect against Escherichia coli 06, and antagonism with norfloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Piper/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 129: 270-277, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254804

RESUMO

Two typical kanamycin-A (KAN-A) electrochemical aptamer-based sensors employing different signal transduction mechanisms were deliberately designed and constructed with a similar structure. One sensor (sensor-1) was based on the classical probe conformation changing mode (PCCM) with a methylene blue (MB) label used as an electrochemical tag; the other sensor (sensor-2) used the target-induced signal probe shifting (TISPS) method with a free MB label in the assay solution. The difference in signal transduction mechanisms resulted in big differences in basic electrochemical behavior and comprehensive sensing performance. The results show that both sensor types exhibit different electrochemical behavior in square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and in sensitivity, with detection limits of 3.0 nM for sensor-1 and 60.0 pM for sensor-2 in buffer. When validated for practical and quantitative detection of tap water and milk samples, both sensing methods performed well with detection limits of <260 nM and measurement times of <40 min. In addition, accuracy was good with mean recoveries of 72.3-92.6% and precision was acceptable with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤14.2%. The basis for the similarities and differences in performance is also presented.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Canamicina/análise , Leite/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Água Potável/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Limite de Detecção
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5209-5222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183522

RESUMO

The developed method was evaluated for the determination of 10 antibiotics belonging to four chemical classes (fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, lincosamides, and metoxybenzylpyrimidines) and six of their metabolites in four vegetable matrices (lettuce, tomato, cauliflower, and broad beans). The reported method detection limits were sufficiently low (0.1-5.8 ng/g dry weight) to detect target compounds in vegetables under real agricultural practices. Absolute and relative recovery values ranged from 40 to 118% and from 70 to 118%, respectively, for all targeted compounds at the spike level of 100 ng/g dry weight. Regarding method precision, the highest relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained for enrofloxacin in lettuce (20%), while for the rest of the compounds in all matrices, the RSD values were below 20% for the same spike level. Matrix effects, due to electrospray ionization, ranged from - 26 to 29% for 85% of all estimated values. In a field study, four of the 10 targeted antibiotics were detected in tested vegetables. For the first time, antibiotic metabolites were quantified in vegetables grown under real field conditions. More specifically, decarboxyl ofloxacin and TMP304 were detected in tomato fruits (1.5 ng/g dry weight) and lettuce leaves (21.0-23.1 ng/g dry weight), respectively. It is important to remark that the concentration of TMP304 was five times higher than that from the parental compound, emphasizing the importance of metabolite analysis in monitoring studies. Therefore, the method provided a robust, reliable, and simple-to-use tool that could prove useful for routine multiclass analysis of antibiotics and their metabolites in vegetable samples. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Verduras/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7569-7586, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198037

RESUMO

The abundant use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic residues in frequently consumed foods. Residual antibiotics in food may have adverse effects on humans by directly causing disease via low-dose exposure and indirect harm via antibiotic resistance. However, the current methods for antibiotic extraction and analysis in food have not yet formed a uniform standard, and only a few data exist regarding the residual antibiotic condition in various types of foods. Hence, we review the literature since 2008 to summarize analytical methods and residue status of antibiotics in food. Then, we discuss the causes of antibiotic residues in food and the possible hazards to human health. We hope that the joint efforts of the scientific community and political circles will lead to the formation of a unified standard for the extraction and analysis of antibiotics in food, to allow for comprehensive monitoring of residual antibiotics and ensure human health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ovos/análise , Peixes , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Verduras/química
10.
Cornea ; 38(8): 1017-1022, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine in-use stability and sterility of fortified cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, amphotericin B, and methylprednisolone eye drops in a simulated inpatient setting with and without a mobile refrigerated container (MR). METHODS: Each drug was prepared and divided into 4 groups: 1) simulated patient use with the MR group: stored at 4°C and kept in the MR during drug administration, 2) simulated patient use without the MR (NoMR) group: stored at 4°C and no MR, 3) refrigerated control group: stored at 4°C, and 4) room temperature control group: stored at room temperature. Stability and sterility data were evaluated at days 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Linear mixed-effects model and survival analysis were performed. RESULTS: Median time to 10% loss of concentration for in-use medications (MR/NoMR groups) was >28/27.9, 22.2/22.2, 19.4/19.4, 10.18/<4, and >28/>28 days for cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, amphotericin B, and methylprednisolone, respectively. There was no significant difference in the predicted concentration loss per day among all groups for vancomycin and methylprednisolone (all P > 0.05). For the other study medications, all room temperature control groups, the cefazolin NoMR group, and the ceftazidime NoMR group had significantly greater predicted concentration loss per day compared with the refrigerated control groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Culture results were negative for all drugs throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The NoMR group showed that the drug significantly degraded rapidly for cefazolin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin B. Implementation of MR could decrease the predicted loss of concentration per day for cefazolin and ceftazidime. In vitro antimicrobial activity and sterility were retained for 28 days.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucocorticoides/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esterilização , Anfotericina B/análise , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefazolina/análise , Cefazolina/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/análise , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Metilprednisolona/análise , Metilprednisolona/farmacologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Conservantes Farmacêuticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/análise , Vancomicina/farmacologia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20148-20163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115815

