Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 550
Filtrar
2.
N Z Med J ; 132(1502): 84-95, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563930

RESUMO

Deadly outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infection occurred in New Zealand from the mid-1950s to early 1960s. The 'H' or 'Hospital-Bug' epidemic was part of a pandemic wave characterised by high numbers of nosocomial staphylococcal infections and the capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Surgical patients and childbearing women and babies proved particularly vulnerable to the predominant pathogenic strain, identified as phage type 80/81. The post-war baby boom was at its height in New Zealand, and overcrowded maternity hospitals and outdated nursing techniques increased the risks of infection. The outbreaks challenged the medical profession, which had become reliant on antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment. The Health Department ascribed responsibility for the indiscriminate use of antibiotics to medical practitioners but had little control over their prescribing habits. Confronted by increasing infection rates and falling public confidence in the maternity services, health officials supported a fundamental change in maternity care to 'rooming-in' of mother and baby, epidemiological research on staphylococcal transmission in hospitals, notification of nosocomial infections, improved barrier nursing and heightened awareness of appropriate aseptic techniques. Phage type 80/81 waned in the early 1960s concurrent with the arrival of methicillin but the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the 1980s, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) in the 2000s, and the rapid emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria over the past decade, highlights the potential for further outbreaks while the use of antimicrobials remains high. Non-pharmacological interventions such as those promoted during the 'H-Bug' epidemic are likely to be central to controlling future waves of resistant nosocomial infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecção Hospitalar , Surtos de Doenças/história , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/história , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Nova Zelândia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/história
4.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 212-221, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205048

RESUMO

Gonorrhea can be traced back to the earliest records of the human race even if Albert Neisser first described gonococcus in 1879. The Romans, Jews and Arabs all have documents referring to gonorrhea and each society had their own description of symptoms and treatment. The Roman physician Galen in 130 AD described the disease as an "involuntary escape of semen". The word itself derives from the Greek, meaning "the flow of seed". Gonorrhea is currently the second most commonly notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), second only to chlamydial infection. Gonorrhea notifications have been on the rise all over the world and in several European countries since the early 2000s, particularly in populations with higher frequency of spread of STIs, such as men who have sex with men and young heterosexual individuals of both sexes. Having been recognized at least 3500 years ago, the fight against the disease began infinitely before the antibiotic era, using healing compounds. In the absence of an ideal vaccine, the most important challenge today is the emergence of the multidrug-resistant gonorrhea, which is currently the main reason for public concern responsible for the evolution of N. gonorrheae into a superbug. N. gonorrheae strains resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) form a threat to effective control of gonorrhea for which there are currently ongoing clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of old and new antimicrobial molecules for monotherapy and as dual therapy of gonorrhea. In this paper we investigated the remedies and treatments employed against gonorrhea during the 19th century in Ferrara, referring to Campana's Pharmacopoeia and unpublished manuscripts concerning the treatment of this disease in medical practice. The remedies for gonorrhea adopted in the city were in line with those utilized in other countries. Among these, copaiba oleoresins have been demonstrated to have been efficacious in the past against gonococcal disease in popular medical use and, recently, against a large number of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, which will call for more in vitro and clinical studies to evaluate their real effectiveness on the N. gonorrheae bacterium.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/história , Gonorreia/terapia , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Exp Med ; 216(1): 1-3, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504439

RESUMO

Eran is the head of the microbiome-focused research group at the Weizmann Institute in Israel. He has published seminal work demonstrating the importance of the microbiota in many different systems, from post-dieting weight gain to circadian rhythms. Recent work from Eran and colleagues shows how probiotics perturb rather than aid the recovery of the microbiota following antibiotic treatment in humans. We contacted Eran to find out about his journey in science so far.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Retratos como Assunto
7.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1435(1): 18-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446459

RESUMO

Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are on the rise, and there is a lack of new classes of drugs to treat these pathogens. This drug shortage is largely due to the challenge of finding antibiotics that can permeate and persist inside Gram-negative species. Efforts to understand the molecular properties that enable certain compounds to accumulate in Gram-negative bacteria based on retrospective studies of known antibiotics have not been generally actionable in the development of new antibiotics. A recent assessment of the ability of >180 diverse small molecules to accumulate in Escherichia coli led to predictive guidelines for compound accumulation in E. coli. These "eNTRy rules" state that compounds are most likely to accumulate if they contain a nonsterically encumbered ionizable Nitrogen (primary amines are the best), have low Three-dimensionality (globularity ≤ 0.25), and are relatively Rigid (rotatable bonds ≤ 5). In this review, we look back through 50+ years of antibacterial research and 1000s of derivatives and assess this historical data set through the lens of these predictive guidelines. The results are consistent with the eNTRy rules, suggesting that the eNTRy rules may provide an actionable and general roadmap for the conversion of Gram-positive-only compounds into broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
12.
Res Microbiol ; 169(9): 481-487, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777837

