Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.376
Filtrar
1.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(6): 583-589, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917386

RESUMO

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a challenge for the healthcare system. During the last 30 years, the literature has shown an increase of gram-negative bacterial strains in multiple infectious sites and that cephalosporins have replaced penicillin as the gold standard in peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aims to examine the recent bacterial spectrum in orthopedic early SSIs and to compare it with a historical cohort. Patients and Methods: Patients in a level 1 trauma center with an SSI within six weeks after open fixation of a fracture were analyzed in two adjacent periods from 2007 to 2012 (data pool 1; DP1) and 2013 to 2017 (data pool 2; DP2), retrospectively. The detected microbiologic pathogens and the associated resistograms from both time periods were compared. Results: Six hundred eighty-one smear tests and respective pathogens from the wounds of 463 patients (mean age, 62.6 ± 20 years) with SSIs were analyzed. The following pathogens were found most frequent: Staphylococcus epidermidis (DP1, 20.6%; DP2, 26.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (DP1, 27.1%; DP2, 16.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (DP1, 13.7%; DP2, 11.1%), Bacillus sp. (DP1, 3.0%; DP2, 5.3%), Escherichia coli (DP1, 5.1%; DP2, 4.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DP1, 3.7%; DP2, 2.5%). In DP2, there were lower primary early infection rates with Staphylococcus aureus than in DP1 (p = 0.002). In DP2, Staphylococcus epidermidis showed an oxacillin resistance in 90.6% and an increased resistance (79.8%; p = 0.069) to several classes of antibiotic agents compared to DP1. Conclusions: No bacterial shift toward gram-negative species was observed in this investigation. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis showed an increased antibiotic resistance in the more recent patient cohort. The incidence of SSIs with Staphylococcus aureus decreased substantially.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fixação de Fratura , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 646, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major complication of renal biopsy is bleeding. Infection is an extremely rare complication of percutaneous renal biopsy, providing sterile techniques are used and bowel perforation does not occur. However, the questionnaire included in the Kidney Biopsy Guidebook 2020 in Japan reported that antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to patients undergoing percutaneous renal biopsy at 61% of 170 adult institutions and 57% of 54 pediatric institutions. The objective of this study is to show the non-inferiority of not administering antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous renal biopsy. METHODS: Patients aged ≥15 years who are scheduled to undergo percutaneous renal biopsy are eligible for inclusion in the study. Three hundred and sixty-four patients will be recruited at 6 hospitals. The patients will be randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either a single dose of intravenous cefazolin (1 g) or no antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome is the number of patients that exhibit positive urine cultures (>105 colony-forming units/ml) 3 or 4 days after the renal biopsy, or at which point the patients are diagnosed with pyelonephritis until 3 or 4 days after the renal biopsy. The secondary outcomes are the number of patients who are diagnosed with pyelonephritis within 30 days after the renal biopsy, the number of patients who are diagnosed with puncture site infections within 30 days after the renal biopsy, the number of patients who are diagnosed with an infection other than pyelonephritis or a puncture site infection within 30 days after the renal biopsy, and the number of patients who experience cefazolin-induced side effects. DISCUSSION: This randomized controlled trial aims to show the non-inferiority of not administering antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous renal biopsy. If this study shows that antibiotic prophylaxis is not needed, it would help to ensure patient safety and prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000042378 . Registered on 7 Nov 2020.


