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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111863, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiological studies have linked antibiotics use to gut dysbiosis-mediated risk of chronic metabolic diseases. However, whether adiposity is linked to antibiotic exposure in elderly remains inadequately understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between internal exposure of antibiotics and adiposity in elderly by using a biomonitoring method. METHODS: We included 990 participants (≥60 years) from the baseline survey of the Cohort of Elderly Health and Environment Controllable Factors in Lu'an city, China, from June to September 2016. Forty-five antibiotics and two metabolites in urine were monitored through liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations were used to assess antibiotic exposure levels. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BFP) were used as indicators of adiposity. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association of antibiotic concentrations with obesity-related indices. Subsequently, a gender-stratified analysis was performed. RESULTS: Of the included elderly, 50.7% were defined as having overweight/ obesity, 59.8% as having central preobesity/obesity, and 37.5% as having slightly high/high BFP. Linear regression analysis revealed that a 1-unit increase in the logarithmic transformation of norfloxacin concentrations was related with an increase of 0.29 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.02-0.04), 0.99 cm (95% CI:0.24-1.75), and 0.69% (95% CI:0.21-1.17) in BMI, WC, and BFP, respectively. Compared with the control group, exposure to doxycycline (tertile 2: odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI: 1.12-3.76]) and norfloxacin (tertile 2: 2.13 [1.05-4.29]; tertile 3: 2.07 [1.03-4.17]) had BMI-based overweight/obesity risk. Additionally, ciprofloxacin (tertile 2: 2.06 [1.12-3.76]), norfloxacin (tertile 3: 2.95 [1.34-6.49]), and florfenicol (tertile 3: 1.84 [1.07-3.14]) were related to WC-based central preobesity/obesity risk. Norfloxacin (tertile 3: 2.54 [1.23-5.24]) was positively associated with a slightly high/high BFP risk. Gender-stratified analysis demonstrated an increased adiposity risk in women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: Our research provided an evidence that exposure to specific types of antibiotics (tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones) probably from the food chain contributed to obesity in elderly. Prospective cohort studies with larger sample size are warrented to explore the causation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Idoso , Monitoramento Biológico , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/urina , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 127580, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858380

RESUMO

In this study, a microbiological inhibition method for rapidly screening antibiotics in swine urine was established with an easy sample pre-treatment. The microbiological system consisted of an agar medium mixed with nutrients, sensitizers, a test bacterium (Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980) and pH indicator (bromocresol purple). It was observed that the detection limits of the test kit for twenty-eight common antimicrobial residues in urine, including ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, and lincosamides, were less than or equal to the maximum residue limits of the kidney, as determined by the EU and China. Moreover, the false negative rate and the false positive rate, along with other performance indexes such as interassay coefficients of variation and shelf life of the kit, all met the standard requirements of the ISO13969:2003 guidelines. Additionally, our results were consistent with those using the gold-standard physical chemistry method, which suggest the proposed method is suitable for screening antibiotic residues.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/urina , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Aminoglicosídeos/urina , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Limite de Detecção , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/urina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/urina , Suínos , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/urina , Drogas Veterinárias/farmacologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334391

