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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126728, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339990

RESUMO

The increasing release of nanomaterials has attracted significant concerns for human and environmental health. Similarly, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health crisis affecting approximately 700,000 people a year. However, a knowledge gap persists between the spread of AMR and nanomaterials. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating whether and how nanomaterials could directly facilitate the dissemination of AMR through horizontal gene transfer. Our results show that commonly-used nanoparticles (NPs) (Ag, CuO and ZnO NPs) and their ion forms (Ag+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) at realistic concentrations within aquatic environments can significantly promote the transformation of extracellular antibiotic resistance genes in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by a factor of 11.0-folds, which is comparable to the effects of antibiotics. The enhanced transformation by Ag NPs/Ag+ and CuO NPs/Cu2+ was primarily associated with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and cell membrane damage. ZnO NPs/Zn2+ might increase the natural transformation rate by stimulating the stress response and ATP synthesis. All tested NPs/ions resulted in upregulating the competence and SOS response-associated genes. These findings highlight a new concern that nanomaterials can speed up the spread of AMR, which should not be ignored when assessing the holistic risk of nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Acinetobacter , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 171-180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607666

RESUMO

Polymyxin B (PMB) is considered as the last line of antibiotic defense available to humans. The environmental effects of the combined pollution with PMB and heavy metals and their interaction mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effects of the combined pollution with PMB and arsenic (As) on the microbial composition of the soil and in the earthworm gut, as well as the spread and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that, compared with As alone, the combined addition of PMB and As could significantly increase the bioaccumulation factor and toxicity of As in earthworm tissues by 12.1% and 16.0%, respectively. PMB treatment could significantly increase the abundance of Actinobacteria in the earthworm gut (from 35.6% to 45.2%), and As stress could significantly increase the abundance of Proteobacteria (from 19.8% to 56.9%). PMB and As stress both could significantly increase the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were positively correlated, indicating that ARGs might be horizontally transferred. The inactivation of antibiotics was the main resistance mechanism that microbes use to resist PMB and As stress. Network analysis showed that PMB and As might have antagonistic effects through competition with multi-drug resistant ARGs. The combined pollution by PMB and As significantly promoted the relative abundance of microbes carrying multi-drug resistant ARGs and MGEs, thereby increasing the risk of transmission of ARGs. This research advances the understanding of the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and heavy metals and provides new theoretical guidance for the environmental risk assessment and combined pollution management.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos , Polimixina B/toxicidade , Solo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112753, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500384

RESUMO

This study investigated the influences of three frequently detected antibiotics in surface waters, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole, on the growth, photosynthetic activity, nitrogen-fixing capacity and proteomic expression profiles of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, through a 15-day exposure test at environmentally relevant exposure doses of 50-200 ng/L. Cyanobacterial growth was stimulated by 100 ng/L and 200 ng/L of ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole as well as 50-200 ng/L of tetracycline. The nitrogenase synthesis ability in each cyanobacterial cell was stimulated by 50-200 ng/L of ciprofloxacin while inhibited by 100 ng/L and 200 ng/L of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. At the exposure dose of 100 ng/L for each antibiotic, the variation of total nitrogen in the culture medium indicated that the nitrogen-fixing capacity of Nostoc sp. was determined by total nitrogenase concentration calculated by cell density × nitrogenase synthesis ability. Therefore, ciprofloxacin enhanced nitrogen fixation through the stimulation of both cyanobacterial growth and nitrogenase synthesis, while tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole enhanced nitrogen fixation merely through growth stimulation. At the exposure dose of 100 ng/L, only two downregulated proteins, a phosphonate ABC transporter and a methionine aminopeptidase, as well as one upregulated protein, the phenylalanine-tRNA ligase alpha subunit, were commonly shared by three antibiotic-treated groups. Ciprofloxacin upregulated proteins related to nitrogen fixation, carbon catabolism and biosynthesis, but downregulated photosynthesis-related proteins. In contrast, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole increased the photosynthetic activity of Nostoc sp. through upregulating photosynthesis-related proteins, but downregulated proteins related to nitrogen fixation, carbon catabolism and biosynthesis. The resistance of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 to three target antibiotics were related with the responses of RNA synthesis regulatory proteins. Stimulation of cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation by antibiotic contaminants could aggravate eutrophication in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Nostoc , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Proteômica
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502136