Assuntos
Cefazolina , Pielonefrite , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pielonefrite/induzido quimicamente , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Wiad Lek ; 75(6): 1789-1791, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962699

RESUMO

In patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), presence of intracardiac shunt can be a substrate for infective endocarditis (IE). Our aim was to highlight that this diagnosis should always be suspected when CHD patients present with persistent fever. In this case report, we describe the case of a 33-year-old female patient with a history of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) who presented to the hospital with persistent fever. Six months ago, the patient had undergone a tooth extraction under antibiotic prophylaxis. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass, consistent with vegetation in the tricuspid valve. The blood cultures grew Streptococcus mitis. Antimicrobial treatment was initiated for IE. Symptoms and inflammation markers improved, but the patient relapsed in the 4th week of treatment. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a new mobile vegetation attached to the right ventricular outflow tract and the patient was referred for surgery. Her postoperative course was uneventful.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Comunicação Interventricular , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Ecocardiografia/efeitos adversos , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/cirurgia , Feminino , Comunicação Interventricular/complicações , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
5.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(6): 501-515, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834578

RESUMO

Background: To establish the role of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) in children undergoing surgery. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of six databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus. Study Selection: Included studies (irrespective of design) compared outcomes in children undergoing surgery, aged 0 to 21 years who received SAP with those who did not, with SSI as an outcome, using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions for SSI. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers applied eligibility criteria, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. Results: A total of six randomized control trials and 26 observational studies including 202,593 surgical procedures among 202,405 participants were included in the review. The pooled odds ratio of SSI was 1.20; (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.58) comparing those receiving SAP with those not receiving SAP, with moderate heterogeneity in effect size between studies (τ2 = 0.246; χ2 = 69.75; p < 0.001; I2 = 57.0%). There was insufficient data on many factors known to be associated with SSI, such as cost, length of stay, re-admission, and re-operation; it was therefore not possible to perform subanalyses on these. Conclusions: This review and metanalysis did not find a preventive action of SAP against SSI, and our results suggest that SAP should not be used in surgical wound class (SWC) I procedures in children. However, considering the poor quality of included studies, the principal message of this study is in highlighting the absence of quality data to drive evidence-based decision-making in SSI prevention in children, and in advocating for more research in this field.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
6.
J Am Coll Surg ; 235(2): 285-292, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections after abdominal surgery remain a significant problem. Although preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is a primary strategy used to reduce postoperative infections, it is typically prescribed based on standardized protocols, without attention to previous infection or antibiotic history. Patients with a previous infection after surgery may be at higher risk for infectious complications after subsequent operations owing to antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that a previous postoperative infection is a significant risk factor for the development of infection after a second unrelated surgery. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of patients who had undergone 2 unrelated abdominal operations at a tertiary care center from 2012 to 2018. Clinical variables and microbiological culture results were abstracted. Univariate and multivariable regression models were constructed. RESULTS: Of 758 patients, 15.0% (n = 114) developed an infection after the first operation. After the second operation, 22.8% (n = 26) of those with a previous infection developed another infection, whereas the incidence of an infection after the second operation was only 9.5% (n = 61) in patients who did not develop an infection after the first operation. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that previous infection (odds ratio 2.49, 95% CI 1.46 to 4.25) was associated with future infection risk. Microbiological analysis found that infections after the second surgery were significantly more likely to be antibiotic resistant than infections after the first surgery (82.3% vs 64.1%; p = 0.036). Strikingly, 49% of infections after the second surgery were resistant to the antibiotic prophylaxis given at the time of incision. CONCLUSIONS: Previous postoperative infection is an independent risk factor for a subsequent postoperative infection and is associated with resistance to standard prophylaxis. Individualization of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a previous postoperative infection is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059018, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is one of the most effective measures to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). According to WHO SAP guidelines, SAP requires appropriate indication for administration and delivery of the antimicrobial agent to the operative site through intravenous administration within 60-120 min before the initial surgical incision is made. In Liberia, it is unknown how surgeons practice and there has been anecdotal observation of antibiotic overuse. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate baseline SAP compliance, particularly appropriate SAP use based on wound class and time of antibiotic administration. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2017. One-day training was provided on SAP/SSI to 24 health workers by the Ministry of Health and WHO. Following this training, surgical cases (general surgery and obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) underwent chart review with focus on time of SAP administration and appropriate SAP based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) wound classification. RESULTS: A total of 143 charts were reviewed. Twenty-nine (20.3%) cases showed appropriate prophylaxis through administrations of antibiotics 120 min before surgical incision, resulting in SAP compliance. One hundred and fourteen cases (79.7%) showed SAP noncompliance with timing of antibiotic administration. Of the OB/Gyn cases, 109 wounds were classified as Class I (clean) and one wound was classified as Class III (contaminated). For General Surgical cases, 32 wounds were classified as Class I and one as Class III. Of the 109 Class I OB/Gyn surgeries, 24 (22%) were appropriately given antibiotics based on the CDC wound guidelines while 78% were non-compliant with recommendations. Of the 32 Class I General surgery cases, 4 (12.5%) were compliant with antibiotics guidelines while 28 (87.5%) were not. CONCLUSION: Compliance with SAP is low. More studies need to be done to explore the contributing factors to this. Implementing mechanisms to achieve proper use of SAP is needed.