RESUMO

A rapid procedure for the determination of amphenicol antibiotics in human urine by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) is proposed. The presence of thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the human body can be attributed to their administration to treat certain diseases or by eating food of animal origin. The TAP, FF and CAP excreted in urine is mainly in the form of glucuronide conjugates, although their free forms may also be excreted to a lesser extent. In the procedure described, the enzymatic hydrolysis of amphenicol glucuronide forms in urine was carried out using ß-glucuronidase and sulfatase at pH 5 (37 °C, overnight) in order to discriminate the free and conjugated forms. Then, amphenicol antibiotics were submitted to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for preconcentration. All the parameters affecting DLLME efficiency were optimized, and the following conditions were selected: 0.9 g NaCl in 10 mL of urine, to which 1.2 mL methanol (as dispersant solvent) and 1 mL of 4-methyl-2-pentanone (as extractant solvent) were added. The absence of a matrix effect allowed quantification of the samples against aqueous standards. Detection limits were 29, 6 and 3 pg mL-1 for TAP, FF and CAP, respectively. Relative standard deviations were calculated to evaluate the intra- and inter-day precision and values lower than 10% were obtained in all cases. The trueness of the method was tested through recovery studies, obtaining satisfactory values (83-104%). Ten urine samples obtained from volunteers were analysed and all of them were free of the studied antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Cloranfenicol/urina , Glucuronídeos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Metabolômica , Metanol/química , Metil n-Butil Cetona/química , Padrões de Referência , Solventes/química , Sulfatases/metabolismo , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/urina
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given their geographical proximity but differences in cultural and religious dietary customs, we hypothesize that children from the three main ethnic populations (Han, Hui, and Tibetan) residing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region differs in their non-iatrogenic antibiotic loads. METHODS: To determine the antibiotic burden of the school children unrelated to medical treatment, we quantified the antibiotic residues in morning urine samples from 92 Han, 72 Tibetan, and 85 Muslim Hui primary school children aged 8 to 12 years using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and performed correlation analysis between these data and concurrent dietary nutrition assessments. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 18 targeted antibiotics (4 macrolides, 3 ß-lactams, 2 tetracyclines, 4 quinolones, 3 sulfonamides, and 2 aminoanols) were identified in the urine samples with an overall detection frequency of 58.63%. The detection frequency of the six antibiotic classes ranged from 1.61% to 32.53% with ofloxacin showing the single highest frequency (18.47%). Paired comparison analysis revealed significant differences in antibiotic distribution frequency among groups, with Tibetans having higher enrofloxacin (P = 0.015) and oxytetracycline (P = 0.021) than Han children. Norfloxacin (a human/veterinary antibiotic) was significantly higher in the Hui children than in the Han children (P = 0.024). Dietary nutrient intake assessments were comparable among participants, showing adequate levels of essential vitamins and minerals across all three ethnic groups. However, significant differences in specific foods were observed among groups, notably in lower fat consumption in the Hui group. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction and accumulation of antibiotic residues in school children through non-iatrogenic routes (food or environmental sources) poses a serious potential health risk and merits closer scrutiny to determine the sources. While the exact sources of misused or overused antibiotics remains unclear, further study can potentially correlate ethnicity-specific dietary practices with the sources of contamination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Ofloxacino/urina , Criança , China/etnologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Nutrientes/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110237, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986454

RESUMO

Extensive antibiotic exposure in the general population has been documented by bio-monitoring, but data regarding antibiotic burden across three generations in families living in the same household are lacking. We investigated the distribution of antibiotics and the potential health risk among the three generations by selecting 691 participants from 256 households in Fuyang city, China. A total of 45 antibiotics and two metabolites were screened in urine samples through liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 34 antibiotics were found in the samples with an overall detection frequency of 92.0%, and the detection frequencies of individual antibiotic ranged from 0.3% to 28.7%. Specifically, the concentrations of seven antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) were extremely high (i.e., above 10, 000 ng/mL). The detection rates of tetracyclines were significantly different among the three generations, with parents having the highest detection rate. Penicillin V, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin showed a higher detection frequency in parents, whereas tetracycline, danofloxacin, and ofloxacin were more likely to be found in grandparents. The proportions of the sum of the daily exposure dose of VAs and PVAs more than 1 µg/kg/d in children, parents, and grandparents were 31.6%, 39.5%, and 26.5%, respectively. A hazard index (HI) greater than 1 was observed in 14.7% children, which was less than the 23.6% in parents and slightly higher than the 11.8% in grandparents. Ciprofloxacin was the biggest contributor to HI among the three generations. Collectively, these findings indicate that households are widely exposed to various antibiotics in Fuyang city, where parents had the highest health risk associated with the disturbance of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Drogas Veterinárias/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Talanta ; 206: 120252, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514822

