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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52323

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar el nivel de adherencia a las guías de profilaxis quirúrgica (AG) en instituciones de salud de Argentina y los determinantes de la falta de adherencia (NA). Métodos. Estudio multicéntrico de corte transversal en 35 centros de Argentina. Se determinaron el nivel de AG y las formas de NA y se comparó según características de la indicación antibiótica, anestesista, cirugía, institución y edad del paciente. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. Se revisaron 1 083 procedimientos quirúrgicos (PQ). La AG fue de 67%. Las formas más frecuentes de NA fueron: antibiótico incorrecto (28,9%), profilaxis innecesaria (25,5%) y profilaxis prolongada (24,4%). La AG fue mayor en menores de 18 años (84,9% frente a 65,5%, P < 0,001); según la dependencia (obra social, privada, pública o comunitaria) fue de 33,3%, 64,4%, 78,8% y 83,3%, respectivamente; P < 0,001) y según la población (maternoinfantil, pediátrica, con patología específica y general) fue de 97,9%, 97,2%, 89,4% y 63,2%, respectivamente; P < 0,001). La AG fue mayor en neurocirugía (91,1%), obstetricia (82,4%) y cirugía cardiovascular (CCV) (72,9%) y menor en otorrinolaringología (ORL) (47,8%), oftalmología (50%) y urología (55,9%) (P < 0,001). El análisis ajustado mostró mayor AG en menores de 18 años (odds ratio [OR]: 4,97; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95]: 1,13-21,80), cirugía de urgencia (OR: 2,18; IC95: 1,11-4,26) e institución pública, privada o de comunidad (OR: 9,35; IC95: 3,85-22,70). La AG también fue mayor en instituciones para población maternoinfantil o específica (OR: 10,52; IC95, 1,30-85,12), CCV, neurocirugía, obstetricia (OR: 2,73; IC95: 1,55-4,78) e instituciones con programas para la optimización del uso de antimicrobianos (PROA) (OR 1,95; IC95, 1,10-3,45). Conclusiones. LA AG fue de 67%; el uso incorrecto, innecesario y prolongado del antibiótico fueron las formas más frecuentes de NA. La AG fue mayor con menor edad, PROA, dependencia privada o pública y población pediátrica o específica, PQ de urgencia y ciertas especialidades.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Evaluate the level of adherence to guidelines on surgical prophylaxis in health facilities in Argentina and the determinants of non-adherence. Methods. Cross-sectional multicenter study in 35 centers in Argentina. The level of adherence to guidelines and the forms of non-adherence were determined and these were compared based on the characteristics of the indicated antibiotic, anesthesiologist, surgery, and facility, as well as patient age. An adjusted logistic regression model was used. Results. A total of 1,083 surgical procedures were reviewed. Adherence to guidelines was 67%. The most frequent forms of non-adherence were: incorrect antibiotic (28.9%), unnecessary prophylaxis (25.5%), and prolonged prophylaxis (24.4%). Adherence to guidelines was higher in persons under 18 years of age (84.9% compared to 65.5%, p < 0.001). According to the type of health coverage (social welfare, private insurance, public coverage, or community coverage), adherence was 33.3%, 64.4%, 78.8%, and 83.3%, respectively; p < 0.001. According to population (maternal and child, pediatric, specific pathologies, and general pathologies), adherence was 97.9%, 97.2%, 89.4%, and 63.2%, respectively; p < 0.001. Adherence was highest in neurosurgery (91.1%), obstetrics (82.4%), and cardiovascular surgery (72.9%), and lowest in otorhinolaryngology (47.8%), ophthalmology (50%), and urology (55.9%) (p < 0.001). The adjusted analysis showed the highest adherence to guidelines in persons under 18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.97; 95% confidence interval [CI 95]: 1.13-21.80); emergency surgery (OR: 2.18; CI 95: 1.11-4.26); and public, private, and community facilities (OR: 9.35; CI 95: 3.85-22.70). Adherence was also higher in facilities for maternal and child care and specific pathologies (OR: 10.52; CI 95, 1.30-85.12), cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, obstetrics (OR: 2.73; CI 95: 1.55-4.78), and facilities with programs to optimize the use of antimicrobial drugs (OR 1.95; CI 95, 1.10-3.45). Conclusions. Adherence to guidelines was 67%. Incorrect, unnecessary, and prolonged use of antibiotics were the most frequent forms of non-adherence. Adherence was higher with younger patients, where programs exist to optimize the use of antimicrobial drugs, where there is private or public health coverage, with the pediatric population, for specific pathologies, in emergency surgery, and in certain specialties.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar o nível de adesão às diretrizes (AD) de profilaxia cirúrgica em instituições de saúde da Argentina e os determinantes da não adesão (NA). Métodos. Estudo multicêntrico transversal realizado em 35 centros na Argentina. Determinamos o nível de AD e as formas de NA, comparados segundo as características das seguintes variáveis: indicação antibiótica, anestesista, cirurgia, instituição e idade do paciente. Aplicamos um modelo de regressão logística ajustado. Resultados. Revisamos um total de 1083 procedimentos cirúrgicos. A taxa de AD foi de 67%. As formas mais frequentes de NA foram: antibiótico incorreto (28,9%), profilaxia desnecessária (25,5%) e profilaxia prolongada (24,4%). A AD foi mais elevada em pacientes com menos de 18 anos (84,9% vs. 65,5%, p<0,001); também houve variações segundo o tipo de instituição (instituição de seguridade social, privada, pública ou comunitária, com adesão de 33,3%, 64,4%, 78,8% e 83,3%, respectivamente; p<0,001) e segundo a população (materno-infantil, pediátrica, com patologia específica ou geral, com adesão de 97,9%, 97,2%, 89,4% e 63,2%, respectivamente; p<0,001). A AD foi maior em neurocirurgia (91,1%), obstetrícia (82,4%) e cirurgia cardiovascular (72,9%) e menor em otorrinolaringologia (47,8%), oftalmologia (50%) e urologia (55,9%) (p<0,001). A análise ajustada mostrou uma AD mais elevada em pacientes com menos de 18 anos (odds ratio [OR]: 4,97, intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,13-21,80), em cirurgias de emergência (OR: 2,18, IC95%: 1,11-4,26) e em instituições públicas, privadas ou comunitárias (OR: 9,35, IC95%: 3,85-22,70). A AD também foi superior em instituições para população materno-infantil ou para populações específicas (OR: 10,52; IC95%: 1,30-85,12), cirurgia cardiovascular, neurocirurgia, obstetrícia (OR: 2,73; IC95%: 1,55-4,78) e em instituições com programas para a otimização do uso de antimicrobianos (OR: 1,95; IC95%: 1,10-3,45). Conclusões. A AD foi de 67%; as formas mais frequentes de NA foram o uso incorreto, desnecessário e prolongado de antibióticos. A AD foi maior em pacientes mais jovens, em instituições com programas para a otimização do uso de antimicrobianos, em instituições privadas ou públicas e em populações pediátricas ou específicas, nos procedimentos cirúrgicos de emergência e em certas especialidades.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Argentina , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Estudos Transversais
2.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877380