RESUMO

Plasmids play a crucial role in spreading antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmids have many ways to incorporate various genes. By inducing amoxicillin resistance in Escherichia coli, followed by horizontal gene transfer experiments and sequencing, we show that the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene ampC is multiplied and results in an 8-13 kb contig. This contig is comparable to a transposon, showing similarities to variable regions found in environmental plasmids, and can be transferred between E. coli cells. As in eight out of nine replicate strains an almost completely identical transposon was isolated, we conclude that this process is under strict control by the cell. The single transposon that differed was shortened at both ends, but otherwise identical. The outcome of this study indicates that as a result of exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics, E. coli can form a transposon containing ampC that can subsequently be integrated into plasmids or genomes. This observation offers an explanation for the large diversity of genes in plasmids found in nature and proposes mechanisms by which the dynamics of plasmids are maintained.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , beta-Lactamases/genética , Amoxicilina/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli , Transferência Genética Horizontal
5.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131048, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470147

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), as well as the development of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), have become an increasing concern for public health and management. As bulk water travels from source to tap, it may accumulate contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as antibiotics and heavy metals. When these CECs and other selective pressures, such as disinfection, pipe material, temperature, pH, and nutrient availability interact with planktonic cells and, consequently, DWDS biofilms, AMR is promoted. The purpose of this review is to highlight the mechanisms by which AMR develops and is disseminated within DWDS biofilms. First, this review will lay a foundation by describing how DWDS biofilms form, as well as their basic intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. Next, the selective pressures that further induce AMR in DWDS biofilms will be elaborated. Then, the pressures by which antibiotic and heavy metal CECs accumulate in DWDS biofilms, their individual resistance mechanisms, and co-selection are described and discussed. Finally, the known human health risks and current management strategies to mitigate AMR in DWDSs will be presented. Overall, this review provides critical connections between several biotic and abiotic factors that influence and induce AMR in DWDS biofilms. Implications are made regarding the importance of monitoring and managing the development, promotion, and dissemination of AMR in DWDS biofilms.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Metais Pesados , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
6.
Inorg Chem ; 60(17): 12730-12734, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382773

RESUMO

Can a minor difference in the nonmetal binding sequence of antimicrobial clavanins explain the drastic change in the coordination environment and antimicrobial efficiency? This study answers the question with a definite "yes", showing the details of the bioinorganic chemistry of Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes with clavanins, histidine-rich, antimicrobial peptides from hemocytes of the tunicate Styela clava.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Proteínas Sanguíneas/toxicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/toxicidade , Cobre/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Zinco/química
7.
Water Res ; 202: 117463, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358906

RESUMO

Sulfonamides (SAs) are among the most widely used antibiotics to treat bacterial infections for humans and animals. They are also used in livestock agriculture to improve growth and feed efficiency in many countries. Recent years, there is a growing concern about the environmental fate and treatment technologies of SAs, in order to eliminate their potential impact on the ecosystem and human health. Additionally, SAs are frequently used as model compounds to evaluate the performance of newly developed advanced water treatment processes. Hence, understanding the chemical reaction features of SAs can provide valuable information for further technological development. In this review, the reaction kinetics, abiotic transformations and corresponding ecotoxicity changes of SAs in natural environments and water treatment processes were comprehensively analyzed to draw critical suggestion and new insights. The •OH-based AOP is proposed as an effective method for the elimination of SAs toxicity, although it is susceptible to water constituent due to low selectivity. The application of biochar or metal-based oxidants in AOPs is becoming a future trend for SA treatment. Overall, this review would provide useful information for the development of advanced water treatment technologies and the control of ecological risks related to SAs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149255, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340082