RESUMO

A new electrochemical device based on a combination of nanomaterials such as Printex 6L Carbon and cadmium telluride quantum dots within a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate film was developed for sensitive determination of amoxicillin. The morphological, structural and electrochemical characteristics of the nanostructured material were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and voltammetric techniques. The synergy between these materials increased the electrochemical activity, the electron transfer rate and the electrode surface area, leading to a high magnitude of the anodic peak current for the determination of amoxicillin. The electrochemical determination of the antibiotic was carried out using square-wave voltammetry. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the proposed sensor showed high sensitivity, repeatability and stability to amoxicillin determination, with an analytical curve in the amoxicillin concentration range from 0.90 to 69 µmol L-1, and a low detection limit of 50 nmol L-1. No significant interference in the electrochemical signal of amoxicillin was observed from potential biological interferences and drugs widely used, such as uric acid, paracetamol, urea, ascorbic acid and caffeine. It was demonstrated that without any sample pre-treatment and using a simple measurement device, the sensor could be an alternative method for not only the analysis of pharmaceutical products (commercial tablets) and clinical samples (urine), but also to examine food quality (milk samples).


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Amoxicilina/urina , Animais , Antibacterianos/urina , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Telúrio/química
7.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113311, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813705

RESUMO

Recently, the widespread use of antibiotic has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with their microbiological effect. In the present study, we investigated 990 elderly individuals (age ≥ 60 years) from the Cohort of Elderly Health and Environment Controllable Factors in West Anhui, China. A total of 45 representative antibiotics and two antibiotic metabolites were monitored in urine samples through liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that 34 antibiotics were detected in 93.0% of all urine samples and the detection frequencies of each antibiotic varied between 0.2% and 35.5%. The overall detection frequencies of seven human antibiotics (HAs), 10 veterinary antibiotics (VAs), three antibiotics preferred as HAs (PHAs), and 14 preferred as VAs (PVAs) in urines were 27.4%, 62.9%, 30.9% and 72.7%, respectively. Notably, the samples with concentrations of six PVAs (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, danofloxacin, norfloxacin and lincomycin) above 5000 ng/mL accounted for 1.7% of all urine samples. Additionally, in 62.7% of urine samples, the total antibiotic concentration was in the range of the limits of detection to 20.0 ng/mL. Furthermore, the elderly individuals with the sum of estimated daily intakes of VAs and PVAs more than 1 µg/kg/day accounted for 15.2% of all participants, and a health risk related to change in gut microbiota under antibiotic stimulation was expected in 6.7% of the elderly individuals. Especially, ciprofloxacin was the foremost contributor to the health risk, and its hazard quotient value was more than one in 3.5% of all subjects. Taken together, the elderly Chinese people were extensively exposed to VAs, and some elderly individuals may have a health risk associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Idoso , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medição de Risco
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111947, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818763

RESUMO

The simultaneous determination of anticancer and antibiotic drugs in biological samples with fast and sensitive methods is an essential task for the effective monitoring of drug therapy. A novel electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of anticancer drug Flutamide (FLU) and antibiotic drug Nitrofurantoin (NF) was developed based on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with N-CQD@Co3O4/MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite. The electro-kinetics of the developed sensor was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical performance of FLU and NF on the N-CQD@Co3O4/MWCNTs/GCE surface was examined using CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. At an optimized condition, the developed sensor exhibits excellent performance in simultaneous determination of FLU and NF with a linear range of 0.05-590 µM and 0.05-1220 µM and detection limit of 0.0169 µM and 0.044 µM respectively. Furthermore, the developed sensor exhibits satisfactory results in the real sample analysis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Antineoplásicos/urina , Cobalto/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura
9.
Talanta ; 208: 120438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816755

