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1.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(2): 333-342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217185

RESUMO

Background and aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially life-threatening infection in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Its prevention is vital to improve prognosis of cirrhotic patients. The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate what is the most efficacious and safest antibiotic prophylactic strategy. Methods: Studies were located by searching PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials evaluating primary or secondary spontaneous bacterial peritonitis prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with ascites were included. The selection of studies was performed in two stages: screening of titles and abstracts, and assessment of the full papers identified as relevant, considering the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted in a standardized way and synthesized qualitatively. Results: Fourteen studies were included. This systematic review demonstrated that daily norfloxacin is effective as a prophylactic antibiotic for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. Once weekly ciprofloxacin was not inferior to once daily norfloxacin, with good tolerance and no induced resistance. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and norfloxacin have similar efficacy for primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, however, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with an increased risk of developing an adverse event. Rifaximin was more effective than norfloxacin in the secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with a significant decrease in adverse events and mortality rate. Conclusions: Continuous long-term selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin is the most widely used prophylactic strategy in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, yet other equally effective and safe options are available.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Peritonite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Ascite , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Norfloxacino
2.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(14): 923-930, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160370

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study using prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of alternative antimicrobial prophylaxis agents on surgical site infections (SSIs) after spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although the use of alternative antimicrobial prophylaxis agents might have a negative effect on SSI prevention, their association with SSI risk in spine surgery remains unclear. METHODS: We used the registry data of consecutive patients undergoing spine surgery from April 2017 to January 2020 in four institutions participating in the University of Tokyo Spine Group. Before March 2019, all institutions used cefazolin for antimicrobial prophylaxis. After March 2019, the institutions used broad-spectrum beta-lactam agents as an alternative due to a cefazolin shortage in Japan. RESULTS: Among the 3841 enrolled patients (2289 males), 2024 received cefazolin and 1117 received alternative agents. The risk of reoperation for deep SSI within 30 days of spine surgery was significantly higher in the alternative antimicrobial prophylaxis agent group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.35; P = 0.014). In subgroup analyses, the SSI risk was significantly higher in the thoracolumbar surgery group (aOR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06-3.73; P = 0.03). A nonsignificant consistent trend was found in all other subgroups: posterior decompression (aOR 1.91; 95% CI, 0.86-4.21; P = 0.11); posterior fixation (aOR 2.05; 95% CI, 0.99-4.24; P = 0.05); and cervical spine surgery (aOR 2.30; 95% CI, 0.82-6.46; P = 0.11). CONCLUSION: Alternative antimicrobial prophylaxis agents increased the risk of reoperation for SSI after spine surgery compared with cefazolin. Our study supports the current practice of using first-generation cephalosporins as first-line antimicrobial prophylaxis agents in spine surgery as recommended in multiple guidelines.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/provisão & distribuição , Cefazolina/provisão & distribuição , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 322, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotics in dentistry as prophylaxis and treatment is frequent. Their misuse has led to a major public health problem globally known as antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to assess the pattern of antibiotic prescription and its prophylactic use for systemic conditions. Besides, this study evaluated the awareness and adherence to antibiotic prescription guidelines and antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines along with awareness of antibiotic resistance across pediatric and general dentists. METHODS: An overall of 378 pediatric and general dentists meeting the required eligibility criteria, fulfilled a pre-designed validated questionnaire. Data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: A significant statistical difference was found among the pediatric and general dentists regarding antibiotics prescription for most of the oral conditions where Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic among the two groups (53% pediatric dentist and 52% general dentist). The majority of pediatric and general dentists, on the other hand, were aware of antibiotic resistance and prescribing recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed a tendency to overprescribe and overuse antibiotics in certain dental conditions among the participants. The vast majority of dentists, especially general dentists do not have adherence to professional guidelines for antibiotics prescription in children despite their awareness of antibiotic resistance and prescription guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Egito , Humanos , Prescrições
4.
West Afr J Med ; 38(6): 566-570, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of prophylactic antibiotics in mesh repair of inguinal hernia is controversial and often based on institutional policies. Surgical site infection rate from earlier studies in Nigeria justifies the continued use of prophylactic antibiotics during hernia repair. With increased use of antibiotics comes the challenge of antibiotic resistance and toxicity. The use of antimicrobial coated suture may help avoid these challenges but its efficacy needs to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To compare Triclosan coated suture with intravenous antibiotics for the repair of inguinal hernia with mesh. METHODS: Patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernia undergoing mesh repair were randomized to either have intravenous antibiotics administered for prophylaxis or to have wound closure with Triclosan coated Vicryl 2/0 suture. Post operatively, wound infection rates were compared between the two groups. Follow up was for 1 year. RESULTS: We studied 49 patients with 59 hernias with a mean age of 53 years. Hernias were solitary in 75% of cases, the majority of which were right sided, while 25% were bilateral. There were 25 patients with 32 hernias in the Intravenous antibiotic group (Group A) and 24 patients with 27 hernias in the Triclosan suture group (Group B). Wound grades were similar between the two groups with one patient in the Triclosan group confirmed to have wound infection (4.2%) and none in the Intravenous antibiotics group (p=0.27). Wound infection was of the superficial type which resolved with wound care within 1 month. CONCLUSION: Triclosan coated suture may be safely used as an alternative to intravenous antibiotics for the mesh repair of inguinal hernia. Further studies are required to validate this finding.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal , Triclosan , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Telas Cirúrgicas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Suturas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53960