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Local , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Salas Cirúrgicas , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/prevenção & controle , Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
3.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(9): 707-709, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940027

RESUMO

These guidelines concern the administration of systemic antibiotics in reconstructive dentistry. While the general guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis apply to patients at risk, the prophylactic administration of antibiotics is only indicated in very rare cases in healthy patients: chamber-preserving measures with autologous grafts during extractions in the hygiene phase and implantation with controlled bone regeneration in the surgical phase.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Odontologia , Humanos
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 5-16, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve treatment outcomes in patients with acute appendicitis (AA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An internet survey was performed. Questionnaire consisted of 15 questions concerning diagnosis and treatment of AA: application of prognostic scales, incidence and technical aspects of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), antibiotic prophylaxis, postoperative management, compliance with international and national clinical guidelines. A total of 690 questionnaires were received and analyzed (3.67% of all surgeons in the Russian Federation). RESULTS: Eighteen percent of respondents use at least one prognostic scale. The vast majority of surgeons (92%) use antibiotic prophylaxis. Almost half of respondents place trocars in the triangulation position (44%), one third of surgeons ligate the mesentery of the appendix (35%), most respondents perform mesoappendectomy (60%) with monopolar and bipolar cautery. Forty-five percent of all respondents do not invert the appendix stump. Significant number of respondents use abdominal drainage routinely. Only 3.5% of surgeons use multimodal postoperative analgesia. Less than 22% of patients are operated under low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. Standardization of surgical technique and perioperative approaches including those specified in the guidelines is absent. We also found insufficient awareness of surgeons about international and national clinical guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study may be useful for standardizing treatment approaches, choosing the best practice, popularizing and improving of current clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Apendicectomia/normas , Apendicite/terapia , Apêndice/cirurgia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Laparoscopia , Assistência Perioperatória , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Federação Russa
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 23-28, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the criteria of smooth postoperative period after cholecystectomy and risk factors of local surgical infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective analysis included 680 patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed incidence and risk factors of infectious complications. Major markers of acute inflammation, ultrasonic features of surgical site in early postoperative period were analyzed. RESULTS: Postoperative infectious complications developed in 35 patients (5.1%). All studied risk factors except an age (obesity, cardiorespiratory diseases, surgery time over 150 min, violation of the principles of antibiotic therapy, intraoperative blood loss over 50 ml, drainage time over 5 days) significantly affected the development of infectious complications. Surgery time over 150 min and violation of the principles of antibiotic therapy were the most significant factors. Serum procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were characterized by the highest prognostic value on the 3rd postoperative day. Threshold values were defined. CONCLUSION: Surgery time and violation of the rules of antibiotic prophylaxis were the most significant risk factors of postoperative infectious complications. We determined the criteria of smooth postoperative period: procalcitonin <1.5 mg/l, C-reactive protein <50 mg/l, erythrocyte sedimentation rate <39 mm/h, ultrasonic pattern of hypoechoic accumulation within the bed of the bladder (dimension <10 mm) without signs of intestinal insufficiency, abdominal or subhepatic effusion on the 3rd day after surgery.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are known to have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes, but there is no substantial evidence to support an underlying pathophysiology. We aimed to examine whether cerebral oxygenation differs in those infants who develop NEC compared to cerebral oxygenation in those who do not. METHODS: We examined 48 infants <30 weeks' gestation admitted to a tertiary level NICU from October 2016 to May 2018. Infants with birth weight less than or equal to the second percentile, abnormal antenatal dopplers or twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome were excluded. Cerebral oximetry measurements were performed by using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitor weekly for 60 minutes, allowing measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index from the first week of life to 36 weeks postconceptional age. Weekly clinical status was also recorded. NEC was defined as greater than or equal to Bell stage 2. RESULTS: The median birth weight was 884 g (range of 460-1600 g), the median weeks' gestational age was 26 + 3/7 (23 + 0/7 to 29 + 6/7), and 52% were girls. In total, 276 NIRS measurements were completed, and 7 infants developed NEC. NIRS measurements from 1 infant with NEC and 4 infants without NEC who developed hemorrhagic parenchymal infarcts were excluded from analysis. Infants who developed NEC had significantly lower cerebral tissue oxygenation index than those who did not (P = .011), even when adjusted for confounders, including gestational age, birth weight, patent ductus arteriosus, enteral feeds, sex, ethnicity, and hemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with NEC have significantly lower cerebral tissue oxygenation throughout their neonatal intensive care stay in comparison with those who did not develop NEC. This is a novel finding and could explain their worse neurodevelopmental outcome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Enterocolite Necrosante/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013209, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies was searched up to 21 April 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in any language assessing prophylactic antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified by the Standardised Outcomes of Nephrology Group (SONG), specifically graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer and life participation. Summary effect estimates were obtained using a random-effects model and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using the risk of bias and the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight eligible studies (718 randomised participants). Overall, five studies (248 randomised participants) compared antibiotics versus no antibiotics, and three studies (470 randomised participants) compared extended duration versus short duration antibiotics. Risk of bias was assessed as high for performance bias (eight studies), detection bias (eight studies) and attrition bias (two studies). It is uncertain whether antibiotics reduce the incidence of surgical site infections as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85; 5 studies, 226 participants; I2 = 25%). The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). It is uncertain whether extended duration antibiotics reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in either solid organ transplant recipients (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.48; 2 studies, 302 participants; I2 = 0%) or kidney-only transplant recipients (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.48; 1 study, 205 participants) as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). None of the eight included studies evaluated antimicrobial agent adverse reactions, graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, life participation, biochemical and haematological parameters, intervention cost, hospitalisation length, or overall hospitalisation costs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to methodological limitations, risk of bias and significant heterogeneity, the current evidence for the use of prophylactic perioperative antibiotics in transplantation is of very low quality. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs would help better inform clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Viés , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810135