RESUMO

The threatening of antibiotic drugs for human and environment is being paid more and more attention. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a strong quinolone antibiotic drug widely used in therapeutic treatments, is the most frequently detected in surface waters among the fluoroquinolones, which represents animal and human health risks. A novel highly fluorescent Ga-based hybrid (Eu3+@1) has been synthesized based on metal-organic framework (MOF) by encapsulating lanthanide cations Eu3+ in its channels. The as-synthesized compound possesses excellent water and pH-independent stability. It displays week red luminescence of Eu3+ in itself and can sense the CIP concentration as turn-on fluorescent probe in the human urine. With addition of CIP, the evident luminescence enhancement is clearly observed from the Eu3+@1. Linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of CIP is investigated, proving the excellent performance of Eu3+@1 in the detection of CIP with linear range (0.01-0.2 mg/mL) and low detection limit (2.4 ppm or 2.4 µg/mL). The response time is also very quick, less than 3 min. Based on these findings, we introduce AND logic gate strategy to the probe. The input of the logic gates (0, 1), (0, 1, 1), (1, 1, 1) cause the different outputs of CIP determination "LOW" (<25 ppm),"NORMAL" (25-76 ppm), "HIGH" (>76 ppm), respectively. The novel strategy can be applied for a real-time CIP concentration evaluation by intelligent discrimination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Ciprofloxacino/urina , Európio/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Gálio/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Humanos , Lógica , Luminescência
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(30): 8103-8111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758198

RESUMO

A novel sensitive and selective probe for the important antibiotic vancomycin (Van) has been synthesized by integrating a coumarin and a fluorescein as dual fluorescence reporters and a Van binding peptide D-Ala-D-Ala. Only weak green fluorescence was initially observed, which was mostly attributed to fluorescence self-quenching induced by fluorophore stacking. Upon the binding of Van with the D-Ala-D-Ala peptide, the fluorescence turned on, probably due the disaggregation of fluorophores. The intensity ratio of the dual emission bands I519/I446 exhibited an excellent linear relationship with the concentration of Van increasing from 0-20 µM in synthetic urine. The lowest detection limit was calculated to be 92.8 nM in urine, which made the probe applicable in clinically relevant concentration ranges. The synthetic probe has also shown the potential for Van detection in human serum. More interestingly, this probe has been successfully applied for in vivo imaging of Van in zebrafish. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Vancomicina/análise , Antibacterianos/urina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Vancomicina/urina
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 146: 111756, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605990

RESUMO

Nanozymes have gained increasing attention in the field of biosensing. Rationally designed nanozymes with excellent catalytic activity are accessible to substitute natural enzymes. Herein, a novel self-powered photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor was constructed for ultrasensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) based on ultrathin PtNi nanowires (NWs) as nanozyme and benzene-ring doped g-C3N4 (BR-CN) as the photoactive material. The prepared 1-nm-thick PtNi nanozyme acted as a peroxidase, possessing higher catalytic activity than natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and other Pt-based mimic enzymes. Through the biotin-streptavidin specific interaction, streptavidin modified PtNi nanozyme was introduced into the dual-stranded DNA (dsDNA) formed by complementary DNA and biotinylated CAP aptamer. The PtNi nanozyme catalyzed 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) oxidation to generate insoluble precipitation on the electrode surface, resulting in an obvious photocurrent reduction. In the presence of CAP, the CAP aptamer was released from the electrode due to strong affinity with CAP, causing the decrease of catalytic precipitation and consequently the generation of a high photocurrent signal. On the basis of PtNi nanozyme signal amplification, the developed self-powered PEC aptasensor showed a wide linear range of 0.1 pM-100 nM with an ultralow detection limit of 26 fM for the determination of CAP. This work provides a feasible strategy for the design of high-activity nanozyme and self-powered PEC biosensor to achieve the ultrasensitive detection of target analyte.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cloranfenicol/análise , Nanofios/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/urina , Benzeno/química , Cloranfenicol/urina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Níquel/química , Platina/química , Rios/química , Suínos
12.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 32(supl.3): 11-16, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188973