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To map the current evidence on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) administration and identify knowledge gaps in the literature available in this field. Methods. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos, and Health Systems Evidence databases were searched from January 2015 to March 2020 for systematic reviews published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Eighty-three systematic reviews were included, the quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR 2, and data were extracted for all primary outcomes. Perioperative antibiotic administration, the use of first generation cephalosporins, and surgical site infection (SSI) were the most commonly reported for timing of antibiotic administration, drug class, and primary outcome, respectively. Findings showed that, overall, SAP may reduce SSIs compared with a placebo or with no SAP. Results suggested that intraoperative SAP may lower SSI, while postoperative SAP did not show a statistically significant difference. Conclusions. Findings have confirmed the role of SAP in reducing postoperative SSI across various surgeries and do not support the use of antibiotics after surgery to prevent infections. The findings of this scoping review have enhanced the evidence base that can inform decisions regarding the development of global guidelines for the prevention of SSI. However, high-quality systematic reviews and research reflecting diverse populations and settings are needed.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Trazar un mapa de la evidencia actual sobre la administración de profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica e identificar lagunas de conocimiento en la bibliografía disponible en este campo. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos y Health Systems Evidence desde enero del 2015 hasta marzo del 2020 para obtener revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en inglés, francés, portugués y español. Resultados. Se incluyeron ochenta y tres revisiones sistemáticas, se evaluó la calidad de las revisiones con AMSTAR 2 y se extrajeron los datos de todos los resultados primarios. Se notificó con mayor frecuencia la administración de antibióticos perioperatorios, el uso de cefalosporinas de primera generación y la infección de sitio quirúrgico en relación con los tiempos de administración de los antibióticos, el tipo de medicamento y el resultado principal, respectivamente. Los resultados demostraron que, en términos generales, la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica puede reducir la infección de sitio quirúrgico en comparación con un placebo o la falta de profilaxis. Los resultados sugirieron que la profilaxis antibiótica transoperatoria puede reducir la infección de sitio quirúrgico, si bien la profilaxis antibiótica posoperatoria no mostró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones. Los resultados confirman la función de la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica en la reducción de la infección posoperatoria de sitio quirúrgico en diversas operaciones quirúrgicas y no avalan el uso de antibióticos después de la cirugía para prevenir infecciones. Los resultados de esta revisión exploratoria han contribuido a la base empírica que puede fundamentar decisiones relacionadas con la formulación de directrices mundiales para la prevención de infección de sitio quirúrgico. Sin embargo, se necesitan revisiones sistemáticas e investigación de calidad que representen poblaciones y entornos diversos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Mapear as evidências atuais em administração de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica e identificar as lacunas de conhecimento na literatura existente nesta área. Métodos. Foram realizadas buscas nos repositórios PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos e Health Systems Evidence de janeiro de 2015 a março de 2020, limitadas a revisões sistemáticas publicadas em espanhol, francês, inglês e português. Resultados. Oitenta e três revisões sistemáticas foram incluídas. A qualidade das revisões foi avaliada com o uso do instrumento AMSTAR 2. Foram extraídos dados para todos os desfechos primários. O período perioperatório foi o momento de aplicação da antibioticoprofilaxia mais comumente relatado; cefalosporinas de primeira geração, a classe terapêutica mais comumente utilizada; e infecção do sítio cirúrgico (ISC), o desfecho primário mais comumente descrito. Os achados desta revisão demonstram que, em geral, a antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica pode reduzir a ocorrência de ISC quando comparada ao placebo ou à não realização de antibioticoprofilaxia. Os resultados sugerem que a antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica transoperatória pode reduzir a ocorrência de ISC, embora a profilaxia pós-operatória não tenha demonstrado diferença estatisticamente significativa. Conclusões. Este estudo confirma o papel da antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica em reduzir ISC pós-operatória em diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos, mas não respalda o uso de antibióticos no pós-operatório para prevenir infecções. Os resultados desta revisão de escopo reforçam o corpo de evidências para subsidiar decisões ao se elaborar diretrizes globais para a prevenção de ISC. Porém, são necessárias revisões sistemáticas de alta qualidade e pesquisas em populações e cenários diversos.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242118