RESUMO

The environmental contamination of antibiotics caused by their over or inappropriate use is a major issue for environmental and human health since it can adversely impact the ecosystems and promote the antimicrobial resistance. Indeed, considering that in the environmental matrices these drugs are present at low levels, the possibility that bacteria exhibit a hormetic response to increase their resilience when exposed to antibiotic subinhibitory concentrations might represent a serious threat. Information reported in this review showed that exposure to different types of antibiotics, either administered individually or in mixtures, is capable of exerting hormetic effects on bacteria at environmentally relevant concentrations. These responses have been reported regardless of the type of bacterium or antibiotic, thus suggesting that hormesis would be a generalized adaptive mechanism implemented by bacteria to strengthen their resistance to antibiotics. Hormetic effects included growth, bioluminescence and motility of bacteria, their ability to produce biofilm, but also the frequency of mutation and plasmid conjugative transfer. The evaluation of quantitative features of antibiotic-induced hormesis showed that these responses have both maximum stimulation and dose width characteristics similar to those already reported in the literature for other stressors. Notably, mixtures comprising individual antibiotic inducing stimulatory responses might have distinct combined effects based on antagonistic, synergistic or additive interactions between components. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of action underlying the aforementioned effects, we put forward the hypothesis that the adoption of adaptive/defensive responses would be driven by the ability of antibiotic low doses to modulate the transcriptional activity of bacteria. Overall, our findings suggest that hormesis plays a pivotal role in affecting the bacterial behavior in order to acquire a survival advantage. Therefore, a proactive and effective risk assessment should necessarily take due account of the hormesis concept to adequately evaluate the risks to ecosystems and human health posed by antibiotic environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Hormese , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Ecossistema , Humanos
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361600

RESUMO

Persistent pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, musk fragrances, and dyes are frequently detected in different environmental compartments and negatively impact the environment and humans. Understanding the impacts of diffuse environmental pollutants on plants is still limited, especially at realistic environmental concentrations of contaminants. We studied the effects of key representatives of two major classes of environmental pollutants (nine different antibiotics and six different textile dyes) on the leaf carotenoid (violaxanthin and neoxanthin) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using different pollutant concentrations and application times. The wheat plants were watered with solutions of selected environmental pollutants in two different concentrations of 0.5 mg L-1 and 1.5 mg L-1 for one week (0.5 L) and two weeks (1 L). Both categories of pollutants selected for this study negatively influenced the content of violaxanthin and neoxanthin, whereas the textile dyes represented more severe stress to the wheat plants. The results demonstrate that chronic exposure to common diffusively spread environmental contaminants constitutes significant stress to the plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Corantes/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo
10.
Langmuir ; 37(36): 10657-10667, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449220

RESUMO

Bacterial infection and blockage are severe problems for polyurethane (PU) catheters and there is an urgent demand for surface-functionalized polyurethane. Herein, a cationic alternating copolymer comprising allyl-substituted ornithine and glycine (allyl-substituted poly(Orn-alter-Gly)) with abundant carbon-carbon double bond functional groups (C═C) is designed. Polyurethane is prepared with a large quantity of C═C groups (PU-D), and different amounts of allyl-substituted poly(Orn-alter-Gly) are grafted onto the PU-D surface (PU-D-2%AMPs and PU-D-20%AMPs) via the C═C functional groups. The chemical structures of the allyl-substituted poly(Orn-alter-Gly) and polyurethane samples (PU, PU-D, PU-D-2%AMPs, and PU-D-20%AMPs) are characterized and the results reveal that allyl-substituted poly(Orn-alter-Gly) is decorated on the polyurethane. PU-D-20%AMPs shows excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus because of the high surface potential caused by cationic allyl-substituted poly(Orn-alter-Gly), and it also exhibits excellent long-term antibacterial activity and antibiofilm properties. PU-D-20%AMPs also has excellent antifouling properties because the cationic copolymer is fixed at multiple reactive sites, thus avoiding the formation of movable long chain brush. A strong surface hydration barrier is also formed to prevent adsorption of proteins and ions, and in vivo experiments reveal excellent biocompatibility. This flexible strategy to prepare dual-functional polyurethane surfaces with antibacterial and antifouling properties has large potential in biomedical implants.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Poliuretanos , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/toxicidade , Staphylococcus aureus , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378668

RESUMO

This study evaluated the cytotoxicity, the antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of root canal sealers incorporated with phytotherapic Uncaria tomentosa (UT). Unmodified AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Germany) and MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) were used as controls. UT was incorporated into AH Plus and MTA Fillapex, at concentrations of 2% and 5% of the total weight of these sealers (w/w). Flowability, setting time, and solubility were evaluated following ISO requirements. The pH values were measured at periods of 12, 24, 48 hours, and 7 days. The antimicrobial activity of the sealers against Enterococcus faecalis was analyzed by both direct contact tests in freshly prepared sealers, and after 7 days. The cytotoxicity of the samples was evaluated by the MTT assay, to check Balb/c 3T3 cell viability. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The incorporation of UT was associated with a decrease in flow, for both sealers, an increase in AH Plus setting time, increase in MTA Fillapex pH values, and solubility (after 14 days), for both sealers (p < 0.05). Regarding the antibacterial evaluation, bacterial reduction was reported after incorporation of UT into both AH Plus and MTA Fillapex, up to 7 days after handling of the material (P<0.05). UT incorporation decreased the cytotoxic effects of both AH Plus and MTA Fillapex sealers in a way directly proportional to their respective concentrations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UT can be added to both sealers to reduce their cytotoxicity, and improve their antibacterial effects, without compromising their original physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Unha-de-Gato , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resinas Epóxi/toxicidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/toxicidade , Silicatos
12.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130365, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384193

