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2.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(7): 83, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081216

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevation in apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the blood is a cause of atherosclerosis. Statins have changed the preventive cardiology scenario, and more recently monoclonal proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were added as robust agents to further reduce pro-atherogenic lipoproteins and therefore prevent cardiovascular events. However, despite this many dyslipidemic individuals persist with inadequate LDL-C levels and still at risk. The purpose of this review was to discuss current status and describe advances in therapies beyond statins and monoclonal PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Ezetimibe and lomitapide have been used for many years to further reduce LDL-C and longer term data reinforce their safety. Bempedoic acid, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, has been shown to add LDL-C reduction on top of statins and ezetimibe, furthermore it may be an alternative for statin intolerant patients. Inclisiran is a small interfering ribonucleic acid inhibitor that reduces the hepatic production of PCSK9 that induces robust LDL-C lowering, similar to monoclonal antibodies, with the advantage of 2 or 3 injections per year. So far, no safety signs were seen with its use. Evinacumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), induces robust LDL-C lowering in either homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or severe hypercholesterolemia patients with good tolerability. Many high-risk individuals persist with elevated LDL-C, newer medications further lower LDL-C on top of standard lipid-lowering therapies and are well tolerated. Ongoing clinical trials may prove if these novel medications will reduce cardiovascular events with safety.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hipercolesterolemia , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071276

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing due to the aging of societies. Atherosclerosis, a type of chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in arteries, is considered to be the main cause of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease or stroke. In addition, the inflammatory response caused by atherosclerosis confers a significant effect on chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatic arthritis. Here, we review the mechanism of action of the main causes of atherosclerosis such as plasma LDL level and inflammation; furthermore, we review the recent findings on the preclinical and clinical effects of antibodies that reduce the LDL level and those that neutralize the cytokines involved in inflammation. The apolipoprotein B autoantibody and anti-PCSK9 antibody reduced the level of LDL and plaques in animal studies, but failed to significantly reduce carotid inflammation plaques in clinical trials. The monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 (alirocumab, evolocumab), which are used as a treatment for hyperlipidemia, lowered cholesterol levels and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Antibodies that neutralize inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-12/23) have shown promising but contradictory results and thus warrant further research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteínas B , Autoanticorpos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(740): 1039-1046, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042340

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is responsible for the degradation of the LDL-receptor. Inclisiran is a new synthetic interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the blood by using RNA silencing technology to reduce the production of PCSK9. Inclisiran administered subcutaneously at 0 and 3 months, and then every 6 months has been shown to reduce LDL-C by approximately 50 % in patients at high and very-high cardiovascular risk, or with a diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia, but also in patients intolerant to statins. New data are expected, in particular with cardiovascular clinical endpoints, as well as safety for use in adolescents.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Adolescente , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
5.
Intern Med J ; 51(5): 769-779, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047032

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common, heritable and preventable cause of premature coronary artery disease. New clinical practice recommendations are presented to assist practitioners in enhancing the care of all patients with FH. Core recommendations are made on the detection, diagnosis, assessment and management of adults, children and adolescents with FH. Management is under-pinned by the precepts of risk stratification, adherence to healthy lifestyles, treatment of non-cholesterol risk factors and appropriate use of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering therapies including statins, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. The recommendations need to be utilised using judicious clinical judgement and shared decision-making with patients and families. New government-funded schemes for genetic testing and use of PCSK9 inhibitors, as well as the National Health Genomics Policy Framework, will enable adoption of the recommendations. However, a comprehensive implementation science and practice strategy is required to ensure that the guidance translates into benefit for all families with FH.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Médicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ezetimiba , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011640

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a genetic disorder secondary to mutation of one or more of the genes critical for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism; these mutation(s) cause highly elevated serum LDL-C, significantly increasing the risk of early cardiovascular events and mortality. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is rare and often leads to accelerated coronary atherosclerosis presenting within the first two decades of life. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who presented after surviving a ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. His highly elevated LDL-C level prompted further workup and led to a diagnosis of HoFH. The treatment included medical therapy and coronary artery bypass grafting. The patient also required referral for lipid apheresis to meet goal LDL-C level, and an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. HoFH, if left untreated, can have devastating consequences Therefore, timely diagnosis initiating appropriate therapy is important.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Adolescente , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Masculino
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802219