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Tosse/sangue , Tosse/terapia , Tosse/virologia , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/terapia , Febre/virologia , Seguimentos , Geografia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 401, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are one of the most serious complication of arthroplasty. The management of PJI needs a multidisciplinary collaboration between orthopaedic surgeon, infectious disease specialist and microbiologist. In France, the management of PJI is organized around reference centres (CRIOACs). Our main objective was to perform an audit through a questionnaire survey based on clinical cases, to evaluate how French physicians manage PJI. Eligible participants were all physicians involved in care of patients presenting a PJI. Physicians could answer individually, or collectively during a multidisciplinary team meeting dedicated to PJI. The survey consisted as three questionnaires organized in a total of six clinical cases. RESULTS: Answers from the CRIOACs to the three questionnaires were 92, 77, and 53%. Between 32 and 39% of respondents did not administer antibiotic prophylaxis despite positive S. aureus pre-operative documentation. One-stage exchange strategy was widely preferred in all clinical cases, with no difference between CRIOACs and other centres. Rifampicin was prescribed for S. aureus PJI, in a situation with (90-92%) or without any prosthesis (70%). There was no consensus for the total antibiotic regimen duration, with prescriptions from six to 12 weeks for a majority of respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical strategy for the management of PJI was homogenous with a preference for a one-stage exchange strategy. Medical management was more heterogenous, which reflects the heterogeneity of those infections and difficulties to perform studies with strong conclusions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , França , Hospitais , Humanos , Médicos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(8): 1089-1097, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal liver disease and requires Kasai portoenterostomy. Many patients develop postoperative cholangitis, resulting in a poor prognosis. The preventive strategy of antibiotics is empirical and lacks a standard regimen. We aimed to analyze the effect of different durations of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics against post-Kasai cholangitis. STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, open-labeled, randomized clinical trial was performed from June 2016 to August 2017. One hundred and eighty BA patients were recruited and randomized into a short-term (n = 90) and a long-term (n = 90) treatment group, and prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were used for 7 versus 14 days, respectively. The primary outcome was the overall cholangitis incidence within 6-months post-Kasai portoenterostomy. The secondary outcomes included cholangitis incidence within 1 and 3 months post-Kasai portoenterostomy, the onset and average episodes of cholangitis, jaundice clearance rate, native liver survival rate, and adverse events within 6-months post-Kasai portoenterostomy. RESULTS: The cholangitis incidence within 6-months post-Kasai in the short-term group was similar to the long-term group (62% vs. 70%, p = 0.27) with intention-to-treat and pre-protocol analysis. There was no significant difference in jaundice clearance rate or native liver survival rate between the two groups. However, the percentage of early onset (61% vs. 38%, p = 0.02) and average episodes (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 episodes, p = 0.01) of cholangitis were lower in the long-term group. CONCLUSION: Long-term intravenous antibiotics can be replaced by the short-term regimen in the general protection against post-Kasai cholangitis.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Atresia Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Colangite/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravenosa , Atresia Biliar/epidemiologia , Colangite/epidemiologia , Colangite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia/etiologia , Masculino , Portoenterostomia Hepática/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 420, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) prevents surgical site infections (SSI). In orthopaedic surgery, the use of prolonged SAP (PSAP) has been reported in daily routine, despite guidelines advising against it. Therefore, we asked: What is the proportion of PSAP use, defined as administration of SAP ≥24 h after elective orthopaedic surgery? Are there patient- and surgery-related predictors of PSAP use? METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis investigated 1292 patients who underwent elective orthopaedic surgery including total joint arthroplasties at one Swiss centre between 2015 and 2017. Patient comorbidities, surgical characteristics and occurrence of SSI at 90 days in PSAP group were compared to the SAP group (< 24 h post-operative). RESULTS: PSAP use was 12% (155 of 1292). Patient-related factors associated with PSAP compared to the SAP group included older age (63 vs. 58y; p < 0.001), higher BMI (29 vs. 27 kg/m2; p < 0.001), ASA classification ≥3 (31% vs. 17%; p < 0.001) and lung disease (17% vs. 9%; p = 0.002). Surgery-related factors associated with PSAP were use of prosthetics (62% vs. 45%; p < 0.001), surgery of the knee (65% vs. 25%; p < 0.001), longer surgery duration (87 vs. 68 min; p < 0.001) and presence of drains (90% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). All four SSI occurred in the SAP group (0 vs. 4; p = 1.0). Surgeons administered PSAP with varying frequencies; proportions ranged from 0 to 33%. CONCLUSION: PSAP use and SSI proportions were lower than reported in the literature. Several patient- and surgery-related factors associated with PSAP use were identified and some were potentially modifiable. Also, experienced surgeons seemed to implement differing approaches regarding the duration of SAP administration.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
10.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 13-17, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053300