RESUMO

Environmental pollutants, including antibiotics (ATBs), have become an increasingly common health hazard in the last several decades. Overdose and abuse of ATBs led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs), which represent a serious health threat. Moreover, water bodies and reservoirs are places where a wide range of bacterial species with ARGs originate, owing to the strong selective pressure from presence of ATB residues. In this regard, graphene oxide (GO) has been utilised in several fields including remediation of the environment. In this review, we present a brief overview of resistant genes of frequently used ATBs, their occurrence in the environment and their behaviour. Further, we discussed the factors influencing the binding of nucleic acids and the response of ARGs to GO, including the presence of salts in the water environment or water pH, because of intrinsic properties of GO of not only binding to nucleic acids but also catalysing their decomposition. This would be helpful in designing new types of water treatment facilities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Grafite/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6037-6046, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056338

RESUMO

The use of the heterologous competitive strategy has become a vital method to improve the sensitivity of ELISA. In this work, we prepared an anti-enrofloxacin (ENR) mAb with ENR-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. The molecular descriptors of quinolones were then used to screen heterologous coating antigens for the detection of ENR based on an ensemble learning method to improve the sensitivity of the ELISA. Results indicated that 6 of the 7 selected heterologous competitive antigens could enhance the sensitivity of ELISA. The ELISA sensitivity for the detection of ENR with sarafloxacin-BSA as heterologous coating antigen was improved 10-fold (in PBS) and 6-fold (in milk) compared with that with ENR-BSA as homologous antigen. The strategy can effectively screen suitable heterologous competitive antigens to improve the sensitivity of ELISA, followed by preparation of mAb with no additional modification to the corresponding immunogen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Enrofloxacina/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leite/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos Heterófilos/análise , Bovinos , Ciprofloxacino/análogos & derivados , Ciprofloxacino/análise , Enrofloxacina/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Soroalbumina Bovina
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 114-122, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078018

RESUMO

Livestock manure is generally dumped directly onto open soil or used to enhance the soil fertility. However, there are growing concerns regarding the impact of these practices on the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil. In this study, we sampled soils treated with manure from 10 large-scale farms (pig, beef cattle, and chicken farms) and those from farmland without manure. The results showed that the abundance of ARGs was more than 2.62 times higher in the soil samples treated with livestock manure than the farmland soil without manure. The abundances of ARGs and intI1 in all samples were in the following order: pig farms > chicken farms > beef cattle farms. tetX, sul1, sul2, and tetG were the dominant ARGs in farm soil. The concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics and sulfonamide antibiotics were 0.15-4.76 mg/kg and 0-2.62 mg/kg, respectively, in the soils treated with manure, which were higher than those in farmland soils without manure. Redundancy analysis (P < 0.05) and network analysis (P < 0.01, R > 0.80) demonstrated that copper, zinc, actinomycetes, and tetracycline antibiotics were the main factors that affected the distribution of ARGs in soils treated with livestock manure.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Gado/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bovinos , Galinhas , Fazendas , Esterco/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140948