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the dosage and types of antibiotics prescribed in oral implant surgery, compare them among the different subpopulations (country and prescription regimens) and against the evidence-based recommended dosage: a 2-gram single preoperative dose of amoxicillin. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys was conducted, which reports the overall dosage (and type) of antibiotics prescribed in combination with implant placement. PubMed, Cochrane, Science, Direct, and EMBASE via OVID were searched until April 2019. Three reviewers independently undertook data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The outcome variable was set on the average of prophylactic antibiotics prescribed per oral implant surgery. Overall, 726 participants from five cross-sectional surveys, representing five different countries were finally included. Amoxicillin was the most prescribed antibiotic. On average, 10,724 mg of antibiotics were prescribed per implant surgery. This average was significantly (p<0.001) higher than 2,000 mg. Overall, amoxicillin doses were significantly higher than 2,000 mg (9,700 mg, p<0.001). All prescribed amoxicillin regimens independently contained more than 2,000 mg, including those comprising only preoperative amoxicillin (2,175 mg, p = 0.006). Exclusive preoperative antibiotic regimens were the only subgroup with prescription dosages below this threshold (p = 0.091). Significant variations in antibiotic prescriptions were found among different countries and antibiotic regimens (p<0.001). In conclusion, the average dose of antibiotics prescribed per oral implant surgery was larger than the evidence-based recommended dose in healthy patients and straightforward conditions. In addition, variations in the average antibiotic dosages were found among different countries and prescription regimens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Implantes Dentários , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Odontologia Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 126-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611857

RESUMO

Background: Various antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines have been published such as the American Heart Association 2007, British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2006, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2008, European Society of Cardiology 2015, and in Malaysia, the National Antibiotic Guideline 2014 and Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis 2017. The aim of the study is to determine the pattern of antibiotic prophylaxis practice for dental procedure in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) at the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of dental records from 2010 to 2015 was done by collecting data on the source and reason of referral, types of heart condition, dental procedure, and antibiotic given. Results: There were 210 patients; 69.5% had acyanotic CHD, 21.9% cyanotic CHD, 6.7% repaired CHD with residual defects, and 1.9% with previous infective endocarditis. Slightly more than 58% were referred from government doctors (pediatric cardiologist and National Heart Institute). The common cause for referral was dental assessment (47.6%). Antibiotics were prescribed to 23.3% (49/210) patients, of which, 34.7% was given ampicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. About 96% of cyanotic heart cases undergoing invasive dental procedures were prescribed antibiotic prophylaxis. Almost 31% were prescribed with antibiotic prophylaxis even though it was not indicated. Conclusion: This study shows that there is variability in prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis, and it is important for dental clinicians to standardize the practice of giving antibiotic prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20959, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a serious potential consequence of surgery to complete a spontaneous abortion. Antibiotic prophylaxis before some operations has been shown to reduce the risk of postoperative infections. However, for miscarriage surgery, evidence is lacking to show effectiveness. METHODS: In this systematic review, the electronic databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and PUBMED will be searched from inception to May 1, 2020. Randomized controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection for patients undergoing miscarriage surgery will be included. All process of the study selection, data extraction, and methodology evaluation will be carried out by two authors independently. RevMan 5.3 software will be utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide a detailed summary of latest evidence related to the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection for patients undergoing miscarriage surgery. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may provide possible guidance for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection for patients undergoing miscarriage surgery. DISSEMINATION AND ETHICS: Ethical approval is not required in this study, because it will not collect the original data from individual patient. The results are expected to publish through a peer-reviewed journal. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD CRD42020155643.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Infecção Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 60-70, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of studies examining the effectiveness of the local application of vancomycin powder for the prophylaxis of surgical site infections (SSIs) in spine surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort studies and prospective randomized clinical trials were searched for in the Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and eLibrary databases published from 2008 to December 2018. For the resulting variables, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using random and fixed effects models. Estimation of the degree of heterogeneity is estimated using the coefficient I2. Statistically significant differences were considered differences p<0.05. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 28 clinical studies that included the results of the local application of vancomycin powder in 17,469 patients after performing various spinal surgical interventions. Two publications had a prospective, randomized, controlled study design. Topical application of vancomycin powder reduces the incidence of SSIs after spine surgery (p<0.0001). The use of vancomycin powder reduces the incidence of SSIs in patients operated on with stabilizing implants (p=0.004). On the other hand, the topical application of vancomycin powder did not affect the prevalence of SSIs in respondents who were operated on without the use of stabilizing implants (p=0.12) or due to deformities of the spine (p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Topical application of vancomycin powder is highly effective in preventing the development of SSIs in patients after spinal surgical interventions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Humanos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
15.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 203-208, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115543