RESUMO

AIMS: Infection complicating primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common reason for revision surgery, hospital readmission, patient morbidity, and mortality. Increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particular concern. The use of vancomycin as prophylactic agent alone or in combination with cephalosporin has not demonstrated lower periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates, partly due to timing and dosing of intravenous (IV) vancomycin administration, which have proven important factors in effectiveness. This is a retrospective review of a consecutive series of primary TKAs examining incidence of PJI, adverse reactions, and complications using IV versus intraosseous (IO) vancomycin at 30-day, 90-day, and one-year follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,060 patients who underwent TKA between May 2016 to July 2020 was performed. There were 572 patients in the IV group and 488 in the IO group, with minimal 30 days of follow-up. Patients were followed up at regularly scheduled intervals (two, six, and 12 weeks). No differences between groups for age, sex, BMI, or baseline comorbidities existed. The IV group received an IV dose of 15 mg/kg vancomycin given over an hour preceding skin incision. The IO group received a 500 mg dose of vancomycin mixed in 150 ml of normal saline, injected into proximal tibia after tourniquet inflation, before skin incision. All patients received an additional dose of first generation cephalosporin. Evaluation included preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine values, tourniquet time, and adverse reactions attributable to vancomycin. RESULTS: Incidence of PJI with minimum 90-day follow-up was 1.4% (eight knees) in the IV group and 0.22% (one knee) in IO group (p = 0.047). This preliminary report demonstrated an reduction in the incidence of infection in TKA using IO vancomycin combined with a first-generation cephalosporin. While the study suffers from limitations of a retrospective, multi-surgeon investigation, early findings are encouraging. CONCLUSION: IO delivery of vancomycin after tourniquet inflation is a safe and effective alternative to IV administration, eliminating the logistical challenges of timely dosing. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):13-17.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25661, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950943

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To study the clinical effects of Diding Oral Medicine as an alternative to preventative antibiotics in perioperative hemorrhoids.From August 2017 to February 2018, a total of 214 patients who were treated with external exfoliation and internal ligation of mixed hemorrhoids in our hospital were divided into the control group and experimental group by way of stratified random (107 cases in each group). Patients in the control group were given antibiotics preventatively before operation, while patients in the experimental group took Diding Oral Medicine before operation, and the white blood cell count, neutrophil count, wound recovery, pain score, anal bulge score, and pathogen culture of wound secretions were compared between the 2 groups.There was no significant difference in white blood cell count and neutrophil count between both groups before and after operation (P > .05). The wound seepage score, wound edema score, and wound area score in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group, and the wound healing in the experimental group was shorter than that in the control group (all P < .05). The pain score and anal bulge score of the experimental group were decreased significantly compared to the control group (P < .05). In addition, the detection rate of pathogenic bacteria in the experimental group was downregulated significantly compared to the control group (P < .05).The Diding Oral Medicine has prominent bacteriostatic and antibacterial effects on patients with hemorrhoids during perioperative period, and promotes wound healing, reduces pain stress, and anal bulge.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Hemorroidas/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cefazolina , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metronidazol , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Período Perioperatório , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032692

