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2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 131, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008453

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people worldwide, but little is known at this time about second infections or reactivation. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old female undergoing treatment for CD20+ B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who experienced a viral reactivation after receiving rituximab, cytarabine, and dasatinib. She was initially hospitalized with COVID-19 in April and developed a high antibody titer with two negative nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swabs for SARS-CoV-2 on discharge. After recovery, she resumed treatment in June for her leukemia, which included rituximab, cytarabine, and dasatinib. She promptly lost her COVID-19 antibodies, and her nasal PCR turned positive in June. She developed a severe COVID-19 pneumonia with lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers, and characteristic bilateral ground-glass opacities on chest CT, requiring high-flow nasal cannula and transfer to the intensive care unit. She received steroids, anticoagulation, and convalescent plasma, and within 48 h she was off oxygen. She was discharged home in stable condition several days later. Given the short time frame from leukemia treatment to PCR positivity and the low case rate in mid-June in New York City, reinfection appears to have been unlikely and SARS-CoV-2 reactivation is a possible explanation. This case illustrates the risks of treating recently recovered COVID-19 patients with immunosuppressive therapy, particularly lymphocyte- and antibody-depleting therapy, and raises new questions about the potential of SARS-CoV-2 reactivation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recidiva , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004529

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world, resulting in a pandemic with high mortality. There are no effective treatments for the management of severe COVID-19 and current therapeutic trials are focused on antiviral therapy and attenuation of hyper-inflammation with anti-cytokine therapy. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia shares some pathological similarities with severe bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. In particular, it disrupts the haemostatic balance, which results in a procoagulant state locally in the lungs and systemically. This culminates in the formation of microthrombi, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi-organ failure. The deleterious effects of exaggerated inflammatory responses and activation of coagulation have been investigated in bacterial pneumonia and sepsis and there is recognition that although these pathways are important for the host immune response to pathogens, they can lead to bystander tissue injury and are negatively associated with survival. In the past two decades, evidence from preclinical studies has led to the emergence of potential anticoagulant therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with pneumonia, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and some of these anticoagulant approaches have been trialled in humans. Here, we review the evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials of anticoagulant treatment strategies in bacterial pneumonia and sepsis, and discuss the importance of these findings in the context of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Bacteriana/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(4): 369-371, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027192

RESUMO

The use of heparin has been shown to decrease the mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical impact of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with fondaparinux versus enoxaparin among 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The incidence of pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), clinically relevant non-MB, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in-hospital mortality was compared between patients on fondaparinux versus enoxaparin therapy. The 2 groups were homogeneous for demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. In a median follow-up of 28 (IQR: 12-45) days, no statistically significant difference in venous thromboembolism (14.5% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.20), MB and clinically relevant non-MB (3.2% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.76), ARDS (17.7% vs. 15.8%; P = 0.83), and in-hospital mortality (9.7% vs. 10.5%; P = 0.97) has been shown between the enoxaparin group versus the fondaparinux group. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis of a safe and effective use of fondaparinux among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in internal medicine units.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 941-947, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) after heart valve replacement. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 60 patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy after heart valve replacement in Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from January 2015 to July 2019, including 35 males and 25 females, aged (58.83 ±16.36) years. The patients were divided into a LMWH group and a RCA group according to the anticoagulation regimen, with 30 patients in each group. The 24 h postoperative drainage volume (pericardium, mediastinum), postoperative ventilator use time and ICU stay time, incidence of postoperative respiratory tract bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding, postoperative skin ecchymosis incidence and mortality between the 2 groups were compared; the thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and PLT between the 2 groups after anticoagulation treatment were compared; the service life of dialysis filters and CRRT time between the 2 groups were compared; and the levels of urea nitrogen and serum creatinine between the 2 groups before and after treatment were also compared. RESULTS: After anticoagulant treatment, the RCA group had less 24 h postoperative drainage volume than the LMWH group, shorter ventilator use time, ICU stay time, and hospitalization days than the LMWH group, and lower respiratory tract bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding incidence than the LMWH group, with significant differences (all P<0.05); there was no significant difference in the incidence of skin ecchymosis and mortality after treatment between the 2 groups (all P>0.05); there was no significant difference in APTT, FIB, and TT between the 2 groups (all P>0.05); the PT and INR of the RCA group were higher than those in the LMWH group, while the PLT of RCA group was lower than that in the LMWH group, with significant differences (all P<0.05); there was no significant difference in CRRT time between the two groups (P=0.073). After the treatment, there were no significant differences in urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CRRT after cardiac valve replacement with RCA can effectively reduce pericardial and mediastinal drainage, reduce the risk of bleeding, shorten the time of ventilator use and ICU stay, and promote postoperative recovery of patients, which have positive significance for reducing the burden on patients and their families.