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La pancreatitis aguda es una enfermedad frecuente en el país, con una tasa de mortalidad de 10%-30%. La administración profiláctica de antibióticos ha sido parte del tratamiento de pancreatitis aguda grave (PAG), por la teórica prevención de complicaciones infecciosas y reducción de mortalidad. Sin embargo, la evidencia científica disponible es controversial. Objetivo: Demostrar que los antibióticos profilácticos no disminuyen las complicaciones locales y/o sistémicas, requerimiento de Unidad de Paciente Crítico (UPC), ni mortalidad en PAG. Definimos PAG como APACHE II ≥ 8 o PCR ≥ 150 o falla multiorgánica. Material y Método: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, con aleatorización simple mediante tabla electrónica (uso o no uso de antibióticos profilácticos) de pacientes con PAG. En el grupo que usó antibióticos profilácticos se utilizó ciprofloxacino y metronidazol por 7 días. El resto del manejo no tuvo variación. Resultados: n = 71, dos grupos aleatorizados; Grupo 1 (n = 35), sin uso de antibióticos profilácticos, y grupo 2 (n = 36) con uso de profilaxis antibiótica. 12 pacientes (16%) requirieron UPC; 6 pacientes del grupo 1, y 6 del grupo 2 (p = 0,957). Siete pacientes (9,8%) tuvieron algún tipo de complicación, 3 en el grupo 1 y 4 en el grupo 2 (p = 0,516). El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue 18,2 ± 9,5 días en el grupo 1, y 22,6 ± 29.2 días en el grupo 2 (p = 0,495). Mortalidad: 1 paciente (1,41%) en el grupo 2 (p = 0,493). Conclusión: En este reporte preliminar, el uso de antibióticos profilácticos en PAG no mostró reducir las complicaciones, necesidad de cama en UPC, ni la mortalidad.


Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease in the country, with a mortality rate of 10%-30%. The prophylactic administration of antibiotics has been part of the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), due to the theoretical prevention of infectious complications and mortality reduction. However, the available scientific evidence is controversial. Objective: To demonstrate that prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce local and/or systemic complications, critical patient unit (CPU) requirement, or mortality in SAP. We define SAP as APACHE II ≥ 8 or PCR ≥ 150° or multiorgan failure. Material and Method: Randomized clinical trial, with simple randomization by electronic table (use or non-use of prophylactic antibiotics) of patients with SAP. In the group that used prophylactic antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were used for 7 days. Results: n = 71, two randomized groups; Group 1 (n = 35), without the use of prophylactic antibiotics, and group 2 (n = 36) with the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. 12 patients (16%) required CPU; 6 patients from group 1, and 6 from group 2 (p = 0.957). Seven patients (9.8%) had some type of complication, 3 in group 1 and 4 in group 2 (p = 0.516). The average hospital stay was 18.2 ± 9.5 days in group 1, and 22.6 ± 29.2 days in group 2 (p = 0.495). Mortality: 1 patient (1.41%) in group 2 (p = 0.493). Conclusion: In this preliminary report, the use of prophylactic antibiotics in SAP was not shown to reduce complications, need for bed in CPU, or mortality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pancreatite/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
16.
s.l; s.n; 4 jun. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1097780