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Tosse/sangue , Tosse/terapia , Tosse/virologia , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/terapia , Febre/virologia , Seguimentos , Geografia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25448, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011022

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Posaconazole prophylaxis is effective in decreasing the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the use of antifungal prophylaxis varies in real-life practice, and only a small number of studies have compared the incidence of IFDs between those receiving posaconazole prophylaxis and those without prophylaxis. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of IFDs between patients with AML who received posaconazole prophylaxis and those without antifungal prophylaxis.We reviewed the medical records of adult AML patients who underwent induction chemotherapy between June 2016 and October 2019 at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, South Korea), where posaconazole prophylaxis is not administered in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms that may hinder sufficient absorption of oral prophylactic agents, and in patients with abnormal liver functions considering the possible exacerbation of adverse events. Patients who received posaconazole prophylaxis for ≥7 days were included in the prophylaxis group. Clinical characteristics and outcomes including the incidence of IFDs were compared between the 2 groups.Of the 247 patients with AML who underwent induction chemotherapy, 162 (66%) received posaconazole prophylaxis and 85 (34%) did not receive any prophylaxis. The incidence of proven/probable IFD was significantly higher in the no prophylaxis group than in the prophylaxis group (9.4% [8/85] vs 2.5% [4/162], P = .03). Of the 8 cases of IFDs in the no prophylaxis group, 7 were mold infections and 1 was invasive candidiasis. Of the 4 cases of IFDs in the prophylaxis group, 3 were mold infections and 1 was invasive candidiasis. Patients with posaconazole prophylaxis less frequently received therapeutic antifungal therapy (2.5% vs 9.4%, P = .03) and had a longer median, duration from chemotherapy to antifungal therapy compared with the no prophylaxis group (18 vs 11 days, P < .01). The rate of IFD-related mortality was similar between the 2 groups (0.6% vs 0%, P > .99).Patients with AML who received posaconazole prophylaxis had a lower incidence of breakthrough IFDs compared with those who did not receive any prophylaxis. Invasive mold infection was the most common IFD regardless of antifungal prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Quimioterapia de Indução , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/imunologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Seul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 588-597, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries are at increased risk of TB infection due to increased exposures to TB patients and inadequate implementation of TB infection prevention and control (TB IPC) measures in health settings. While various guidelines on TB IPC exist, there is little understanding of the content of these guidelines, whether they are relevant to the context and are being appropriately implemented in low-and middle-income high TB burden countries. This study aimed to critically examine the implementation of TB IPC guidelines, along with factors impacting TB IPC implementation in health settings in seven high TB burden countries. METHODS: The WHO 2009 and national level TB IPC guidelines and the published literature from seven TB high burden countries were reviewed and relevant information extracted. Eleven key-stakeholders from the case study countries were interviewed to elucidate further facilitators and barriers impacting TB IPC guidelines implementation. RESULTS: Our study identified that all the study countries adopted the WHO 2009 guidelines with no or minimal modifications for the local context. Therefore, the subsequent translation of the TB IPC recommendations into practice has been limited and impaired in some settings. Poor infrastructure, inadequate space for isolation, lack of TB IPC training, limited supply of personal protective equipment, the discomfort of using N95 respirators, and a high number of TB patients were some of the factors impacting the implementation of TB IPC guidelines. CONCLUSION: The implementation of TB IPC guidelines in all seven countries was limited. It was affected by the diverse context where each of the countries and each of the facilities had a different health infrastructure and TB disease burdens. The findings warrant re-assessment of the current context prevailing in these high TB burden countries and subsequent revisions of national guidelines based to account for local context and evidence.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
16.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(3): 1-6, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168179

RESUMO

Antibiotics are one of the most widely used classes of drugs within hospitals in the UK. They have a wide range of uses within all surgical specialties, both as preoperative prophylaxis and for treatment of acute surgical conditions. Antimicrobial resistance has increasingly been seen as a major issue, as the production of new antibiotics has decreased and overall use worldwide has increased. With the COVID-19 pandemic increasing concerns about antimicrobial resistance, there is an ever-increasing need for action. This article examines the particular challenges of antibiotic stewardship in surgical departments within the UK, and outlines possible solutions for improving adherence and reducing the risk of antimicrobial resistance in the future.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Apendicite/terapia , Colecistite/terapia , Diverticulite/terapia , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
17.
Aktuelle Urol ; 52(3): 255-259, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860479