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with sugar cane derivates may modulate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary supplement (DS), containing Octacosanol (20 mg) and vitamin K2 (45 µg), could restore the disrupted physiologic relation between LDL-C and serum PCSK9. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center study including 87 patients on chronic atorvastatin therapy was conducted. Eighty-seven patients were randomized to receive DS (n = 42) or placebo (n = 45), and followed for 13 weeks. Serum PCSK9 levels, lipid parameters and their relationship were the main efficacy endpoints. The absolute levels of PCSK9 and LDL-C were not significantly different from baseline to 13 weeks. However, physiologic correlation between % change of PCSK9 and % change of LDL-C levels was normalized only in the group of patients treated with DS (r = 0.409, p = 0.012). This study shows that DS can restore statin disrupted physiologic positive correlation between PCSK9 and LDL-C. Elevated PCSK9 level is an independent risk factor so controlling its rise by statins may be important in prevention of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Álcoois Graxos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina K 2/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 356, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence bearing on the role of statins in the prevention and treatment of cancer is confounded by the diversity of statins, chemotherapeutic agents and cancer types included in the numerous published studies; consequently, the adjunctive value of statins with chemotherapy remains uncertain. METHODS: We assayed lovastatin in combination with each of ten commonly prescribed chemotherapy drugs in highly reproducible in vitro assays, using a neutral cellular substrate, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell density (OD600) data were analyzed for synergism and antagonism using the Loewe additivity model implemented with the Combenefit software. RESULTS: Four of the ten chemotherapy drugs - tamoxifen, doxorubicin, methotrexate and rapamycin - exhibited net synergism with lovastatin. The remaining six agents (5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, epothilone, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide) compiled neutral or antagonistic scores. Distinctive patterns of synergism and antagonism, often coexisting within the same concentration space, were documented with the various combinations, including those with net synergism scores. Two drug pairs, lovastatin combined with tamoxifen or cisplatin, were also assayed in human cell lines as proof of principle. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic interactions of tamoxifen, doxorubicin, methotrexate and rapamycin with lovastatin - because they suggest the possibility of clinical utility - merit further exploration and validation in cell lines and animal models. No less importantly, strong antagonistic interactions between certain agents and lovastatin argue for a cautious, data-driven approach before adding a statin to any chemotherapeutic regimen. We also urge awareness of adventitious statin usage by patients entering cancer treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Antagonismo de Drogas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas
10.
Atherosclerosis ; 325: 46-56, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several medications targeting PCSK9 reduce LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We aimed to assess in patients diagnosed clinically as HeFH, whether LDL-C reduction varied by different therapeutic approaches to PCSK9-targeting or by the underlying genetic variant. METHODS: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials assessing PCSK9-targeting therapies, namely alirocumab, evolocumab and inclisiran, in patients with clinically diagnosed HeFH and restricted analyses to those patients in whom genotypic data were available. A search of MEDLINE and Embase identified eligible trials published between inception and June 29, 2020. We included trials of sufficient duration to allow for a stable treatment effect: ~12 weeks for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (alirocumab, evolocumab) and ~1 year for small interfering RNA (siRNA) (inclisiran). Single-moderator meta-regression comparing mean percentage LDL-C reduction between mAbs and siRNA as well as PCSK9-targeting therapies between different genotypes was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Eight trials of HeFH met our inclusion criteria, including 1887 genotyped patients. Among monogenic HeFH cases (N = 1347) the LDL-C reduction from baseline was 46.12% (95%CI 48.4-43.9) for siRNA and 50.4% (59.3-41.4) for mAbs compared to control, without evidence of significant heterogeneity between treatment (QM = 0.32, df = 1, p = 0.57). Irrespective of therapeutic approach to PCSK9-targeting, reductions in LDL-C were generally consistent across genetic variants (LDL-Receptor variants, LDL-Receptor variants of unknown significance, Apolipoprotein B variants, two variants and no variant) (QM = 8.3, df = 4, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HeFH, the LDL-C-lowering effect of PCSK9-targeting medications did not show statistical heterogeneity across different drug-classes and across genetic variants.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808697

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) inhibitors are a group of drugs whose main mechanism of action is binding to the PCSK-9 molecule, which reduces the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and, hence, increases the uptake of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) from the bloodstream as well as reducing its concentration. The effectiveness of three monoclonal antibodies, namely, alirocumab (human IgG1/κ monoclonal antibody, genetically engineered in Chinese hamster ovary cells), evolocumab (the first fully human monoclonal antibody), and bococizumab (humanized mouse antibody), in inhibiting the action of PCSK-9 and reducing LDLc levels has been confirmed. The first two, after clinical trials, were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are used primarily in the treatment of autosomal familial hypercholesterolemia and in cases of statin intolerance. They are currently used both as monotherapy and in combination with statins and ezetimibe to intensify therapy and achieve therapeutic goals following the American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. However, the lipid-lowering effect is not the only effect of action described by researchers that PCSK-9 inhibitors have. This paper is a review of the literature describing the pleiotropic effects of PCSK-9 inhibitors, which belong to a group of drugs that are being increasingly used, especially when standard lipid-lowering therapy fails. The article focuses on activities other than lipid-lowering, such as the anti-atherosclerotic effect and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque, the anti-aggregation effect, the anticoagulant effect, the antineoplastic effect, and the ability to influence the course of bacterial infections. In this publication, we try to systematically review the current scientific data, both from our own scientific work and knowledge from international publications.