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: O coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identificado como agente etiológico da doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (Covid-19), está se espalhando rapidamente em todo o mundo. O uso de antibióticos em pacientes sem evidência de infecção bacteriana tem sido investigado para o tratamento da Covid-19. OBJETIVOS: Identificar, avaliar sistematicamente e sumarizar as melhores evidências científicas disponíveis sobre a eficácia e a segurança da antibioticoterapia no paciente com Covid-19 sem evidência de infecção bacteriana. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática rápida (rapid review methodology) com buscas em 08 de abril de 2020 e atualizadas no dia 27 de abril de 2020. RESULTADOS: Após o processo de seleção, foram identificados quatro relatos de casos e um protocolo clínico em andamento. Os dados disponíveis até o momento são inconsistentes e imprecisos para permitir avaliar a eficácia e a segurança da antibioticoterapia no paciente com Covid-19 sem evidência de infecção bacteriana. O risco de viés destes estudos foi considerado crítico. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a limitação metodológica destes estudos e a imprecisão dos resultados, nenhuma estimativa sobre a eficácia e a segurança do uso de antibióticos pode ser assumida.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Antibioticoprofilaxia/instrumentação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
17.
Farm. hosp ; 44(3): 87-91, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192339

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Medir la adherencia a la profilaxis del fallo secundario del implante (ciclosporina, tacrolimus, sirolimus), de la enfermedad injerto contra receptor (ciclosporina, tacrolimus, sirolimus, micofenolato) y de las infecciones (posaconazol, voriconazol, valganciclovir) en el paciente sometido a trasplante alogénico de progenitores hematopoyéticos. Compa-rar la incidencia de complicaciones agudas en función de la adherencia.MÉTODO: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes sometidos a trasplante alogénico de progenitores hematopoyéticos desde mayo de 2017 hasta mayo de 2018, entre el día 0 y +100 postrasplante. La adherencia a micofenolato, tacrolimus, sirolimus, posaconazol, voriconazol y valganciclovir se evaluó mediante los registros de dispensación del servicio de farmacia, siempre que fuera posible. Se definió como paciente adherente aquel con un porcentaje de adherencia igual o superior al 95%. La evaluación de la adherencia a ciclosporina se realizó mediante medida de los niveles plasmáticos. Se definió como paciente no adherente aquel cuyos niveles plasmáticos de ciclosporina fueran inferiores a 100 ng/ml en alguna medida entre los días 0 y +100, en ausencia de factores asociados que lo justificaran. La asociación entre adherencia e incidencia de complicaciones agudas (fallo secundario del implante, enfermedad injerto contra receptor aguda e infección) se estimó mediante la odds ratio y su intervalo de confianza del 95%. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 46 pacientes. Todos comenzaron profilaxis inmunosupresora con ciclosporina; en el 8,7% se cambió a tacrolimus o sirolimus por toxicidad. Todos los pacientes recibieron ciclosporina para la profilaxis de la enfermedad injerto contra receptor. En el 41,3% de los casos también se administró micofenolato. El 82,6% fueron adherentes a la profilaxis del fallo de injerto. En cuanto a la profilaxis de enfermedad injerto contra receptor, resultó adherente el 80,4%. Todos los pacientes resultaron adherentes a la profilaxis infecciosa. La incidencia de enfermedad injerto contra receptor aguda de los pacientes adherentes a la profilaxis fue del 45,9% frente al 55,6% en los no adherentes (odds ratio 0,68; intervalo de confianza del 95% 0,157-2,943; p = 0,718). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes sometidos a trasplante alogénico de progenitores hematopoyéticos presentan una aceptable adherencia a la profilaxis de complicaciones agudas, pero existe un considerable porcentaje de pacientes que no toman su tratamiento adecuadamente. La correcta adherencia a los inmunosupresores parece disminuir el riesgo de sufrir enfermedad injerto contra receptor aguda