Assuntos
Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 562-565, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895112

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulants play an important role in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases.Warfarin,a traditional oral anticoagulant,is limited in clinical use due to its limitations such as narrow therapeutic window and requirements on frequent monitoring and dose adjustment.Direct oral anticoagulants(DOACs)such as dabigatran,rivaroxaban,apixaban,and edoxaban are increasingly used to prevent and treat venous thrombosis or thrombus formation.However,recent studies have documented inter-individual variability in plasma drug levels of DOACs.This article summarizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenomics of DOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial , Farmacogenética , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana , Rivaroxabana
8.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877380

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Local , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Salas Cirúrgicas , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/prevenção & controle , Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
9.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 4: 1-26, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897867

RESUMO

Treating an anticoagulated patient with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remains a challenge, especially in areas where dicoumarins are still the first drug of choice due to the cost of other oral anticoagulants. Anticoagulation clinics have proven to be the most efficient and safe way to avoid thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications and to keep patients in optimal treatment range. However, they require adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to work properly. In this Argentine consensus we propose a series of guidelines for the effective management of the anticoagulation clinics. The goal is to achieve the excellence in both the clinical healthcare and the hemostasis laboratory for the anticoagulated patient. The criteria developed in the document were agreed upon by a large group of expert specialists in hematology and biochemistry from all over the country. The criteria presented here must always be considered when indicating VKA although they had to be adapted to the unequal reality of each center. Taking these premises into consideration will allow us to optimize the management of the anticoagulated patient with VKA and thus minimize thrombotic and hemorrhagic intercurrences, in order to honor our promise not to harm the patient.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Consenso , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2138-2144, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881336

RESUMO

Hypercoagulability is an increasingly recognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As such, anticoagulation has become part and parcel of comprehensive COVID-19 management. However, several uncertainties exist in this area, including the appropriate type and dose of heparin. In addition, special patient populations, including those with high body mass index and renal impairment, require special consideration. Although the current evidence is still insufficient, we provide a pragmatic approach to anticoagulation in COVID-19, but stress the need for further trials in this area.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(10): 765-771, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890069

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients who had recently undergone a cardiac procedure and were inpatients in a cardiac rehabilitation department. METHODS: All patients hospitalized from 1 February to 15 March 2020 were included in the study (n = 35; 16 men; mean age 78 years). The overall population was divided into two groups: group 1 included 10 patients who presented with a clinical picture of COVID-19 infection and were isolated, and group 2 included 25 patients who were COVID-19-negative. In group 1, nine patients were on chronic oral anticoagulant therapy and one patient was on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel. A chest computed tomography scan revealed interstitial pneumonia in all 10 patients. RESULTS: During hospitalization, COVID-19 patients received azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine in addition to their ongoing therapy. Only the patient on ASA with clopidogrel therapy was transferred to the ICU for mechanical ventilation because of worsening respiratory failure, and subsequently died from cardiorespiratory arrest. All other patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy recovered and were discharged. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that COVID-19 patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy may have a more favorable and less complicated clinical course. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm this preliminary observation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 171-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908072

RESUMO

The healthcare sector has been overwhelmed by the global rise in the number of COVID-19 cases. The primary care physicians at the forefront of this pandemic are being provided with multiple guidelines (state, national, international). The aim of this review was to examine the existing guidelines for congruence and critically analyze them in light of current evidence. A discordance was noted between the national and state guidelines with respect to indication, duration and dosage of antivirals, steroids/immunomodulators, anticoagulation and convalescent plasma. The lack of concordance between various guidelines mandates the need for a unified national guideline that is regularly updated.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
14.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(706): 1718-1720, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936558

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac disease of aging. The risk of stroke and bad prognosis increase with age and atrial fibrillation. Compared with younger people, elderly people have higher risks for both thrombosis and bleeding. Stroke prevention with oral anticoagulants is the cornerstone of the management of atrial fibrillation but is often questioned because of the risk of bleeding, furthermore comorbidities, comedications, fall risks, poor compliance. These factors frequently found in frail elderly patients complicate the management of antithrombotic therapy. This article reviews the evidence for the risks and benefits of anticoagulation in the elderly with atrial fibrillation, by comparing the new oral anticoagulants to vitamin K antagonists.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970757

RESUMO

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been immense, while the epidemiology and pathophysiology remain unclear. Despite many casualties in many countries, there have been less than 1,000 deaths in Japan as of end of June, 2020. In this study, we analyzed the cases of COVID-19 patients admitted to our institution located in the Tokyo metropolitan area where the survival rate is higher than those in other cities in the world. Medical records of COVID-19 patients that were admitted to a single Japanese tertiary university hospital in the Tokyo metropolitan area between March 10th and June 2nd, 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The identified COVID-19 cases were subdivided into two groups (severe and mild) depending on the need for mechanical ventilation. Those in the severe group required mechanical ventilation as opposed to those in the mild group. The data were analyzed using nonparametric tests expressed by median [interquartile range (IQR)]. A total of 45 COVID-19 patients were included, consisting of 22 severe cases (Group S) and 23 mild cases (Group M). Male sex (Group S, 95.5% vs. Group M, 56.5%, p<0.01), high body mass index (Group S, 24.89 [22.44-27.15] vs. Group M, 21.43 [19.05-23.75], p<0.01), and hyperlipidemia (Group S, 36.4% vs. Group M, 0%, p<0.01) were more seen in Group S. Five (22.7%) cases in Group S underwent extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO). On admission, lymphopenia, decreased albumin, and elevated fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were observed in Group S. The median ICU and hospital stay were 13.5 [10.3-22.3] days and 23.0 [16.3-30.5] days, respectively, in Group S. As of June 28th, 2020, in Group S, 19 (86.4%) patients have survived, of which 17 (77.3%) were discharged, and 2 are still in treatments. Three died of multiple organ failure. All 23 patients in Group M have recovered. Male sex, high body mass index, and hyperlipidemia can be risk factors for severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and its overall short-term survival rate was between 77.3% and 86.4% in this study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 931-944, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981627

RESUMO

Emergency physicians must be prepared to rapidly diagnose and resuscitate patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain aspects of PE resuscitation run counter to typical approaches. A specific understanding of the pathophysiology of PE is required to avoid cardiovascular collapse potentially associated with excessive intravenous fluids and positive pressure ventilation. Once PE is diagnosed, rapid risk stratification should be performed and treatment guided by patient risk class. Although anticoagulation remains the mainstay of PE treatment, emergency physicians also must understand the indications and contraindications for thrombolysis and should be aware of new therapies and models of care that may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estado Terminal , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hidratação , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Trombólise Mecânica , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Embolia Pulmonar/classificação , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica , Troponina/sangue , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
18.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 76(3): 164-166, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969365

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has declared novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global public health emergency. Although respiratory symptoms predominate in COVID-19, thrombosis can occur in patients with COVID-19. This paper reports a case of an 82-year-old female with a prior medical history of hypertension, diabetes presenting with fever and cough, and was diagnosed with COVID-19. The patient subsequently developed progressively worsening of abdominal distention, tenderness, and underwent emergent laparotomy. She was found to have a gangrenous colon. This case adds to the limited literature regarding the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Colite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Colite/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Laparotomia , Necrose , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 27(10): 1123-1137, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863290

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with acute infectious diseases are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Clinicians should be aware of the VTE risk in patients with COVID-19, many of whom present with severe coagulation disorders. METHOD: We used an online platform to conduct a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among doctors in mainland China in March 2020. The questionnaire was designed to figure out the clinician's current awareness of VTE prevention and detection rates, as well as the current status of VTE prophylaxis in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We collected 1,636 replies, of which 1,579 were valid. Among these, 991 (63%) clinicians were involved directly in frontline treatment. Most of the clinicians (1,492, or 94%) thought it was necessary to assess the VTE risk in patients with COVID-19. However, only 234 (24%) clinicians performed appropriate assessment during the COVID-19 outbreak. For patients with mild/moderate COVID-19, 752 (76%) clinicians would prescribe exercise and water to prevent VTE. For patients with severe COVID-19, 448 (45%) clinicians would prescribe mechanical devices if the patient had a high bleeding risk, and 648 (65%) clinicians would choose LMWH as prophylaxis if the patient had a low bleeding risk. The VTE detection rate was not that high in both mild/moderate and severe patients. CONCLUSION: Although most clinicians recommended prescribing VTE prophylaxis to patients with COVID-19, the practice still needs to be improved. A real-world registry to investigate the true incidence of VTE, and the effect of prescribing appropriate prophylaxis for patients with COVID-19, is necessary in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , China , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
20.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 525-533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) can be used to detect the presence of left atrial thrombus and left atrial spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (LASEC). AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of TTE and TOE in predicting stroke and all-cause death at 5-year follow-up in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: This study included patients hospitalised with electrocardiography-diagnosed NVAF in Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris, between July 1998 and December 2011, who underwent TTE and TOE evaluation within 24hours of admission. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to identify predictors of the composite outcome (stroke or all-cause death). RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, stroke/death occurred in 185/903 patients (20.5%). By multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stroke/death were CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.47; P<0.001), left atrial area>20 cm2 (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35; P=0.018), moderate LASEC (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; P=0.012) and severe LASEC (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.16-3.58; P=0.013). Independent protective predictors were dyslipidaemia (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.83; P=0.002) and discharge prescription of anti-arrhythmics (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P=0.008). Adding LASEC to the CHA2DS2-VASc score modestly improved predictive accuracy and risk classification, with a C index of 0.71 vs. 0.69 (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective monocentric study, the presence of moderate/severe LASEC was an independent predictor of stroke/death at 5-year follow-up in patients with NVAF. The inclusion of LASEC in stroke risk scores could modestly improve risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
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