RESUMO

Ceftobiprole shows many similar pharmacokinetic properties to other cephalosporins, except for not being orally bioactive, and that it is administered by IV infusion as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, which is subsequently hydrolyzed in the blood into the active molecule. Distribution focus in extracellular fluid and active antibiotic concentration has been proven in different corporal tissues using dosing regimen of 500 mg intravenous infusion over 2 h every 8 h. Ceftobiprole is eliminated exclusively into the urine, thus the reason why dose adjustment is required for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, or increased creatinine clearance. However, there is no need for dose adjustments related with other comorbidities and patients' conditions such as age, body weight. Although considering distribution features, molecular weight and dose fraction, increase dosing regimen might be necessary in patients using renal replacement therapy. The half-life of ceftobiprole is more than 3 h, allowing to easily reach optimal PK/PD parameters with the infusion time of 2 h, using the usual dosing regimen


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Estado Terminal , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Infusões Intravenosas , Rim/metabolismo , Método de Monte Carlo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/urina , Área Sob a Curva , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/urina , Creatinina/metabolismo
13.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104596, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450358

RESUMO

Herein, we report a super-active electrocatalyst of copper(II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) decorated functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CuO NPs@f-MWCNTs) by the ultrasonic method. The as-synthesized CuO NPs@f-MWCNTs was characterized through the FESEM, XPS, XRD and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The combination of highly active CuO NPs and highly conductive f-MWCNTs film with rapid detection enables this nanohybrid to display excellent electrochemical performance towards anesthesia drug. Furthermore, the hybrid electrocatalyst modified SPCE was developed for the determination of flunitrazepam (FTM) for the first time. FTM is important anesthesia drug with high adverse effect in human body. Benefiting from the synergistic reaction of CuO NPs and f-MWCNTs, this nanohybrid exhibited high sensitivity and specificity towards FTM electro-reduction. The CuO NPs@f-MWCNTs film modified SPCE exhibits outstanding electrochemical activity including excellent reproducibility, wide linear range from 0.05 to 346.6 µM with nanomolar limit of detection for FTM detection. Further, the as-modified CuO NPs@f-MWCNTs/SPCE has been applied to determination of FTM in biological and drug samples with satisfactory recovery results, thereby showing a notable potential for extensive (bio) sensor applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Cobre/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Flunitrazepam/análise , Limite de Detecção , Nanosferas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/urina , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Eletrodos , Flunitrazepam/sangue , Flunitrazepam/química , Flunitrazepam/urina , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32 Suppl 3: 11-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364336

RESUMO

Ceftobiprole shows many similar pharmacokinetic properties to other cephalosporins, except for not being orally bioactive, and that it is administered by IV infusion as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, which is subsequently hydrolyzed in the blood into the active molecule. Distribution focus in extracellular fluid and active antibiotic concentration has been proven in different corporal tissues using dosing regimen of 500 mg intravenous infusion over 2 h every 8 h. Ceftobiprole is eliminated exclusively into the urine, thus the reason why dose adjustment is required for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, or increased creatinine clearance. However, there is no need for dose adjustments related with other comorbidities and patients' conditions such as age, body weight. Although considering distribution features, molecular weight and dose fraction, increase dosing regimen might be necessary in patients using renal replacement therapy. The half-life of ceftobiprole is more than 3 h, allowing to easily reach optimal PK/PD parameters with the infusion time of 2 h, using the usual dosing regimen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/urina , Área Sob a Curva , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/urina , Creatinina/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Rim/metabolismo , Método de Monte Carlo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Terapia de Substituição Renal
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262768