OBJECTIVE: To measure adherence to cyclosporine, tacrolimus and siroli-mus prophylaxis against secondary graft failure; cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus and mycophenolate prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease; and posaconazole, voriconazole, valganciclovir prophylaxis against infec-tion in patients undergo to transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells; and to analise the incidence of acute complications based on adherence.METHOD: Retrospective observational study of patients who underwent allo-geneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between May 2017 and May 2018. Analyses were carried out between 0 and +100 days post-engraftment.Whenever possible, adherence to mycophenolate, tacrolimus, sirolimus, posaconazole, voriconazole and valganciclovir was evaluated by means of the dispensation records of the Pharmacy Department of our hospital. To be considered adherent, patients should have proved an adherence rate equal to or higher than 95%. Adherence to cyclosporine was determi-ned based on serum levels. Patients were considered to be non-adherent if their cyclosporine serum concentrations dropped below 100 ng/mL at any time between days 0 and +100, in the absence of any specific justifying circumstances. The association between adherence and the incidence of acute complications (secondary graft failure, acute graft-versus-host disease and infection) was determined by means of the odds ratio (confidence interval: 95%). RESULTS: The study sample was made up by 46 patients, all of whom were started on immunosuppressive cyclosporine prophylaxis; 8.7% needed to be switched to tacrolimus or sirolimus due to toxicity issues. All the pa-tients received cyclosporine as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disea-se. Mycophenolate was also administered in 41.3% of cases. A total of 82.6% patients were found to be adherent to their prophylaxis treatment against graft failure and 80.4% were found to be adherent to prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. All patients were adherent to anti-infection prophylaxis. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease in prophylaxis-adherent patients was 45.9%, compared with 55.6% for non-adherent pa-tients (odds ratio 0.68; confidence interval: 95% 0.157-2.943; p = 0.718). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation demonstrated acceptable adherence to prophylaxis aga-inst acute complications, although a considerable percentage of patients was found not to take their medication as prescribed. Correct adherence to immunosuppressants seems to reduce the risk of developing acute graft-versus-host disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Transplante Homólogo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica , Razão de Chances , Intervalos de Confiança , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia
18.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 71(3): 140-146, mayo-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192628

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La migraña vestibular (MV) es una de las causas de síndrome vestibular episódico. Existen muchos fármacos disponibles para su profilaxis y actualmente su elección se realiza mayoritariamente según las comorbilidades del paciente. El objetivo de este artículo es medir la concordancia de un grupo de otorrinolaringólogos en la elección de profilaxis y evaluar el papel que ejerce sobre esta un algoritmo asistido para la elección de profilaxis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Las historias clínicas de 10 pacientes con MV fueron ofrecidas a 10 otorrinolaringólogos, a los que se les pidió que seleccionasen para cada paciente el fármaco que considerasen más adecuado entre 5 opciones posibles. Se calcularon los índices κ de Fleiss entre los 10 otorrinolaringólogos solos y se recalcularon incluyendo al algoritmo como undécimoevaluador, y la κ de Cohen entre cada otorrinolaringólogo y el algoritmo. Se ofreció a los otorrinolaringólogos la opción de cambiar su respuesta tras conocer la respuesta del algoritmo, y ambos índices fueron calculados nuevamente. RESULTADOS: El índice κ de Fleiss fue de 0,302. Dicho índice se elevó a 0,343 tras introducir al algoritmo como evaluador. Tras ofrecer las soluciones propuestas por el algoritmo, se mejoró la κ de Cohen en 9 de los 10 evaluadores y la κ de Fleiss subió a 0,711. CONCLUSIONES: La concordancia entre otorrinolaringólogos para elegir profilaxis para la MV se define como «justa». Las respuestas del algoritmo para la elección de profilaxis se situaron próximas a la opinión media de los otorrinolaringólogos, elevando la concordancia entre ellos a «sustancial»