RESUMO

A simple and reliable method using liquid chromatography with diode array detector was developed for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and thiamphenicol in medicated feed. The analytes were extracted from the minced feed with methanol and ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). Next, the extract was further cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction using anhydrous magnesium sulfate, PSA and C18 sorbents. Finally, 1 mL of extract was evaporated, the residue resuspended in Milli-Q water, and filtered. The method was validated in-house at medicated levels, in the concentration range 10-300 µg/mL (50-1500 mg/kg). Values of <6.5% and <6.0% were found, respectively, for repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The LODs for the two fenicols were 2.4-5.3 mg/kg, while the LOQs were 3.8-5.6 mg/kg. The expanded uncertainty was estimated to be in the range of 10.0-14.5%, depending on the analyte. Recoveries varied from 81.7% to 97.5%. The methodology was applied to the analysis of animal feedingstuffs collected from poultry and pig farms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/análise , Medicina Veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calibragem , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/veterinária , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacologia , Cavalos , Suínos , Tianfenicol/administração & dosagem , Tianfenicol/farmacologia
15.
Analyst ; 144(11): 3649-3658, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074470

RESUMO

Serious healthcare concerns have been raised on the issue of antibiotic residues after overuse, especially by accumulation in the human body through food webs. Here, we report a methodological development for sensitive detection of antibiotics with aptamer conformation cooperated enzyme-assisted SERS (ACCESS) technology. We design and integrate a set of nucleic acid oligos, realizing specific recognition of chloramphenicol (CAP) and efficient exonuclease III-assisted DNA amplification. It features a "signal-on" analysis of CAP with the limit of detection (15 fM), the lowest concentration detectable in the literature. Our method exhibits a high selectivity on the target analyte, free of interference of other potential antibiotic contaminants. The ACCESS assay promises an ultrasensitive and specific detection tool for trace amounts of antibiotic residues in samples of our daily life.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Cloranfenicol/análise , Sondas de DNA/química , DNA/química , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA/genética , Sondas de DNA/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Leite/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silício/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 229: 461-470, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091487

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is regarded as a promising technology in energy recovery and the spread mitigation of antibiotic resistance. However, the performance of AD is dependent on various factors, and substrate type is one of the most important. In this study, the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) response to the substrate types was investigated, and three typical environmental reservoirs of ARGs (pig manure, chicken manure and sewage sludge) were selected. The role of substrate microbial community on the fate of ARGs was clarified through the comparison between the AD of the substrates with and without a prior autoclave-disinfected step. Results showed that substrate types significantly influenced the fate of ARGs, while the influence from the substrate microbial community was limited. The concentration of antibiotics, the horizontal gene transfer reflected by intI1 and co-selection from heavy metals reflected by metal resistance genes (MRGs) were all reduced effectively. Microbial community varied from substrate types and dominated the ARGs fate concerning the standardized total effects through the mantel test and SEM analysis. The fate of tetX, ermF, tetM and ermB was mainly determined by the physicochemical parameters and the phyla of Firmicutes and Bacteroides. The phyla of Actinobacteria, pcoA and czcA contributed most to the reduction of blaTEM and mcr-1, and the phyla of Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes, Euryarchaeote, intI1 and merA correlated significantly with the fate of blaCTX-M, ereA, tetG and sulI. This study highlighted the importance of substrate types when considering the fate of ARGs during AD.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Esterco/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Anaerobiose/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Galinhas , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , beta-Lactamases/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 680: 70-78, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100670