Assuntos
Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Libéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
8.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 45(8): 940-949, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient evidence regarding postoperative systemic antibiotic prophylaxis use for more than 24 h following cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) implantation and its impact on infection prevention. However, this strategy remains a common practice in many institutions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies that compared the outcomes of patients: (1) who received preoperative plus 24 h or more of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (intervention group); and (2) who received either preoperative only or preoperative plus less than 24 h of antibiotic prophylaxis (control group). Risk of bias was assessed with ROBINS-I and ROB-2 tools. Risk ratio (RR) was pooled using random-effect meta-analyses with inverse variance method. RESULTS: Eight studies that included two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six cohort studies with a total of 26,187 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, there were no differences in outcomes between the two groups, which included rates of CIED infection (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.42, 1.42), mortality (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.69, 2.06), pocket hematoma (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.44, 3.00) or reintervention (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.22, 3.46). Of note, the results were primarily impacted by the larger RCT. CONCLUSIONS: There was no benefit of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for more than 24 h following CIED implantation in the current systematic review and meta-analysis. This supports the practice advocated by current guidelines which foster antibiotic stewardship and may result in reductions of adverse drug events, selection for antibiotic resistance, and financial costs of prolonged postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Eletrônica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Head & neck surgery encompasses a variety of surgical approaches for benign and malignant conditions. Due to the complexity in treating patients with head and neck pathology, it is necessary to adhere to basic surgical principles to decrease complications. Among them, surgical site infection can be prevented using a surgery quality protocol including the correct use of antibiotics and optimization of nutritional status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was sent through the YO-IFOS and SEORL-CCC international mailing list. RESULTS: A total of 435 surgeons completed the survey. Of the respondents, 97.7% confirm that they scrub their hands before surgery, 40.9% respondents recommend nutritional support according to sign and symptoms, 60.9% use of antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgery and just 9.2% use clindamycin in combination. CONCLUSION: This survey has broadened the scope regarding H&N surgical safety around the globe. Identifying innovative ways in which surgical care may be improved is mandatory.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062298, 2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a service delivery model led by membership-based associations called Iddirs formed by women on tuberculosis preventive treatment (TPT) initiation and completion rates among children. DESIGN: Comparative, before-and-after study design. SETTING: Three intervention and two control districts in Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: Children who had a history of close contact with adults with infectious forms of tuberculosis (TB). Child contacts in whom active TB and contraindications to TPT regimens were excluded were considered eligible for TPT. INTERVENTIONS: Between July 2020 and June 2021, trained women Iddir members visited households of index TB patients, screened child household contacts for TB, provided education and information on the benefits of TPT, linked them to the nearby health centre and followed them at home for TPT adherence and side effects. Two control zones received the standard of care, which comprised of facility-based provision of TPT to children. We analysed quarterly TPT data for treatment initiation and completion and compared intervention and control zones before and after the interventions and tested for statistical significance using Poisson regression. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: There were two primary outcome measures: proportion of eligible children initiated TPT and proportion completed treatment out of those eligible. RESULTS: TPT initiation rate among eligible under-15-year-old children (U15C) increased from 28.7% to 63.5% in the intervention zones, while it increased from 34.6% to 43.2% in the control zones, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). TPT initiation rate for U5C increased from 13% (17 out of 131) to 93% (937 out of 1010). Of the U5C initiated, 99% completed treatment; two discontinued due to side effects; three parents refused to continue; and one child was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Women-led Iddirs contributed to significant increase in TPT initiation and completion rates. The model of TPT delivery should be scaled-up.