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vestibular migraine (VM) is a cause of episodic vestibular syndrome. There are many drugs available for its prophylaxis and currently the choice is mainly made according to the patient's comorbidities. The aim of this article was to measure the agreement of a group of otorhinolaryngologists in the choice of a prophylactic treatment and to evaluate the role of an assisted algorithm in the choice of this prophylaxis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The medical records of 10 patients with VM were offered to 10 otolaryngologists who were asked to select for each patient the drug they considered most appropriate among five possible options. The Fleiss' κ index was calculated among the 10 otolaryngologists alone, recalculating it including the algorithm as the eleventh evaluator, and Cohen's κ index was calculated between each otolaryngologist and the answers of the algorithm. The otolaryngologists were offered the option to change their responses after knowing the responses of the algorithm and then both indexes were calculated again. RESULTS: The Fleiss' κ index was .302. This index was raised to .343 after introducing the algorithm as an evaluator. After offering the responses proposed by the algorithm, Cohen's κ was improved in 9 of the 10 evaluators, and Fleiss' κ rose to .711. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between otorhinolaryngologists in choosing prophylaxis for MV can be defined as "fair". The responses of the algorithm for the choice of prophylaxis were close to the average opinion of the otolaryngologists, raising the agreement between them to "substantial"


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Algoritmos , Doenças Vestibulares/etiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Acetazolamida/uso terapêutico , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Flunarizina/uso terapêutico , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vestibulares/prevenção & controle , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575528

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the colonization of suture thread to identify patients at risk of developing a surgical site infection (SSI) after clean surgical procedures. Methods: Patients who underwent elective clean surgery procedures at the Surgery Unit of the AOU-University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli in a 21-month period were prospectively enrolled. For each patient, a synthetic absorbable thread in Lactomer 9-1 was inserted into the surgical site at the end of surgery and microbiologically evaluated after 48 h. Antibiotic prophylaxis was chosen according to international guidelines. Results: A total of 238 patients were enrolled; 208 (87.4%) of them were subjected to clean procedures without the placement of prosthesis, and 30 (12.6%) with prosthesis. Of the 238 patients, 117 (49.2%) underwent an antimicrobial prophylaxis. Overall, 79 (33.2%) patients showed a bacterial colonization of the thread: among the 208 without the implantation of prosthesis, 19 (21.8%) of the 87 with antibiotic prophylaxis and in 58 (47.9%) of the 121 without it; among the 30 patients with the implantation of prosthesis, only two patients showed a colonized thread. The patients with antibiotic prophylaxis developed a colonization of the thread less frequently than those without it (17.9% vs. 47.9%, p < 0.001). SSI was observed in six (2.5%) patients, all of them showing a colonized thread (7.6% vs. 0%, p < 0.001). The bacteria identified in colonized threads were the same as those found in SSIs. Conclusions: Our study presents a new method that is able to precociously assess patients who have undergone clean procedures who may develop SSI, and identify the microorganism involved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Bactérias , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Suturas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Suturas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(2): 321-328, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564129

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antibiotic treatment during surgical repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) had been a matter of debate. We aimed to review the available literature regarding the efficacy of metronidazole administration in women undergoing perineal repair following obstetric OASIS. STUDY DESIGN: To identify potentially eligible studies, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception to January 13th, 2019.Reference lists of identified studies were searched. No language restrictions were applied. We used a combination of keywords and text words represented by "Metronidazole", "obstetrics", "obstetric anal sphincter injury", "OASIS", "third degree tear", "fourth degree tear", "third degree laceration", "fourth degree laceration", "antibiotic therapy", "perineal damage" and "perineal trauma". Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts of records retrieved from the database searches. Both reviewers recommended studies for the full-text review. Thescreen of full-text articles recommended by at least one reviewer was done independently by the same two reviewers and assessedfor inclusion in the systematic review. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The electronic database search yielded a total of 54,356 results (Fig. 1). After duplicate exclusion 28,154 references remained. Of them, 26 were relevant to the review based on title and abstract screening. None of these articles dealt with the use of metronidazole for the prevention of infections complicating anal sphincter repair in women with OASIS. A Cochrane review addressing antibiotic prophylaxis for patients following OASIS, compared prophylactic antibiotics against placebo or no antibiotics, included only one randomized controlled trial of 147 participants. This study showed that prophylactic antibiotics (not metronidazole) may be helpful to prevent perineal wound complications following OASIS. Fig. 1 Study seection process CONCLUSION: Anaerobic infections potentially complicate wound repair after OASIS. Although scientific societies recommend the use of antibiotics for the prevention of infectious morbidity after OASIS, no study has specifically assessed the role of metronidazole.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lacerações/etiologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Períneo/lesões , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Obstetrícia/métodos , Gravidez , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico
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