RESUMO

Research on bacteriophages has significantly enhanced our understanding of molecular biology, the genomes of prokaryotic cells, and viral ecology. Phages and lysins offer a viable alternative to the declining utility of antibiotics in this post-antibiotic era. They also provide ideal teaching tools for genomics and bioinformatics. This article touches on the first 100 years of phage research with the author commenting on what he thinks are the highlights, and what needs to be addressed.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Pesquisa/história , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/história , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Classificação , Biologia Computacional/história , Genômica/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Terapia por Fagos/história , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
J Med Biogr ; 26(2): 110-117, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521172

RESUMO

Hans Emmanuel Enoch (1896-1991) was born in Hamburg, the son of a manufacturer of sera and vaccines. Upon his father's death, he took charge of the Hamburg Serum Werke. Following the rise of Hitler, he came to be pilloried in the Nazi press for allegedly having poisoned the population of Hamburg and was imprisoned for a time. He immigrated to England in 1935 where he had secured a position with the International Serum Company in Norwich. Following the outbreak of war, he was interned as an enemy alien, eventually ending up in Canada. In 1941, he was permitted to return to England, but wartime conditions prevented him from continuing to manufacture sera. At about this time, penicillin was making the headlines, and coupled with accounts of its miraculous properties, was the news that all production was reserved exclusively for the armed forces. Enoch decided to meet the public clamour for penicillin by producing a crude version which he termed 'vivicillin.' News of this spread globally, and he came to incur the disdain of Howard Florey for the attendant publicity. Notwithstanding this, vivicillin was to prove itself effective and its use led to the saving of lives.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/história , Penicilinas/história , Antibacterianos/provisão & distribução , Canadá , Inglaterra , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Penicilinas/provisão & distribução , II Guerra Mundial
15.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 28: [1-4], jan.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-970390

RESUMO

Antes da introdução dos antibióticos na prática clínica, a disseminação do processo infeccioso da orelha média para as estruturas adjacentes frequentemente resultava em complicações graves, que atualmente são mais comuns nos países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, do que nos países desenvolvidos, e mais prevalentes nas primeiras duas décadas de vida. Este trabalho relata três casos clínicos de complicações de otite média aguda atendidos no Hospital Universitário São Francisco de Assis no ano de 2015, através das revisões dos prontuários, que foram analisados e discutidos com base na literatura atual. As complicações de otites médias agudas podem ser graves e potencialmente fatais. (AU)


Prior to the introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice, dissemination of the infectious process from the middle ear to adjacent structures often resulted in severe complications, which are currently more common in developing countries, such as Brazil, than in developed countries, and more prevalent in the first two decades of life. This paper reports three clinical cases of acute otitis media complications treated at the São Francisco de Assis University Hospital in 2015, through medical records reviews, which were analyzed and discussed based on current literature. The complications of acute otitis media can be serious and potentially fatal. (AU)


Assuntos
Otite Média , Processo Mastoide , Otite Média/complicações , Orelha Média , Antibacterianos/história , Doença Crônica
16.
Sci Context ; 31(4): 477-500, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630548

RESUMO

ArgumentThis article examines how antimicrobial resistance (AMR) came to be constituted as a matter of public concern in Sweden in conjunction with the development of an inter-professional organization called Strama, founded to promote rational prescription of antibiotics. An outbreak of penicillin-resistant pneumococci in the mid-1990s was crucial for this development, because it brought attention to AMR as an urgent public threat. This outbreak fuelled the constitution of AMR as caused by consumption of antibiotics and as a matter of disease control. As a consequence, Strama was able to mobilize the Swedish health officers responsible for disease control. The outbreak is conceptualized as a "transformative event" - an event that makes an issue and its associated risks concrete and urgent. Transformative events play the crucial role of expediting the transformation of issues into matters of public concern.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/história , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções Pneumocócicas/história , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Sociedades/história , Suécia
17.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 71(2): 153-184, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676714