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(7): 800-807.e1, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) often require treatment with high-dose systemic steroids (SS) and other immunosuppressive agents (ISAs). NCCN Guidelines recommend prophylactic antibiotics for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) for patients receiving prolonged SS/ISAs. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) and non-OIs and the role of prophylactic antibiotics in patients on SS/ISAs for irAEs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients treated using immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy at 5 MedStar Health hospitals from January 2011 to April 2018. OIs were defined per the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the prevention and treatment of OIs in patients with HIV. The study cohort included patients who received ≥20 mg daily of a prednisone equivalent for ≥4 weeks to manage irAEs. RESULTS: The study cohort identified 112 (15%) of 758 total patients treated using ICIs. Baseline characteristics included the following: median age was 64 years, 74% (n=82) of patients were White, 89% (n=100) had an ECOG performance status ≤1, 61% (n=68) had melanoma, 19% (n=21) had non-small cell lung cancer, 45% (n=50) were treated using an anti-PD-(L)1 ICI, and 33% (n=37) were treated using an anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 combination. The median starting SS dose was 100 mg of a prednisone equivalent, and 25% of patients required additional ISAs, with infliximab (n=15) and mycophenolate mofetil (n=9) being the most common. We found that 20% (n=22) of patients developed any infection, including 7% (n=8) with OIs (oral candidiasis [n=4], nondisseminated varicella zoster infection [n=2], PJP [n=1], and Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis [n=1]) and 13% (n=14) with non-OIs (most common: Clostridium difficile and pneumonia [n=5 each]). PJP prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was given to 13% (n=14) patients, of whom 43% (n=6) developed OIs/non-OIs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the fundamental issues for patients on ICI therapy who require SS/ISAs for irAEs: the degree of immunosuppression and the relative risk of OI. We noted a low incidence of OIs overall and breakthrough infections despite PJP prophylaxis. We question whether PJP prophylaxis is efficacious or necessary. Prospective trials are required to answer these questions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Infecções Oportunistas , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(30): 1-160, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since changes in the national guidance in 2011, prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing caesarean section are recommended prior to skin incision, rather than after the baby's umbilical cord has been clamped. Evidence from randomised controlled trials conducted outside the UK has shown that this reduces maternal infectious morbidity; however, the prophylactic antibiotics also cross the placenta, meaning that babies are exposed to them around the time of birth. Antibiotics are known to affect the gut microbiota of the babies, but the long-term effects of exposure to high-dose broad-spectrum antibiotics around the time of birth on allergy and immune-related diseases are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether or not in-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth compared with no pre-incisional antibiotic exposure increases the risk of (1) asthma and (2) eczema in children born by caesarean section. DESIGN: This was a controlled interrupted time series study. SETTING: The study took place in primary and secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: Children born in the UK during 2006-18 delivered by caesarean section were compared with a control cohort delivered vaginally. INTERVENTIONS: In-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Asthma and eczema in children in the first 5 years of life. Additional secondary outcomes, including other allergy-related conditions, autoimmune diseases, infections, other immune system-related diseases and neurodevelopmental conditions, were also assessed. DATA SOURCES: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care databases and the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Previously published linkage strategies were adapted to link anonymised data on mothers and babies in these databases. Duplicate practices contributing to both THIN and the CPRD databases were removed to create a THIN-CPRD data set. RESULTS: In the THIN-CPRD and HES data sets, records of 515,945 and 3,945,351 mother-baby pairs were analysed, respectively. The risk of asthma was not significantly higher in children born by caesarean section exposed to pre-incision antibiotics than in children whose mothers received post-cord clamping antibiotics, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.05) for diagnosis of asthma in primary care and an incidence rate ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.11) for asthma resulting in a hospital admission. We also did not find an increased risk of eczema, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to1.03) and an incidence rate ratio of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.29) for diagnosis in primary care and hospital admissions, respectively. LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to ascertain the exposure to pre-incision antibiotics at an individual level. The maximum follow-up of children was 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that the policy change from post-cord clamping to pre-incision prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean sections during 2006-18 had an impact on the incidence of asthma and eczema in early childhood in the UK. FUTURE WORK: There is a need for further research to investigate if pre-incision antibiotics have any impact on developing asthma and other allergy and immune-related conditions in older children. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as researchregistry3736. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 30. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