RESUMO

Antibiotics in water and wastewater have been determined extensively. The treatment of antibiotics in water needs evaluation of possible harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This paper presents the toxicity evaluation of antibiotics after their treatment with ferrate (VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) in water. The antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), erythromycin (ERY), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tetracycline (TET), oxytetracycline (OXY), and trimethoprim (TMP)) were treated at pH 8.0 by applying two concentrations of Fe(VI) to have molar ratios of 5:1 and 10:1 ([Fe(VI)]:[antibiotic]). Under the studied conditions, incomplete removal of antibiotics was observed, suggesting that the treated solutions contained parent antibiotics and their transformation products. The toxicity of antibiotics without Fe(VI) treatment was tested against freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, which were determined to be generally sensitive to antibiotics, with EC50 < 1.0 mg/L. The toxicity of Fe(VI) treated solution was tested against R. subcapitata. Results found no toxicity for the treated solutions of OFL, CIP, and OXY. However, SMX, ERY, and TET remained toxic after Fe(VI) treatment (i.e., more than 75% growth inhibition of R. subcapitata). Results demonstrated that R. subcapitata may be applied to test the toxicity of antibiotics after oxidative treatments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Ferro , Oxirredução , Synechococcus , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 140-149, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256134

RESUMO

Most antibiotics, insecticides, and other chemicals used in agricultural and fishery production tend to persist in the environment. Fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, and ridomil are widely used in aquaculture as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs; however, their toxicity mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we herein analyzed the effects of these three drugs on the hepatopancreas of Procambarus clarkii at the transcriptome level. Twelve normalized cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA extracted from P. clarkii after treatment with fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, or ridomil and from an untreated control group, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. In the control vs fenvalerate and control vs sulfide gatifloxacin groups, 14 and seven pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. Further, the effects of fenvalerate and sulfide gatifloxacin were similar on the hepatopancreas of P. clarkii. We also found that the expression level of genes encoding senescence marker protein-30 and arylsulfatase A was downregulated in the sulfide gatifloxacin group, indicating that sulfide gatifloxacin accelerated the apoptosis of hepatopancreatocytes. The expression level of major facilitator superfamily domain containing 10 was downregulated, implying that it interferes with the ability of the hepatopancreas to metabolize drugs. Interestingly, we found that Niemann pick type C1 and glucosylceramidase-ß potentially interact with each other, consequently decreasing the antioxidant capacity of P. clarkii hepatopancreas. In the fenvalerate group, the downregulation of the expression level of xanthine dehydrogenase indicated that fenvalerate affected the immune system of P. clarkii; moreover, the upregulation of the expression level of pancreatitis-associated protein-2 and cathepsin C indicated that fenvalerate caused possible inflammatory pathological injury to P. clarkii hepatopancreas. In the ridomil group, no pathway was significantly enriched. In total, 21 genes showed significant differences in all three groups. To conclude, although there appears to be some overlap in the toxicity mechanisms of fenvalerate, sulfide gatifloxacin, and ridomil, further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Gatifloxacina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(7): 675-684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319219

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the impact of veterinary antibiotics on biomass phytoproductivity and soil enzyme activity. The soil was sampled in the city of Camboriú (state of SC, Brazil). The soil enzyme activity was assessed through hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA), while phytotoxicity was tested using Lactuca sativa (lettuce). Results showed that the most appropriate exposure time to assess the impact of antibiotics on soil microbiology was 24 h, while the incubation time of 3 h was the most appropriate for FDA hydrolysis. Ampicillin and Amoxicillin at the tested concentrations did not interfere with the enzyme activity of the soil microbiota, while Oxytetracycline and Neomycin showed a significant reduction in soil enzyme activity. For the dry and wet biomass of lettuce, 2% Colistin and 1% Ampicillin were the treatments that reduced lettuce biomass. Hence, the use of excessive antibiotics in animal production may lead to environmental impacts and, in the future, to public health problems.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Brasil , Fazendas , Alface , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148813, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246134