RESUMO

Although the effects of fertilization on the abundance and diversity of soil nematodes have been widely studied, the impact of fertilization on soil nematode microbiomes remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated how different fertilizers: no fertilizer, mineral fertilizer, clean slurry (pig manure with a reduced antibiotic burden) and dirty slurry (pig manure with antibiotics) affect the microbiome of a dominant soil nematode and its associated antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results of 16S rRNA gene high throughput sequencing showed that the microbiome of the soil nematode Dorylaimus stagnalis is diverse (Shannon index: 9.95) and dominated by Proteobacteria (40.3%). Application of mineral fertilizers significantly reduced the diversity of the nematode microbiome (by 28.2%; P < 0.05) but increased the abundance of Proteobacteria (by 70.1%; P = 0.001). Microbial community analysis, using a null hypothesis model, indicated that microbiomes associated with the nematode are not neutrally assembled. Organic fertilizers also altered the diversity of the nematode microbiome, but had no impact on its composition as illustrated by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Interestingly, although no change of total ARGs was observed in the nematode microbiome and no significant relationship existed between nematode microbiome and resistome, the abundance of 48 out of a total of 75 ARGs was enriched in the organic fertilizer treatments. Thus, the data suggests that ARGs in the nematode microbiome still had a risk of horizontal gene transfer under fertilization and nematodes might be a potential refuge for ARGs.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Helmintos/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esterco , Microbiota , Minerais , Nematoides , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(5): 194, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119496

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of different polymers (polyethylene glycol 4000 and 6000 and Soluplus®) on the enhancement of solubility, dissolution, and stability of cefixime trihydrate as a selected class II model drug. Different solid dispersions have been prepared using conventional methods and supercritical fluid technology. The effect of co-solvent incorporation in supercritical fluid technology was also studied. Physicochemical properties for solid dispersions were investigated using Fourier transform infrared analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The solubility of the prepared solid dispersions increased except for those prepared with Soluplus® using supercritical fluid technology without co-solvent. The best enhancement in the release profile was recorded by Soluplus®-based solid dispersions prepared using a conventional method. The conventional methods of preparation and the presence of co-solvent in supercritical fluid technology converted cefixime into its amorphous form.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Cefixima/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polivinil/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Cefixima/análise , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Polivinil/análise , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Difração de Raios X
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18930-18937, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055743

RESUMO

Antibiotics have a wide application range in human and veterinary medicines. Being designed for pharmacological stability, most antibiotics are recalcitrant to biodegradation after ingestion and can be persistent in the environment. Antibiotic residues have been detected as contaminants in various environmental compartments where they cause human and environmental threats, notably with respect to the potential emergence and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. An important component of managing environmental risk caused by antibiotics is to understand exposure of soil and water resources to their residues. One challenge is to gain knowledge on the fate of antibiotics in the ecosystem along the soil-water continuum, and on the collateral impact of antibiotics on environmental microorganisms responsible for crucially important ecosystem functions. In this context, the ANTIBIOTOX project aims at studying the environmental fate and impact of two antibiotics of the sulfonamide class of antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Água/química , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade
20.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035407

RESUMO

In this study, the detection and quantification of multiple classes of antibiotics in water matrices are proposed using a lab-made solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The lab-made fiber was prepared using a graphene oxide (G), carbon nanotubes (C), and titanium dioxide (T) composite, namely GCT, with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as supporting material. The detected antibiotics were enrofloxacin, sulfathiazole, erythromycin, and trimethoprim. The custom-made fiber was found to be superior compared with a commercial C18 fiber. The excellent reproducibility and lower intra-fiber relative standard deviations (RSDs 1.8% to 6.8%) and inter-fiber RSDs (4.5% to 8.8%) made it an ideal candidate for the detection of traces of antibiotics in real environmental samples. The proposed validated method provides a satisfactory limit of detection and good linear ranges with higher (>0.99) coefficient of determination in the aqueous system. Application of the method was made in different real water systems such as river, pond and tap water using the standard spiking method. Excellent sensitivity, reproducibility, lower amount of sample detection and higher recovery was found in a real water sample. Therefore, the extraction method was successfully applied to the detection and quantification of multiple classes of antibiotics in different aqueous systems with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas , Antibacterianos/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Estanho , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Adsorção , Antibacterianos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solubilidade , Solventes , Análise Espectral , Estanho/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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