WHAT WAS THE QUESTION?: Women giving birth by caesarean section are at risk of developing infections (such as wound infections) and are offered antibiotics at the time of their operation to reduce this risk. In 2011, the national guidelines changed from recommending antibiotics after cord clamping to giving them before the operation to further reduce the risk of maternal infection. During birth, the newborn gut is colonised by microbes. Antibiotics given to the mother before caesarean section can reach the baby through the placenta and disrupt the normal microbes that colonise the gut. These microbes are believed to play a role in the development of the immune system and altering the normal development of these microbes has been linked to children developing allergic conditions, such as asthma and eczema. This study investigated whether or not giving antibiotics before the caesarean section had a longer-term impact on children's health. WHAT DID WE DO?: We used routine NHS information already collected by hospitals and general practitioners about women who gave birth in the UK between 2006 and 2018, and their children. We compared the risk of asthma, eczema and other health conditions in the first 5 years after birth in children born by caesarean section before and after the change in hospital policies. We also compared their health with children born vaginally. WHAT DID WE FIND?: We found that there was no increased risk of asthma or eczema for children born by caesarean section after the policy decision in 2011 to give the mother antibiotics before the operation. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?: The study findings provide further evidence for the current recommendation to give preventative antibiotics to women shortly before the caesarean section to reduce the overall risk of infections after birth.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Asma , Cesárea , Eczema , Hipersensibilidade , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eczema/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Reino Unido
13.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221101071, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caesarean section, a common obstetric surgical procedure, is a major predisposing factor for puerperal infections, requiring the need for antibiotic prophylaxis. Evidence suggests that single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis has comparable efficacy to multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis, but with a lower cost and risk of antibiotic resistance. However, single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean section is not generally used in many centres in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of single- versus multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-caesarean section infections. METHODOLOGY: This open-label, randomized controlled trial involved 162 consenting patients admitted for caesarean section (elective or emergency) at the Federal Medical Centre Keffi. They were distributed randomly into treatment arm A or B. Subjects in both arms received intravenous ceftriaxone (1 g) and metronidazole (500 mg) 30-60 min before incision; subjects in arm B received additional parenteral doses for 48 h and then cefuroxime 500 mg tablets every 12 h and metronidazole 400 mg tablets every 8 h for 5 days. The patients were monitored for 2 weeks for evidence of wound infection, febrile morbidity and clinical endometritis. RESULT: There was no statistical difference in the incidence of wound infection (6.6% versus 7.4%; p = .882) and febrile morbidity (11.8% versus 11.1%, p = .807). However, clinical endometritis (0.0% versus 6.1%, p = .028) was statistically significant with none reported in the single-dose arm. CONCLUSION: Single-dose ceftriaxone and metronidazole is as effective as multiple doses for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-caesarean section infections. Adoption of this approach in low-risk patients would reduce the cost of prophylactic antibiotics, workload for staff and antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Endometrite , Infecção Puerperal , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Ceftriaxona , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Endometrite/epidemiologia , Endometrite/etiologia , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Metronidazol , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Infecção Puerperal/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Puerperal/etiologia , Infecção Puerperal/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
14.