RESUMO

The advent of modern antibiotics contributed enormously to the dramatic extension of human lifespan since their discovery by virtue of their lethal and selective action against pathogenic microbes. And yet despite our powerful arsenal of weapons against these pathogens, the war against them has not been won. And it may never be. Drug resistance is still menacing the society with many lives being lost due to deadly infections caused by continuously evolving strains spread beyond our means to eradicate them or prevent their spreading. Herein, the emergence and evolution of antibiotics is briefly reviewed, and a select number of total syntheses of naturally occurring antibiotics from the authors' laboratories are highlighted. The article concludes with a strong endorsement of the current efforts to intensify our fight against these dangerous pathogens with the hope that, this time, these initiatives will be sufficiently focused and serious enough so as to achieve our set goals of, at least, being prepared and ahead of them as part of our drive to improve humanity's healthcare and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/história , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Penicilinas/síntese química , Penicilinas/história
18.
Dynamis ; 37(1): 159-86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206010

RESUMO

Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products). Penicillin was imported as a raw material from 1947 and the first medicaments containing penicillin, prepared in Portugal, were released into the commercial circuit in 1948. A laboratory had been established in 1942 by the Comissão Reguladora for the analytical verification of medicaments and medicinal products with the aim of certifying their quality and minimizing the number of products with no attested therapeutic efficacy. The number of medicaments analysed by this laboratory increased substantially from 72 in the year of its foundation (1942) to 2478 in 1954, including, after 1948, medicaments containing penicillin. The aim of the present paper was to elucidate the role of the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos in regulating and controlling the distribution of penicillin in Portugal during the 1940s and 1950s.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/história , Penicilinas/história , Saúde Pública/história , Antibacterianos/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , Penicilinas/provisão & distribução , Portugal , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(1): 8, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181597

RESUMO

Upon entering clinical medicine in the 1940s, antibiotic therapy seemed to complete a transformation of hospitals that originated in the late nineteenth century. Former death sinks had become harbingers of therapeutic progress. Yet this triumph was short-lived. The arrival of pathologies caused by resistant bacteria, and of nosocomial infections whose spread was helped by antibiotic therapies, seemed to be intimately related to modern anti-infective therapy. The place where such problems culminated were hospitals, which increasingly appeared as dangerous environments where attempts to combat infectious diseases had instead created hothouses of disease evolution. This paper will focus on one aspect of that history. It caused clinical medicine and hospital hygiene in particular to pay attention to a dimension of infectious disease it had previously paid little attention to thus far: The evolution of infectious disease-previously a matter of mostly theoretical interest-came to be useful in explaining many phenomena observed. This did not turn hospital hygienists into geneticists, though it did give them an awareness that the evolution of infectious disease in a broad sense was something that did matter to them. The paper advances its argument by looking at three phases: The growing awareness of the hospital as a dangerous environment in the 1950s, comprehensive attempts at improving antibiotic therapy and hospital hygiene that followed from the 1960s and lastly the framing of such challenges as risk factors from the 1970s. In conclusion, I will argue that hospital hygiene, being inspired in particular by epidemiology and risk factor analysis, discussed its own specific version of disease emergence and therefore contributed to the 1980s debates around such topics. Being loosely connected to more specialized studies, it consisted of a re-interpretation of infectious disease centred around the temporality of such phenomena as they were encountered in day-to-day dealings of clinical wards.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Clínica/história , Infecção Hospitalar/história , Hospitais/história , Higiene/história , Antibacterianos/história , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , História do Século XX , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Technol Cult ; 58(3): 722-748, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890457

RESUMO

Between 1945 and 1970, the introduction of antibiotics in agriculture forced veterinarians to articulate the boundaries of their professional identity. While veterinarians welcomed the new aid to arrest infectious diseases of livestock, they worried as farmers took animal healing into their own hands without veterinary supervision, and resented the competition from retail outlets that sold the drugs. Veterinary antibiotics also set off heated debates within the field about whether the profession should position itself as preventers or healers of disease, debates that were akin to the kinds of professional discourses among physicians and pharmacists in the same period. By calling attention to the social context that helped facilitate an increasing reliance on the veterinary antibiotics, this article helps explain the sources of present-day overuse of such antibiotics in American agriculture.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/história , Profissionalismo/história , Médicos Veterinários/história , Drogas Veterinárias/história , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Animais , História do Século XX , Prescrição Inadequada/história , Prescrição Inadequada/veterinária , Gado , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA