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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30335, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107558

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spontaneous intramural small-bowel hematoma (SISBH) is a rare complication of anticoagulation therapy. Presentation of SISBH can vary from mild abdominal pain to an acute abdomen. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department because of severe abdominal pain for 1 day. She had a medical history of coronary artery disease and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and was receiving anticoagulation therapy with warfarin for 3 years. DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomography disclosed disproportional dilatation of the segmental small bowel and near-total obstruction of the intestinal lumen at the level of the jejunum, indicating an acute abdomen. INTERVENTIONS: We performed laparoscopic exploration and found a segmental distal jejunum was tense, heavy, firm, and discolored with a blue hue. Histopathological examination of the resected jejunum revealed diffuse hemorrhage and necrosis at the mucosa and submucosal layers, indicating SISBH. OUTCOMES: The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged in a relatively stable condition. LESSONS: Warfarin-induced SISBH presenting as an acute abdomen is an emergency condition that needs early diagnosis and timely management. Surgical intervention may be indicated for intestinal obstruction, ischemia, perforation, peritonitis, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo , Varfarina , Abdome Agudo/induzido quimicamente , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e29997, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature now exists examining associations between social determinants of health (SDOH) and adverse outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation; however, little is available on anticoagulant prescriptions and the impact of SDOH. PURPOSE: Evaluate the impact of SDOH on anticoagulant prescriptions in patients with atrial fibrillation. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase databases up to January 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Noninterventional studies were included if they reported associations between at least 1 of 14 SDOH domains and anticoagulant prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation. Two investigators independently screened and collected data. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators independently screened and collected data. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses using random-effect models evaluated associations between SDOH and receiving an anticoagulant prescription. We included 13 studies, 11 of which were included in meta-analyses that reported on the impact of 9 of the 14 SDOH included in the search. Pooled estimates indicate a 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75, 0.97) lower odds of receiving anticoagulant prescriptions among Black compared to non-Black patients (reported in 6 studies); 0.42 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.55) lower odds of receiving anticoagulant prescriptions among patients with mental illness compared to those without mental illness (2 studies); and a 0.64 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.96) lower likelihood of receiving oral anticoagulant prescription among employed patients compared to unemployed patients (2 studies). LIMITATIONS: SDOH lack consistent definitions and measures within the electronic health record. CONCLUSION: The literature reports on only half of the SDOH domains we searched for, indicating that many SDOH are not routinely assessed. Second, social needs impact the decision to prescribe anticoagulants, confirming the need to screen for and address social needs in the clinical setting to support clinicians in providing guideline concordant care to their patients. REGISTRATION: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
3.
Wounds ; 34(8): E51-E56, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of NSTIs can result in complex wounds, and closure of these wounds is often difficult or complicated. Although surgical factors influencing mortality and LOS have been well described, little is known about patient, wound, and surgical factors associated with time to closure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify patient, wound, and surgical factors that may influence time to closure of NSTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of patients who presented to a tertiary care center over an 11-year period (2007-2017) with an NSTI requiring surgical closure were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. The average time to closure was 31.1 days, with an average of 4.8 procedures. Most patients were middle aged (mean, 50.3 years; range, 20-81 years), immunocompetent, and nondiabetic upon admission. Closure was achieved mainly with autograft. The percent TBSA was described in 19 cases (40%). There was no association between substance use (alcohol, smoking, or other), anticoagulant medication use, or medical comorbidities and time to closure. On multivariable analysis, flap closure (P =.02) and increased number of surgical procedures (P =.003)-the latter reflecting the need for an increased number of debridements-were associated with increased time to closure. CONCLUSIONS: The data in this study suggest that use of local flaps for wound closure and increased number of surgical procedures (particularly debridements) may be predictors of time to closure in patients with an NSTI.


Assuntos
Infecção dos Ferimentos , Anticoagulantes , Desbridamento/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/cirurgia
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 406, 2022 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-retrieved inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) is associated with some severe complications, such as filter thrombosis. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the outcome of rivaroxaban for the prevention of filter thrombosis in patients with non-retrieved IVCF. METHODS: The study based on the VTE registry databases was limited to patients with non-retrieved IVCF treated at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2012 to December 2017. Outcomes included filter thrombosis, total bleeding events, death. RESULTS: A total of 202 patients were enrolled in the study and divided into rivaroxaban group and warfarin group. Mean follow-up period of the two groups was 57.4 ± 20.8 and 62.2 ± 23.0 months, respectively. In risk factors for VTE, transient factors (P = 0.008) and history of VTE (P = 0.028) were statistically different between the two groups. A total of 13 (6.4%) patients developed filter complications, of which 4 (3.5%) and 5 (5.7%) patients in rivaroxaban group and warfarin group developed filter thrombosis, respectively, without significant difference (P = 0.690). The total bleeding events in rivaroxaban group, including major bleeding and clinically relevant and non-major (CRNM) bleeding, were significantly lower than that in warfarin group (P = 0.005). Adjusting for hypertension, transient risk factors, history of VTE and cancer, no differences in the hazard ratio for outcomes were notable. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to perform a concomitant anticoagulation in patients with non-retrieved filters. Rivaroxaban can be an alternative anticoagulant option for the prevention of filter thrombosis.


Assuntos
Trombose , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia , Filtros de Veia Cava/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Varfarina
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 949356, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105822

RESUMO

Background: Behçet's disease (BD) is a unique autoimmune chronic systemic vasculitis that affects veins and arteries of all sizes. BD can lead to recurrent vascular events, especially venous thrombosis, with an incidence rate of 40%, or pseudoaneurysms formed under long-term inflammatory reaction or iatrogenic stimulation. BD-related risk factors promote endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation and overactivation of tissue factors leading to mural inflammatory thrombi. Thrombosis may be the first clinical manifestation of BD. Case presentation: A 32-year-old man complaining of progressive swelling and pain in the right lower extremity for 30 days was initially diagnosed with "venous thrombosis of the right lower extremity," using color Doppler ultrasonography. Patient underwent inferior vena cava filter placement combined with deep vein angioplasty of the right lower extremity and catheter-directed urokinase thrombolysis. Postoperative oral anticoagulant therapy was administered. However, the patient was readmitted 20 days later for pulsatile pain in the right groin. Prior medical history included 4 years of repeated oral and perineal ulcers, and 2 months of blurred vision. Abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed rupture of the right common iliac artery (CIA) and left internal iliac artery (IIA), complicated by a pseudoaneurysm. Based on the clinical manifestations and other auxiliary examination results, the patient was re-diagnosed with "BD combined with deep venous thrombosis of the right lower extremity and an iliac artery pseudoaneurysm." Stent implantation was performed for iliac artery pseudoaneurysm after symptoms were controlled with timely immunosuppressive therapy. After endovascular treatment, the patient underwent continued immunosuppressive therapy and dynamic reexaminations of abdominal CTA, which revealed that a small amount of contrast agent at the stent in the right CIA continued to flow into the cavity of the pseudoaneurysm; in addition, the size of the pseudoaneurysm was gradually increasing. Therefore, the patient underwent a second stent implantation for iliac artery pseudoaneurysm, and the condition improved further. Conclusion: The importance of early diagnosis of BD should be recognized, and the choice of interventional and surgical procedures should be carefully evaluated, as this may trigger further damage to vascular access in BD patients with aneurysm.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma , Síndrome de Behçet , Trombose Venosa , Adulto , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/etiologia , Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Anticoagulantes , Síndrome de Behçet/complicações , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Behçet/terapia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Dor , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/terapia
8.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221124902, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended over single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The compilation of evidence has focused on the efficacy of DAPT to limit risk of graft occlusion, however the safety, especially in the on-pump CABG population, is less well described. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of DAPT versus SAPT after on-pump CABG. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients following isolated on-pump CABG between January 2012 and December 2019 not on oral anticoagulation at discharge. The primary endpoint was occurrence of a composite bleeding event identified by pre-specified ICD codes. Secondary endpoints consisted of 30-day and 1-year mortalities along with individual bleeding components. RESULTS: Of the 2341 patients included 1250 patients were in the SAPT arm and 1091 patients in the DAPT arm. The study populations differed by age, prior MI, PAD, and CHF status/stage. Bleeding events occurred in a total of 70 patients (3.0%), with 36 patients (2.9%) in the SAPT arm and 34 patients (3.1%) in the DAPT arm (P = .74). 30-day (SAPT 0.7% vs DAPT 0.4%) and 1-year (SAPT 3.3% vs DAPT 2.3%) mortality were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent bleed event was in the gastrointestinal tract. CONCLUSION: In this study, DAPT was not associated with an increase in composite bleeding compared to SAPT. This study could reduce the barrier to prescribing of DAPT given previous efficacy data.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 112(2)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115030

RESUMO

Plantar vein thrombosis (PVT) is an atypical cause of plantar heel pain and is seldom reported in the literature. We present a unique, rare case report of a patient exhibiting plantar heel and medial arch pain caused by thrombosis in the plantar medial branch of the posterior tibial vein. The diagnosis was made by means of magnetic resonance imaging, showing lobulated hypointensity in the medial plantar vein, consistent with a PVT. In this article, we provide an overview of the clinical signs of PVT, which is most commonly plantar heel pain. Furthermore, we discuss ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging as diagnostic modalities, and conservative treatment options, including anti-inflammatory medications, anticoagulation therapy, and compression therapy. As with other types of venous thromboembolism, this condition must also be diagnosed without delay to avoid potential complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé , Trombose Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Calcanhar , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 305, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with increased risk of thromboembolic events (TE) adding to the morbidity and mortality. International guidelines recommend prophylactic anticoagulation in patients with NS and high risk of TE, but no studies have identified the optimal type of anticoagulation in NS. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) by analyzing the thromboembolic and bleeding events in NS patients prescribed DOAC as primary prophylaxis to prevent TE or as treatment for TE occurring in relation to NS. METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective study including patients with NS, a plasma albumin less than 25 g/L and prophylactic anticoagulation treatment with DOAC at the Department of Renal Medicine at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from July 2016 to June 2021. Patients treated with DOAC as thromboprophylaxis for other indications than NS were excluded. Baseline characteristics and outcomes, including TE, bleeding and other adverse effects associated with DOAC were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: We identified 268 patients treated with DOAC of which 21 patients with NS were included in the study. Nineteen patients were prescribed DOAC as thromboprophylaxis and two patients received DOAC due to previous TE, which was considered associated with the NS. The type of DOAC prescribed was apixaban (n = 10) and rivaroxaban (n = 11). No patients experienced TE during DOAC treatment, while five patients had a minor bleeding episode. Patients who experienced bleeding episodes were older (median 62 vs 51 years), more often female (80%) and had been on DOAC for a longer period (204 days vs 47 days). Neither the HAS-BLED score nor GN-risk-score predicted the risk of minor bleedings in this population. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, no new TE and only minor bleeding complications were observed among adult NS patients treated with DOAC.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Síndrome Nefrótica , Tromboembolia Venosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Nefrótica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 78: 117-122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the hypothesis that mental health conditions (MHCs) are associated with higher risk of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: The registry-based FinACAF study covers all patients with AF diagnosed during 2007-2018 in Finland. MHCs of interest were depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and any MHC. The outcomes were first-ever gastrointestinal, intracranial, and any bleeding event. RESULTS: We identified 205,019 patients (50.9% female; mean age 72.3 [standard deviation 13.4] years) with incident AF without prior bleeding, and the prevalence of any MHC was 6.1%. Any MHC, depression, and anxiety disorder were associated with the risk of any bleeding (adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) 1.19 [1.12-1.27], 1.21 [1.13-1.30], and 1.21 [1.08-1.35], respectively). Additionally, any MHC and depression were associated with the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding and anxiety disorder with gastrointestinal bleeding. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were not associated with risk of bleeding. Use of oral anticoagulants was associated with the risk of any bleeding (adjusted HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.21-1.28)]), and this association was similar in patients with and without MHCs. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors were not associated with bleeding risk. CONCLUSIONS: MHCs are associated with a higher risk of bleeding in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/induzido quimicamente , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
13.
CMAJ ; 194(35): E1198-E1208, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits and harms of anticoagulants for people near the end of life are not well understood, nor is it known what proportion of patients discontinue these medications. We aimed to characterize anticoagulant use in older recipients of home palliative care and describe patient and provider characteristics, as well as outcomes associated with anticoagulant discontinuation in this group. METHODS: Using linked administrative health databases, we conducted a population-based cohort study of patients aged 66 years and older who initiated home palliative care in Ontario from 2010 to 2018. We calculated the prevalence of anticoagulant use. We used multilevel logistic regression models to assess patient (e.g., sociodemographic, comorbidities) and physician (e.g., demographic, training, practice) factors associated with anticoagulant discontinuation after initiation of home palliative care. We defined discontinuation as either primary (no anticoagulant claim within 1.5 times the days' supply of the previous prescription) or secondary (no subsequent anticoagulant claim at any time after the index date). In secondary analyses, we used cause-specific hazards regression to explore subsequent thrombotic and bleeding events associated with anticoagulant discontinuation, and multivariable logistic regression for location of death. RESULTS: We identified 98 089 recipients of home palliative care, of whom 15.5% were taking anticoagulants at the time of the first palliative care visit. Depending on the definition of discontinuation, 18.0% to 24.4% of patients discontinued anticoagulants after the first home palliative care visit. Compared with warfarin, use of a direct oral anticoagulant (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.56) and low-molecular-weight heparin (adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47-0.66) were associated with a lower likelihood of discontinuation. Few patient or physician characteristics - and no comorbidities or indications for therapeutic anticoagulation - were associated with discontinuation. Anticoagulant discontinuation after beginning home palliative care was associated with similar rates of thrombosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.81-1.39), lower rates of bleeding (adjusted HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.90) and a higher likelihood of a home death (adjusted OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09-1.36) compared with continuing anticoagulation. INTERPRETATION: Among recipients of home palliative care in Ontario, anticoagulant use is common, and discontinuation is not influenced by comorbidities or indication for anticoagulation. Physician preference may play an important role; patients should be made aware of their options toward the end of life and supported in shared decision-making.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Cuidados Paliativos , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Morte , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104096

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the use of warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), to evaluate changes in renal function over time and predictors of rapid decline, and to describe time in therapeutic range (TTR) and predictors of poor TTR among patients on warfarin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from AuriculA, the Swedish oral anticoagulation registry, patients with AF on warfarin or DOAC were identified between 2013 and 2018 (N=6567). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and categorised into normal (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), mild CKD (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate CKD (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe CKD (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) and end-stage CKD (<15 mL/min/1.73 m2)/dialysis. TTR was estimated using international normalised ratio (INR) measurements. Predictors of eGFR decline over time and of poor TTR were estimated using regression analysis. Between 2013 and 2018, use of DOAC increased from 9.2% to 89.3%, with a corresponding decline in warfarin. A similar trend was observed in patients with mild to moderate CKD, while DOAC over warfarin increased slower among patients with severe to end-stage CKD/dialysis. In patients treated with warfarin, the median TTR was 77.1%. Worse TTR was observed among patients with severe CKD (70.0%) and end-stage CKD/dialysis (67.5%). A gradual annual decline in eGFR was observed (-1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2), with a more rapid decline among patients with older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus and/or heart failure. CONCLUSION: In patients with AF, use of DOAC has steadily increased across different CKD stages, but not in patients with severe to end-stage CKD/dialysis despite these patients having poor INR control. Patients with AF have a gradual decline in renal function, with a more rapid decline among a subgroup of patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
15.
J Comp Eff Res ; 11(15): 1105-1120, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065839

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the association of comparative effectiveness research with Medicare coverage of direct oral anticoagulants. Materials & methods: A literature review for direct oral anticoagulants was conducted from 2011 to 2017. Monthly prescription drug plan and formulary files (n = 28) were used to conduct change-point analysis and assess each outcome variable. Results: Up to 2013, studies showed that dabigatran was more effective than rivaroxaban. In 2015, apixaban was shown to be the safest and most effective drug in comparison with all direct oral anticoagulants. In 2016-2017, dabigatran and apixaban were shown to have similar efficacy. Approximately 75% of plans covered dabigatran under tier 3 until 2015. From 2011 to 2017, less than 30% of plans required prior authorizations, 50% imposed quantity limits and mean copayment was lowest for rivaroxaban. Conclusion: Consistent with comparative effectiveness research, Medicare plans covered apixaban more favorably and edoxaban less favorably. However, discrepancies in comparative effectiveness research translation were found for rivaroxaban and dabigatran.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicare , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
17.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221119662, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076361

RESUMO

Due to the hypercoagulable status of patients with severe COVID-19 infection, anticoagulants are often used to prevent thrombosis. However, these agents may cause bleeding events such as retroperitoneal hematoma (RPH). We report here on six patients with COVID-19 who developed RPH during treatment. Early evidence of bleeding led to confirmatory diagnosis with imaging. Four patients recovered with supportive treatment (IV fluids and blood transfusions) and two patients recovered by angioembolization. RPH should be considered in COVID patients on anticoagulants as soon as haemoglobin or blood pressure falls. Further studies are required to provide guidance and recommendations on use of anticoagulants in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hematoma/induzido quimicamente , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Espaço Retroperitoneal/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Urol ; 208(4): 886-895, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) are a major cause of morbidity following abdominopelvic oncologic surgery. Enoxaparin, a subcutaneous injectable low molecular weight heparin, is commonly used for extended-duration VTE prophylaxis (EP), but has been associated with noncompliance. Newer direct oral anticoagulants have not been prospectively studied in the urologic oncology post-discharge setting. We aimed to improve compliance with EP following abdominopelvic oncologic surgery and secondarily test the hypothesis that apixaban is noninferior to enoxaparin for EP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center prospective quality improvement study measuring patient compliance and safety with EP was conducted between August 10, 2020 and September 21, 2021. Baseline data were continuously collected for 6 months, followed by a uniform departmental change from enoxaparin to apixaban. The duration of data collection was determined a priori using a noninferiority sample size estimation (145 per group). The primary outcome was compliance events (real or potential barriers to EP use). The secondary outcome was 30-day post-discharge safety events (symptomatic VTE or major bleed). RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were discharged with enoxaparin (baseline period) and 154 with apixaban (intervention period). Safety events occurred in 3.1% vs 0% of patients receiving enoxaparin and apixaban, respectively. The absolute risk difference of 3.1% (95% CI: 0.043%-5.8%) met the prespecified noninferiority threshold (p=0.028 for apixaban superiority). Compliance events occurred in 33.5% of enoxaparin patients and 14.3% of apixaban patients (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: There were fewer compliance events using apixaban for EP than enoxaparin after urologic oncology surgery. Regarding safety, apixaban is noninferior to enoxaparin and may in fact have fewer associated major complications.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Assistência ao Convalescente , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis , Piridonas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/induzido quimicamente
19.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 50(9): 888-894, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096706

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the differences between CAS risk model and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score in predicting all cause death, thromboembolic events, major bleeding events and composite endpoint in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. From the China Atrial Fibrillation Registry cohort study, the patients with atrial fibrillation who were>18 years old were randomly divided into CAS risk score group and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score group respectively. According to the anticoagulant status at baseline and follow-up, patients in the 2 groups who complied with the scoring specifications for anticoagulation were selected for inclusion in this study. Baseline information such as age and gender in the two groups were collected and compared. Follow-up was performed periodically to collect information on anticoagulant therapy and endpoints. The endpoints were all-cause death, thromboembolism events and major bleeding, the composite endpoint events were all-cause death and thromboembolism events. The incidence of endpoints in CAS group and CHA2DS2-VASc group was analyzed, and multivariate Cox proportional risk model was used to analyze whether the incidence of the endpoints was statistically different between the two groups. Results: A total of 5 206 patients with AF were enrolled, average aged (63.6±12.2) years, and 2092 (40.2%) women. There were 2 447 cases (47.0%) in CAS risk score group and 2 759 cases (53.0%) in CHA2DS2-VASc risk score group. In the clinical baseline data of the two groups, the proportion of left ventricular ejection fraction<55%, non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, oral warfarin and HAS BLED score in the CAS group were lower than those in the CHA2DS2-VASc group, while the proportion of previous diabetes history and history of antiplatelet drugs in the CAS group was higher than that in the CHA2DS2-VASc group, and there was no statistical difference in other baseline data. Patients were followed up for (82.8±40.8) months. In CAS risk score group, 225(9.2%) had all-cause death, 186 (7.6%) had thromboembolic events, 81(3.3%) had major bleeding, and 368 (15.0%) had composite endpoint. In CHA2DS2-VASc risk score group, 261(9.5%) had all-cause death 209(7.6%) had thromboembolic events, 112(4.1%) had major bleeding, and 424 (15.4%) had composite endpoint. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of all-cause death, thromboembolic events, major bleeding and composite endpoint between anticoagulation in CAS risk score group and anticoagulation in CHA2DS2-VASc risk score group (log-rank P =0.643, 0.904, 0.126, 0.599, respectively). Compared with CAS risk score, multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models showed no significant differences for all-cause death, thromboembolic events, major bleeding and composite endpoint between the two groups with HR(95%CI) 0.95(0.80-1.14), 1.00(0.82-1.22), 0.83(0.62-1.10), 0.96(0.84-1.11), respectively. All P>0.05. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between CAS risk model and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score in predicting all-cause death, thromboembolic events, and major bleeding events in Chinese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia , Adolescente , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 50(9): 900-906, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096708

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the oral anticoagulant (OAC) usage among new-onset acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in China, and to explore the possible influencing factors of influent anticoagulant therapy in these patients. Methods: The NVAF patients who experienced new-onset and non-fatal AIS from August 2011 to December 2018 in the China Atrial Fibrillation Registry (China-AF), were enrolled. The follow-up ended in December 2019. Information including patients' demographic characteristics, medical history, medication usage, which were collected before and after the index stroke, were analyzed. Patients were classified into OAC group or non-OAC group according to OAC usage within 3 months post stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of factors which might be associated with OAC usage within 3 months post stroke. Results: A total of 957 new-onset AIS patients were enrolled, 39.4% (377/957) patients were treated with OAC within 3 months after AIS. Covering by high-reimbursement-rate insurance (OR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.28-2.86, P=0.002), higher number of concomitant drugs (1-2 types OR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.36-3.23, P=0.001; ≥3 types OR: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.37-3.91, P=0.002) and 3-month-peri-stroke AF recurrence (OR: 3.34, 95%CI: 2.34-4.76, P<0.001) were associated with OAC usage within 3 months post stroke, while higher HASBLED score (OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.40-0.60, P<0.001) and pre-stroke antiplatelet usage (OR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.20-0.43, P<0.001) were related to no OAC usage within 3 months post stroke. Conclusions: In China, the proportion of NVAF patients who initiated OAC therapy within 3 months after new-onset AIS is as low as about 39.4%. Factors related to the OAC usage within 3 months post stroke are 3-month-peri-stroke AF recurrence, number of concomitant drugs and patients with high-reimbursement-rate insurance coverage, but higher HASBLED score and pre-stroke antiplatelet usage are related to no OAC usage within 3 months post stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
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