World J Urol ; 40(8): 2025-2031, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of different antibiotic prophylaxis regimens in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) candidates to trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB). METHODS: 143 outpatients with DM who underwent TRUSPB during the period 2018-2020 were selected from a cohort of 1150 patients in 3 different institutions. Exclusion criteria were allergies, concomitant anti-platelet therapies and uncontrolled DM. Different antibiotic prophylaxis regimens were adopted. Bacterial resistance levels to fluoroquinolones into the different communities were also collected. Univariable and multivariable binomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) testing the risk of infective complications' occurrence after adjusting for clinical covariates. RESULTS: Overall, DM patients were significantly associated with infective complications' occurrence (p < 0.001). No differences on the event of sepsis were found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Clinically relevant infections with fever > 37 °C were found in 9.1% and 1.5% (p < 0.001) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, respectively. Trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole and fluoroquinolones were six times more efficient than Cefixime in non-diabetic patients. Fluoroquinolones confirmed the same effect in diabetic patients although the level of resistance in the period of study decreased only from 56 to 46%. CONCLUSION: Fluoroquinolones were active in antibiotic prophylaxis of diabetic patients who had undergone to TRUSPB independently from the level of bacterial resistance found in the community. These results conflict with the recent European warning and support the Japanese and American guidelines on the topic.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Diabetes Mellitus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Biópsia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Reto/microbiologia
15.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 35: e1655, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730884

RESUMO

AIM: One of the ways to avoid infection after surgical procedures is through antibiotic prophylaxis. This occurs in cholecystectomies with certain risk factors for infection. However, some guidelines suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for all cholecystectomies, although current evidence does not indicate any advantage of this practice in the absence of risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of wound infection after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in these procedures. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 439 patients with chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, accounting for different risk factors for wound infection. RESULTS: There were 7 (1.59%) cases of wound infection. No antibiotic prophylaxis regimen significantly altered infection rates. There was a statistically significant correlation between wound infection and male patients (p=0.013). No other analyzed risk factor showed a statistical correlation with wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: The non-use of antibiotic prophylaxis and other analyzed factors did not present a significant correlation for the increase in the occurrence of wound infection. Studies with a larger sample and a control group without antibiotic prophylaxis are necessary.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(6): 1043-1049, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between timing of administration of adjunctive azithromycin for prophylaxis at unscheduled cesarean delivery and maternal infection and neonatal morbidity. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis in patients with singleton gestations who were undergoing unscheduled cesarean delivery. The primary exposure was the timing of initiation of the study drug (after skin incision or 0-30 minutes, more than 30-60 minutes, or more than 60 minutes before skin incision). The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, and other maternal infections occurring up to 6 weeks after cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes included composite neonatal morbidity, neonatal intensive care unit admission for longer than 72 hours, and neonatal sepsis. The association of azithromycin with outcomes was compared within each antibiotic timing group and presented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. A Breslow-Day homogeneity test was applied to assess differences in association by antibiotic timing. RESULTS: Of 2,013 participants, antibiotics were initiated after skin incision (median 3 minutes, range 0-229 minutes) in 269 (13.4%), 0-30 minutes before skin incision in 1,378 (68.5%), more than 30-60 minutes before skin incision in 270 (13.4%), and more than 60 minutes before skin incision (median 85 minutes, range 61-218 minutes) in 96 (4.8%). The RRs (95% CIs) of the infectious composite outcome for azithromycin compared with placebo were significantly lower for groups that initiated azithromycin after skin incision or within 1 hour before skin incision (after skin incision: RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.76; 0-30 minutes before: RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.89; more than 30-60 minutes before: 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.66). Risks were not significantly different in patients who received azithromycin more than 60 minutes before skin incision (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.10-3.36). Results were similar when endometritis and wound infections were analyzed separately. Neonatal outcomes were not significantly different for azithromycin compared with placebo across all timing groups. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive azithromycin administration up to 60 minutes before or at a median of 3 minutes after skin incision was associated with reduced risks of maternal composite postoperative infection in unscheduled cesarean deliveries. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01235546.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Endometrite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
18.