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections. A significant proportion of urinary tract infections recur, which leads to impairments in patients' physical intimacy, social contacts and ability to work. The standardised ACSS questionnaire can provide help in establishing a diagnosis and assessing the course of the disease. In addition to general education and counselling on risk factors for urinary tract infections, non-antibiotic treatment options are particularly important for reducing recurrence. This aims to prevent the development of resistance to antibiotics and their undesirable side-effects. Non-antibiotic strategies most notably include personal counselling with communication of behavioural recommendations, immunoprophylaxis, phytotherapeutics and local oestrogen substitution. However, in cases of high patient suffering, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be considered after due deliberation. In summary, individual counselling should take place and treatment should be given in a multimodal therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Infecções Urinárias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recidiva , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
19.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2876-2885, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection causes considerable disease burden in the Netherlands. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) prevents early-onset disease (EOD), but has no effect on late-onset disease (LOD). A potential maternal GBS vaccine could prevent both EOD and LOD by conferring immunity in neonates. OBJECTIVE: Explore under which circumstances maternal vaccination against GBS would be cost-effective as an addition to, or replacement for the current risk factor-based IAP prevention strategy in the Netherlands. METHODS: We assessed the maximum cost-effective price per dose of a trivalent (serotypes Ia, Ib, and III) and hexavalent (additional serotypes II, IV, and V) GBS vaccine in addition to, or as a replacement for IAP. To project the prevented costs and disease burden, a decision tree model was developed to reflect neonatal GBS disease and long-term health outcomes among a cohort based on 169,836 live births in the Netherlands in 2017. RESULTS: Under base-case conditions, maternal immunization with a trivalent vaccine would gain 186 QALYs and prevent more than €3.1 million in health care costs when implemented in addition to IAP. Immunization implemented as a replacement for IAP would gain 88 QALYs compared to the current prevention strategy, prevent €1.5 million in health care costs, and avoid potentially ~ 30,000 IAP administrations. The base-case results correspond to a maximum price of €58 per dose (vaccine + administration costs; using a threshold of €20,000/QALY). Expanding the serotype coverage to a hexavalent vaccine would only have a limited additional impact on the cost-effectiveness in the Netherlands. CONCLUSIONS: A maternal GBS vaccine could be cost-effective when implemented in addition to the current risk factor-based IAP prevention strategy in the Netherlands. Discontinuation of IAP would save costs and prevent antibiotic use, however, is projected to lead to a lower health gain compared to vaccination in addition to IAP.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vacinação
20.
West Afr J Med ; 38(4): 398-404, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904295

RESUMO

Background: The need for restrictive use of antibiotics has become a contemporary issue, hence the drive for reduction in the duration of perioperative antibiotic use without compromising care. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of short course versus long course antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section. Methodology: This was a randomised controlled study in which I66 patients admitted for elective or emergency caesarean section at National Hospital Abuja were randomly allocated into two parallel treatment groups in 1:1 allocation ratio. The study group received intravenous dose of 1g of ceftriaxone with 500mg of metronidazole stat post umbilical cord clamping. While the control group received post-operative doses of intravenous ceftriaxone 1g 12 hourly with 500mg of metronidazole eight hourly for 24 hours, then oral cefuroxime 500mg twice daily and metronidazole 400mg thrice daily for five days. Outcome measures included febrile morbidity, wound infection and clinical endometritis. Data was analysed with SPSS version 23. Results: The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were comparable in both groups. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of febrile morbidity (0% vs. 1.3%, P=1.000) and wound infection (12.2% vs. 12.8%, P=0.902, RR=0.902, 95% CI 0.409-2.203) in the study and control groups. There was no case of clinical endometritis in both groups. The difference in the cost of antibiotics was however statistically significant (t=26.847, P=0.001). Conclusion: Short course antibiotics has comparable efficacy to long course antibiotics in the prevention of post caesarean section infectious morbidity.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cesárea , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Metronidazol , Gravidez , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
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