Assuntos
Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 26, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655372

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is widespread throughout the world and is a powerful risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This manuscript explored the mechanisms underlying dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes as well as currently available treatment options and guideline recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a characteristic pattern of dyslipidemia, often termed diabetic dyslipidemia. Patients with type 2 diabetes often present with low HDL levels, elevated levels of small dense LDL particles, and elevated triglyceride levels. LDL lowering is the cornerstone of managing diabetic dyslipidemia, and statins are the mainstay of therapy. The cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors have also been shown to lower risk in patients with diabetes. Recently, the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) only n-3 fatty acid, icosapent ethyl, has also shown benefit for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with diabetes. To date, no agents targeting HDL increase have shown cardiovascular benefit in patients on background statin therapy. Diabetic dyslipidemia is significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, and LDL-lowering therapy with statins, PCSK9 inhibitors, and ezetimibe continues to be mainstay therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk. Future studies targeting low HDL and high triglycerides levels associated with type 2 diabetes could provide additional novel therapies to manage diabetic dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669406

RESUMO

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins that convey extracellular signals to the cellular milieu. They represent a target for more than 30% of currently marketed drugs. Here we review the effects of membrane cholesterol on the function of GPCRs of Class A. We review both the specific effects of cholesterol mediated via its direct high-affinity binding to the receptor and non-specific effects mediated by cholesterol-induced changes in the properties of the membrane. Cholesterol binds to many GPCRs at both canonical and non-canonical binding sites. It allosterically affects ligand binding to and activation of GPCRs. Additionally, it changes the oligomerization state of GPCRs. In this review, we consider a perspective of the potential for the development of new therapies that are targeted at manipulating the level of membrane cholesterol or modulating cholesterol binding sites on to GPCRs.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/classificação , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 216: 113358, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725656

RESUMO

Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) and Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) have been identified as attractive therapeutic targets for obesity and hypercholesteremia, respectively. Obesity and hypercholesteremia usually co-exist, however no dual-inhibitors against PTL and NPC1L1 were reported for the treatment of obesity patients with hypercholesteremia so far. In this work, molecular hybridization-based one-step modification screening identified a potent dual-inhibitor against PTL and NPC1L1. Compound P1-11 has IC50 values of 2.1 µM against PTL through covalent binding, as well as significantly reduces cholesterol absorption in a non-competitive inhibitory manner. Molecule docking and molecular dynamics studies revealed the reason of its activity to both PTL and NPC1L1. Moreover, the gene and protein expression levels of PTL and NPC1L1 were also determined respectively after the treatment of P1-11. Development of dual-inhibitors against PTL and NPC1L1 could provide novel treatment options for obesity patients with hypercholesteremia. The results of current research would great support the development of dual-inhibitors against PTL and NPC1L1.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Fármacos , Ezetimiba/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/sangue , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Orlistate/química
18.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 03 24.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768516

RESUMO

In two recent publications LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in the elderly was studied. A study from Copenhagen shows that LDL-cholesterol is similar as a risk-factor for myocardial infarction in all age-groups. Due to the higher incidence of myocardial infarction with age, the number of events associated with an increased LDL is higher among the elderly. The effect of LDL reduction in the elderly was studied in a meta-analysis including statin studies as well as studies with ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors. The relative risk reduction associated with a reduction of 1 mmol/l of LDL-cholesterol was 26%, similar for patients above or below 75 years of age.  These studies emphasize that reduction of LDL should be considered also in the elderly without many comorbidities.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 177: 176-203, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609583

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Factors increasing the risks for CVD development are related to obesity, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and lifestyle. CVD risk factors may be treated with appropriate drugs, but prolonged can use cause undesirable side-effects. Among the natural products used in complementary and alternative medicines, are the ß-ᴅ-glucans; biopolymers found in foods (cereals, mushrooms), and can easily be produced by microbial fermentation. Independent of source, ß-glucans of the mixed-linked types [(1 → 3)(1 → 6)-ß-ᴅ-glucans - fungal, and (1 → 3)(1 → 4)-ß-ᴅ-glucans - cereal] have widely been studied because of their biological activities, and have demonstrated cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we discuss the roles of ß-ᴅ-glucans in various pathophysiological conditions that lead to CVDs including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, hypertension, atherosclerosis and stroke. The ß-glucans from all of the sources cited demonstrated potential hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesogenicity activities, reduced hypertension and ameliorated the atherosclerosis condition. More recently, ß-glucans are recognized as possessing prebiotic properties that modulate the gut microbiome and impact on the health benefits including cardiovascular. Overall, all the studies investigated unequivocally demonstrated the dietary benefits of consuming ß-glucans regardless of source, thus constituting a promising panaceutical approach to reduce CVD risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(4): e208-e223, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535788
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