RESUMO

Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (TBPM-PI-HBr, formerly SPR994) is an orally available prodrug of tebipenem, a carbapenem with activity versus multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens, including quinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae The safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of tebipenem were studied after administration of single and multiple ascending oral doses of TBPM-PI-HBr in fed and fasted states. Healthy adults received single oral doses of TBPM-PI-HBr at 100 mg to 900 mg or placebo (n = 108) or multiple doses of 300 mg or 600 mg every 8 h or placebo (n = 16) for 14 days. In the single-ascending-dose (SAD) phase, mean tebipenem plasma concentrations increased in a linear and dose proportional manner for doses of 100 to 900 mg and were comparable in the fasted and fed states for the 300- and 600-mg doses. In the MAD phase, tebipenem maximum concentration (C max) was reached within 1.5 h and was dose proportional on day 1 and higher than dose proportional (2.7-fold) on day 14. AUC was more than 2-fold greater on day 1 (2.7-fold) and day 14 (2.5-fold) for 600 mg q8h than for 300 mg q8h. Approximately 55% to 60% of tebipenem was recovered in the urine. TBPM-PI-HBr was well tolerated; mild, transient diarrhea was the most commonly reported adverse event. TBPM-PI-HBr provides an orally bioavailable carbapenem option to treat serious infections caused by MDR Enterobacteriaceae and has the potential to decrease the need for intravenous antibiotic therapy in the hospital or outpatient setting. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT03395249.).


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/efeitos adversos , Carbapenêmicos/farmacocinética , Interações Alimento-Droga , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/urina , Carbapenêmicos/sangue , Carbapenêmicos/urina , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Jejum , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética
16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 5963-5973, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300859

RESUMO

A microscale highly fluorescent Eu metal-organic framework (Eu-MOF) was synthesized with terephthalic acid and 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diamine by one-pot hydrothermal method. And it was characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray mapping. The prepared Eu-MOF has high quantum yield of 30.99%, excellent water dispersibility, good fluorescence stability, and favorable thermal stability. Based on the distinctly different fluorescence responses of different emission, the prepared Eu-MOF was used as dual-mode visual sensor for the sensitive detection of berberine hydrochloride and tetracycline. The limits of detection are 78 nM and 17 nM, respectively. The sensing mechanism was also discussed. Moreover, a filter paper sensor has been designed for sensing tetracycline with a notable fluorescence color change from blue to red. The prepared Eu-MOF is promising to be developed as a multi-mode luminescent sensor for visual detection in biochemical analysis. Graphical abstract Illustration of the synthesis of Eu-MOF and its sensing applications for berberine hydrochloride and tetracycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Berberina/análise , Európio/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Tetraciclinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/urina , Berberina/sangue , Berberina/urina , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Comprimidos , Tetraciclinas/sangue , Tetraciclinas/urina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
17.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(7): 821-827, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278407

RESUMO

Today, antibiotics are essential for effective treatment of infectious diseases both in human and veterinary medicine. The increasing development and distribution of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms are subject of concern. In some sectors of animal agriculture, such as poultry feeding farms, the application of antibiotics and hence occupational exposure is inevitable. In the past, numerous studies focussed on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock farming, but little attention was paid to the employees. The exposure of workers to antibiotics was the focus of the study detailed in this article. Four biomonitoring campaigns monitoring systemic exposure of workers to antibiotics were run at two farms over four fattening periods. Urine samples of potentially affected employees were sampled and analysed for the antibiotics of interest by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest antibiotic concentrations detected in urine samples exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of some bacteria strains. In some cases, the amount of antibiotics excreted over a time-period of 24 h indicated the exceedance of the tolerable daily intake.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Antibacterianos/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Fazendas , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233944

RESUMO

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to analyze cephalexin in swine tissues, urine, and feces. Samples were extracted with 1% sulfuric acid, followed by purification using MCX cartridges. Mean recoveries were 95.4%-100.7% with inter-day relative standard deviations of <8.6%. The quantitation limit was 5 µg/kg for fat and urine, and 10 µg/kg for muscle, liver, kidney, and feces. Cephalexin residue depletion was determined using 32 healthy pigs, randomly divided into eight (seven treated and one control) groups. Treated groups were intramuscularly administered 10 mg/kg b.w. five times at 24-h intervals and euthanized 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after the last injection. Cephalexin was eliminated rapidly in swine muscle, liver, fat, and feces. The highest concentrations among edible organs were detected in the kidney. Moreover, the longest elimination period of cephalexin in swine was determined in urine. These results indicated that kidney and urine were likely target matrices for cephalexin residue detection in swine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Cefalexina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/urina , Cefalexina/urina , Gorduras/química , Fezes/química , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Suínos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192771