RESUMO

The effect of pyrene on the formation of naturally Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of humic acid (HA) under UV irradiation is described. TEM, EDS, FTIR and XPS were carried out to prove the formation of AuNPs and display their morphologies and formation mechanism. There are little differences between size, morphology and function groups of surface coated materials of AuNPs formed with and without pyrene. With the presence of HA, pyrene showed an inhibiting effect on the reduction of Au ion via competition for O2•-, thereby decreasing the production of AuNPs. However, AuNPs formed by HA-pyrene showed higher stability than AuNPs formed by HA with the sedimentation rates of 4.13% and 13.68% respectively after 30-d standing. As for the antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, AuNPs formed by HA-pyrene were more toxic than AuNPs formed by HA. Meanwhile, changes of environmental factors such as temperature, pH and ionic strength exhibited similar influence trend on the formation of AuNPs in the presence and absence of pyrene. The results suggest that the typical petroleum hydrocarbon pyrene contained in spilled oil could influence the formation, fate and ecotoxicity of AuNPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Petróleo , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Pirenos/toxicidade
16.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120846, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216769

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) of Thymus capitatus (Th) carvacrol chemotype and Origanum vulgare (Or) thymol and carvacrol chemotype were encapsulated in biocompatible poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules (NCs). These nanosystems exhibited antibacterial, antifungal, and antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Th-NCs and Or-NCs were more effective against all tested strains than pure EOs and at the same time were not cytotoxic on HaCaT (T0020001) human keratinocyte cell line. The genotoxic effects of EO-NCs and EOs on HaCaT were evaluated using an alkaline comet assay for the first time, revealing that Th-NCs and Or-NCs did not induce DNA damage compared with untreated control HaCaT cells in vitro after 24 h. The cells morphological changes were assessed by label-free live cell Raman imaging. This study demonstrate the ability of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with thyme and oregano EOs to reduce microbial and biofilm growth and could be an ecological alternative in the development of new antimicrobial strategies.


Assuntos
Nanocápsulas , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Biofilmes , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Poliésteres
17.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120878, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265392

RESUMO

The introduction of novel bacterial strains and the development of microbial approaches for nanoparticles biosynthesis could minimize the negative environmental impact and eliminate the concern and challenges of the available approaches. In this study, a biological method based on microbial cell-free extract was used for biosynthesis of ZnO NPs using two new aquatic bacteria, Marinobacter sp. 2C8 and Vibrio sp. VLA. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential. The UV-Visible absorption peak was found to be at 266 and 250 nm for ZnO-2C8 NPs and ZnO-VLA NPs, respectively. FTIR study suggested that the hydroxyl, amine, and carboxyl groups of bacterial proteins are mainly responsible for stabilizing the biosynthesized ZnO NPs. The formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs was confirmed by the XRD pattern. The morphology of the nanoparticles was found to be spherical with the average particle size of about 10.23 ± 2.48 nm and 20.26 ± 4.44 nm for ZnO-2C8 NPs and ZnO-VLA NPs, respectively. The values of zeta potential indicate the high stability of the biosynthesized ZnO NP. Zeta potential values indicated the high stability of the biosynthesized ZnO NP and were obtained -20.54 ± 7.15 and -23.87 ± 2.29 mV for ZnO-2C8 NPs and ZnO-VLA NPs, respectively. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs had antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and possessed excellent antibiofilm activity with the maximum inhibition of about 96.55% at 250 µg/mL. The DPPH activity of ZnO-2C8 NPs and ZnO-VLA NPs were found 88.9% and 85.7% for 2500 µg/mL concentration, respectively. The toxicity test revealed the biocompatibility of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs. The results suggested that this approach is a very good route for synthesizing ZnO NPs with potential applications in biotechnology.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias , Extratos Celulares , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148765, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225149