Evid Based Dent ; 23(2): 78-80, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750737

RESUMO

Design A multicentre, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial reported the early implant failure and postoperative infections of healthy or relatively healthy patients receiving 2 grams of amoxicillin one hour preoperatively from their scheduled dental implant placement. The registration of the study protocol in EudraCT and Clinical Trials.gov (#NCT03412305) followed the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the CONSORT guidelines for clinical trials.Case selection Several trial drugs expired before recruiting the intended 1,000 patients calculated based on previous trials reporting 2% and 5% early implant loss, with and without antibiotic prophylaxis. Thus, the study cohort (age >18 years, not planned for immediate loading, not requiring substantial bone augmentation, with an absence of severe diseases or immunosuppression or immunodeficiency) received 757 implants in total between November 2014 and April 2018, consisting of the prophylactic antibiotic therapy group (patients n = 235) and the placebo group (patients n = 235), with a fair sex distribution and a mean age of 57.4 ± 13.9 years. A computer-generated list of random numbers assisted the randomisation (test or control group) with a block-size six. For the clinical procedures, bone augmentation was limited to autogenous bone chips and bone debris. One- and two-stage surgery protocols were used in maxillary or mandibular single or multiple dental implants. The utilised implant systems were Straumann SLA (Straumann Implants, Switzerland), Astra Tech Dental Implant Systems (Dentsply Sirona, Sweden), Nobel Biocare (Sweden) and Southern Implants (Ltd, South Africa). Chlorhexidine 0.2% was prescribed preoperatively and/or postoperatively. Implant failure was the main measured outcome, whereas postoperative infections and adverse events were the secondary outcomes postoperatively assessed at 7-14-day (first follow-up) and 3-6-month (second follow-up) intervals.Data analysis The sample size calculation (type one error: 0.05; power: 80%) estimated 500 patients in each group. Proportional differences and relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Implant failure was the dependent variable for the multiple logistic regression (MLR) model examining the indicator variables smoking (yes or no), and age (<50 years; 50-64; and ≥65), as well as the independent variables bone augmentation (yes or no), number of implants (1, 2-3 and ≥4), and treatment group (antibiotic prophylaxis or placebo). P-values <0.05 or 95% CIs for ratios not including one were deemed statistically significant. The analyses were carried out using statistical software for data science (STATA).Results Overall, six (2.5%) and seven patients (3.0%) from the amoxicillin and placebo groups had implant failures, respectively. Thus, the intergroup difference was not significant (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.29-2.48, p = 0.75). Absolute risk reduction was 0.46%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 219. In other words, one in every 219 patients will benefit from receiving prophylactic antibiotics. In addition, no variable was associated with implant failure. Two (0.8%) and five patients (2.1%) from the amoxicillin and placebo groups, respectively, had postoperative infections at the first follow-up interval. Thus, the intergroup difference was not significant (RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.08-2.01, p = 0.25). Five (2.1%) and seven patients (3.0%) from the amoxicillin and placebo groups, respectively, had postoperative infections at the second follow-up interval. Thus, the intergroup difference was not significant (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.23-2.18, p = 0.54). No adverse events were reported.Conclusion Prophylactic antibiotic treatment for dental implant surgery to prevent implant loss may not be appropriate. Each dose must be prescribed based on evidence-based guidelines to avoid overuse and misuse of antibiotics promoting resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Implantes Dentários , Adulto , Idoso , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(28): 1-86, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a heart infection with a first-year mortality rate of ≈ 30%. It has long been thought that infective endocarditis is causally associated with bloodstream seeding with oral bacteria in ≈ 40-45% of cases. This theorem led guideline committees to recommend that individuals at increased risk of infective endocarditis should receive antibiotic prophylaxis before undergoing invasive dental procedures. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has never been a clinical trial to prove the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and there is no good-quality evidence to link invasive dental procedures with infective endocarditis. Many contend that oral bacteria-related infective endocarditis is more likely to result from daily activities (e.g. tooth brushing, flossing and chewing), particularly in those with poor oral hygiene. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if there is a temporal association between invasive dental procedures and subsequent infective endocarditis, particularly in those at high risk of infective endocarditis. DESIGN: This was a self-controlled, case-crossover design study comparing the number of invasive dental procedures in the 3 months immediately before an infective endocarditis-related hospital admission with that in the preceding 12-month control period. SETTING: The study took place in the English NHS. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals admitted to hospital with infective endocarditis between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2016 were eligible to participate. INTERVENTIONS: This was an observational study; therefore, there was no intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The outcome measure was the number of invasive and non-invasive dental procedures in the months before infective endocarditis-related hospital admission. DATA SOURCES: NHS Digital provided infective endocarditis-related hospital admissions data and dental procedure data were obtained from the NHS Business Services Authority. RESULTS: The incidence rate of invasive dental procedures decreased in the 3 months before infective endocarditis-related hospital admission (incidence rate ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.58). Further analysis showed that this was due to loss of dental procedure data in the 2-3 weeks before any infective endocarditis-related hospital admission. LIMITATIONS: We found that urgent hospital admissions were a common cause of incomplete courses of dental treatment and, because there is no requirement to record dental procedure data for incomplete courses, this resulted in a significant loss of dental procedure data in the 2-3 weeks before infective endocarditis-related hospital admissions. The data set was also reduced because of the NHS Business Services Authority's 10-year data destruction policy, reducing the power of the study. The main consequence was a loss of dental procedure data in the critical 3-month case period of the case-crossover analysis (immediately before infective endocarditis-related hospital admission), which did not occur in earlier control periods. Part of the decline in the rate of invasive dental procedures may also be the result of the onset of illness prior to infective endocarditis-related hospital admission, and part may be due to other undefined causes. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of dental procedure data in the critical case period immediately before infective endocarditis-related hospital admission makes interpretation of the data difficult and raises uncertainty over any conclusions that can be drawn from this study. FUTURE WORK: We suggest repeating this study elsewhere using data that are unafflicted by loss of dental procedure data in the critical case period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered as ISRCTN11684416. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 28. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the heart valves. Most people are at low risk of infective endocarditis. However, those with certain cardiac conditions are at moderate risk of infective endocarditis, and those with artificial or repaired heart valves, a history of infective endocarditis and certain congenital heart conditions are at high risk of infective endocarditis. In around 40­45% of cases, oral bacteria are the cause of infective endocarditis. For many years, those people at moderate or high risk of infective endocarditis were given antibiotics (antibiotic prophylaxis) before invasive dental procedures such as extractions to reduce the risk of infective endocarditis. There is no good-quality evidence, however, to support the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis, or the link between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis. Many believe that the oral bacteria that cause infective endocarditis are more likely to enter the blood during daily activities (e.g. toothbrushing, flossing or chewing), particularly in those with poor oral hygiene, than on the rare occasions when invasive dental procedures are performed. The aim of this study was to link English NHS data on infective endocarditis-related hospital admissions and dental treatments to determine if infective endocarditis is more likely in the weeks immediately after an invasive dental procedure than at any other time. When we linked the data sets and plotted the occurrence of different dental treatments over the year before infective endocarditis-related hospital admission, we detected a problem in the way that dental data were recorded. Unfortunately, there was a failure to collect dental procedure data when courses of treatment were incomplete. As one of the most common reasons for not completing a course of treatment was emergency admission to hospital, this meant that the number of dental procedures recorded decreased in the weeks before any emergency hospital admission. We have attempted to correct for this, but the data loss has affected the data quality. Although the data suggest an association between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis in individuals at high risk of infective endocarditis, the certainty of this association has been weakened.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Humanos , Medicina Estatal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...