RESUMO

Violative residues of florfenicol (FF) in porcine edible tissues pose a potential risk for human health. In this study, urine was selected as target matrix for routine residue monitoring of FF in pig, and a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneously determining FF and florfenicol amine (FFA) in porcine urine. The urine samples were extracted with ethyl acetate under alkaline environment. The extracts were enriched through evaporation, purified by TLC and analysed by HPLC at 225 nm. A Waters Symmetry C18 column was used for the separation of the two analytes. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mixtures (33.3: 66.7, v/v), and was pumped at 0.6 mL/min. The TLC-HPLC method was well validated and successfully applied to residue depletion study. Good analytical specificity was confirmed by the lack of interfering peaks at the retention times of FF and FFA. The standard curves showed good linearity (FF: y = 143064x - 1045.3, r= 0.9999; FFA: y = 275826x + 1888.8, r= 0.9999) over the range of 0.0625-8 µg/mL. The precision ranged from 0.83% to 11.66% and 2.19% to 8.75% for intraday and interday determination, respectively. The corresponding accuracy ranged from -13.38% to 10.78% and -12.15% to 7.14%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for FF and FFA were 0.125 µg/mL. The residue depletion study showed that the concentrations of FF and FFA in urine were higher than those in edible tissues at three time points. This method was reliable, simple and cost efficient, and could be used to monitor FF residues in porcine edible tissue without slaughtering animals. TLC showed excellent purification efficiency and is expected to solve matrix interferences in veterinary drug residue analysis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Suínos/urina , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Drogas Veterinárias/urina , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Tianfenicol/urina
20.
Drug Saf ; 42(10): 1149-1155, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240688

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A drug combination that has gained recent attention for an additive risk of nephrotoxicity is vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam. Clinicians need to better understand whether tubular cell stress occurs with piperacillin-tazobactam administration to establish whether renal injury associated with this combination is a valid clinical concern. OBJECTIVE: An evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 7 (IGFBP7) for patients receiving vancomycin alone, piperacillin-tazobactam alone, and vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam in combination was conducted to understand the impact on acute kidney cell stress and compare the rates of dialysis or death at 9 months among these three drug exposure types. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the prospective, multicenter Sapphire study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01209169) including 35 intensive care units (ICUs) in North America and Europe was performed. Critically ill adult patients at risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) were included. Urinary [TIMP-2]∙[IGFBP7] was measured serially. Patients who received vancomycin alone, piperacillin-tazobactam alone, or vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam were grouped according to their maximum AKI stage within 3 days of the first drug dose. RESULTS: Of 723 critically ill adults admitted to the ICU, 46% received either piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 110), vancomycin (n = 156), or both (n = 67). The urinary [TIMP-2]∙[IGFBP7] was highest on day 1 for the combination group. AKI stage 2/3 occurred more frequently in patients receiving the drug combination than in those receiving piperacillin-tazobactam alone (p = 0.03) but not vancomycin alone (p = 0.29). Risk of death or dialysis at 9 months was greatest for vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam (48%) and similar for patients receiving vancomycin alone (29%) or piperacillin-tazobactam alone (35%) (p = 0.03 for unadjusted and p = 0.048 after adjusting for covariates). CONCLUSION: After exposure to piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin in combination, there was a greater release of AKI biomarkers in patients who develop AKI than with piperacillin-tazobactam or vancomycin monotherapy and the combination is associated with possible increased long-term adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/efeitos adversos , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Estado Terminal , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Nefropatias/urina , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/farmacocinética , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/urina , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Vancomicina/urina
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