RESUMO

Nanoparticles released into the environment are attracting increasing concern because of their potential toxic effects. Conventional methods for assessing the toxicity of nanoparticles are usually confined to cultivable cells, but not applicable to viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. However, it remains unknown whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), a typical antimicrobial agent, could induce bacteria into a VBNC state in natural environments. In this work, the viability of E. coli, an indicator bacterium widely used for assessing the antibacterial activity of AgNPs, was examined through coupling plate counting, fluorescence staining and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. AgNPs were found to have a considerable antibacterial ability, which resulted in less than 0.0004% of culturable cells on plates. However, more than 80% of the cells still maintained their cell membrane integrity under the stress of 80 mg/L AgNPs. Meanwhile, the residue of ATP production (0.6%) was 1500 times higher than that of the culturable cells (< 0.0004%). These results clearly demonstrate that when exposed to AgNPs, most of cells fell into a VBNC state, instead of dying. Environmental factors, e.g., Cl- and illumination, which could change the dissolution, hydrophilicity and zeta potential of AgNPs, eventually influenced the culturability of E. coli. Inhibition of dissolved Ag+ and reactive oxygen species was found to facilitate the mitigation of the strain into a VBNC state. Our findings suggest the necessity of re-evaluating the environmental effects and antibacterial activities of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 148992, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303249

RESUMO

Antibiotics, heavily used as medicine, enter the environment inevitably and raise concerns of the risk to the ecosystems. In this study, we explored the removal efficiency and mechanism of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC) in activated carbon (AC) and AC-zero-valent iron amended bioretention cells (AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC) compared with a conventional bioretention cell (BRC). Moreover, the system performance of BRCs, the shifts of the microbial community, as well as the fate of corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that, exposed to antibiotics notwithstanding, AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC significantly outperformed BRC on total nitrogen (TN) removal (BRC: 70.36 ± 13.61%; AC-BRC: 91.43 ± 6.41%; AC-Fe-BRC: 83.44 ± 12.13%). Greater than 97% of the total phosphorous (TP) was removed in AC-Fe-BRC, remaining unimpacted despite of the selective pressure from SMX/TC. Excellent removals of antibiotics (above 99%) were achieved in AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC regardless of the types and initial concentrations (0.8 mg/L, 1.2 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L) of antibiotics, dwarfing the removal performance of BRC (12.2 ± 4.4%-64.2 ± 5.5%). The illumina high throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated the concomitant variations of microbial communities as SMX/TC was loaded. AC layers tended to alleviate the adverse effect of SMX/TC on microbial biodiversity. Proteobacteria (34.55-68.47%), Chloroflexi (7.13-33.54%), and Bacteroidetes (6.20-21.03%) were the top three dominant phyla in the anaerobic zone of the BRCs. The abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) sulI, sulII and tetA genes were dramatically higher in AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC when exposed to 0.8 mg/L SMX/TC, which indicated that relatively low concentrations of SMX/TC induced the production of these three ARGs in the presence of AC. Although the amendment of AC led to highly efficient SMX/TC removals, further investigation is still required to improve the retention of ARGs in BRCs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sulfametoxazol , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Ferro , Sulfametoxazol/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/toxicidade
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126466, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323704

RESUMO

Direct Z-scheme Bi5O7I/UiO-66-NH2 (denoted as BU-x) heterojunction photocatalysts were successfully constructed through ball-milling method. Photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared BU-x samples were determined by using a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP). All BU-x heterojunctions exhibited better CIP removal performances than that of pristine Bi5O7I and UiO-66-NH2 upon exposure to white light irradiation. In comparison, the heterojunction with UiO-66-NH2 content of 50 wt% (BU-5) showed excellent structural stability and the optimal adsorption-photodegradation efficiency for the CIP removal. The removal efficiency of CIP (10 mg/L) over BU-5 (0.75 g/L) achieved 96.1% within 120 min illumination. Meanwhile, the effect of photocatalyst dosage, pH and inorganic anions were systemically explored. Reactive species trapping experiments, electron spin resonance (ESR) signals, Mott-Schottky measurements and density functional theory (DFT) simulation revealed that the photo-generated holes (h+), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and superoxide radical (·O2-) played crucial roles in CIP degradation. This result can be ascribed to that the unique Z-scheme charge transfer configuration retained the excellent redox capacities of Bi5O7I and UiO-66-NH2. Meanwhile, the CIP degradation pathways and the toxicity of various intermediates were subsequently analyzed. This work provided a feasible idea for removing antibiotics by bismuth-rich bismuth oxyhalide/MOF-based heterostructured photocatalysts.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Ciprofloxacina , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Catálise , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Fotólise
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