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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasectomy is one of the most effective and permanent male contraceptive methods, and involves cutting and ligating the vas deferens to make the semen free of sperm during ejaculation. Although it is effective, simple, and safe, it is not well known and practiced in the majority of our community. This study assessed the intention to use vasectomy and its associated factors among married men in Debre Tabor Town, North West Ethiopia, 2019. METHODS: A community- based cross-sectional study was conducted among 402 married men from March 05 to April 15, 2019. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the study participants. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Questions concerned socio-demographic and reproductive variables and views on vasectomy. The association between variables was analyzed using a bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model. RESULT: A total of 402 participants were included with a response rate of 98.75%. The mean participant age was 37.12(SD ± 6.553) years with the age range of 20-56 years. The prevalence of intention to use vasectomy was 19.6% with 95%CI (15.6%-23.4%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age from 30-39 years (AOR = 3.2(95% CI: 1.19-8.86)), having more than three living children (AOR = 2.5(95% CI: 1.41-4.68)), good knowledge (AOR = 3.4(95%CI: 1.88-6.40)) and positive attitude (AOR = 4.8(95% CI: 2.61-8.80)) of married men were significantly associated with intention to use vasectomy. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Intention to use vasectomy was comparable with findings in four regions of Ethiopia (Amhara, Oromia, SNNP, and Tigray). Age, the number of living children, knowledge, and attitude were significantly associated with the intention to use vasectomy. Improving the level of knowledge and attitude towards vasectomy is an essential strategy to scale up the intention of men to use vasectomy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/psicologia , Vasectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003333, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined records of 3,281,667 women aged 13 to 54 years registered with a primary care clinic in Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine trends in annual LARC and non-LARC hormonal contraception (NLHC) uptake and abortion rates, stratified by age and deprivation groups, before and after the P4P was introduced in 2009/2010. Between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014, crude LARC uptake rates increased by 32.0% from 29.6 per 1,000 women to 39.0 per 1,000 women, compared with 18.0% decrease in NLHC uptake. LARC uptake among women of all ages increased immediately after the P4P with step change of 5.36 per 1,000 women (all values are per 1,000 women unless stated, 95% CI 5.26-5.45, p < 0.001). Women aged 20 to 24 years had the largest step change (8.40, 8.34-8.47, p < 0.001) and sustained trend increase (3.14, 3.08-3.19, p < 0.001) compared with other age groups. NLHC uptake fell in all women with a step change of -22.8 (-24.5 to -21.2, p < 0.001), largely due to fall in combined hormonal contraception (CHC; -15.0, -15.5 to -14.5, p < 0.001). Abortion rates in all women fell immediately after the P4P with a step change of -2.28 (-2.98 to -1.57, p = 0.002) and sustained decrease in trend of -0.88 (-1.12 to -0.63, p < 0.001). The largest falls occurred in women aged 13 to 19 years (step change -5.04, -7.56 to -2.51, p = 0.011), women aged 20 to 24 years (step change -4.52, -7.48 to -1.57, p = 0.030), and women from the most deprived group (step change -4.40, -6.89 to -1.91, p = 0.018). We estimate that by 2013/2014, the P4P scheme resulted in an additional 4.53 LARC prescriptions per 1,000 women (relative increase of 13.4%) more than would have been expected without the scheme. There was a concurrent absolute reduction of -5.31 abortions per 1,000 women, or -38.3% relative reduction. Despite universal coverage of healthcare, some women might have obtained contraception elsewhere or had abortion procedure that was not recorded on CPRD. Other policies aiming to increase LARC use or reduce unplanned pregnancies around the same time could also explain the findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that LARC uptake increased and abortions fell in the period after the P4P scheme in British primary care, with additional impact for young women aged 20-24 years and those from deprived backgrounds.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/psicologia , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/tendências , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 22-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern. Inflammatory changes are part of COVID-19 pathophysiology and this might generate a higher thromboembolic risk in patients using combined hormonal contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. We aimed to discuss the main aspects related to this issue and propose management strategies for women affected by COVID-19. METHODS: This narrative review collected information from several articles published since the beginning of the outbreak of the new coronavirus disease about the pathophysiology, stage of the disease, the occurrence of thrombotic events, and the risk of thromboembolism in users of contraception and hormonal therapy. RESULTS: This article consolidates clinical parameters about the risk of venous thromboembolism in users of contraception and menopausal hormone therapy emphasizing the probable increase of that risk in women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and bringing safer recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: In this scenario, apart from the fundamental orientations of preventive measures, like social isolation and hygiene, it is important that all female health professionals have knowledge of the new rules and adopt safety measures, especially on the prescription of hormonal therapy and contraception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia Venosa , Betacoronavirus , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa
6.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 40-44, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841178

RESUMO

Aim - in complex to evaluate different types of female vaginal biocenosis on the background of contraceptives usage in order to detect implant-associated infection. Clinical status, features of vaginal microflora and formation of biofilms were assessed in 64 women of reproductive age, who had inert intrauterine device (IUD) of the second generation for a period of from 5 months to 8 years. pH of vaginal secretion was measured by the test strips CITOLAB (Farmasko, Ukraine). The condition of vaginal biocenosis was assessed according to «Femoflor-Screen¼, polymerase chain reaction in real time. The formation of biofilms was explored with the study of the ability of pure culture Gardnerellaе to adhesion on the surface of microplates and the addition of crystal violet indicator. Optical density was measured with the photometer «Multiskan EX-355¼ (Labsystems, China). These vaginal micribiota of the patients in control group were inconsistent with microbiocenosis of I and II type (normocenosis, intermediate type). II type of the vagina normocenosis was found in 29,4 % patients with long usage of contraception up to 12 month. III type of vaginal microbiocenosis was observed in 55, 8 % of examined patients within the duration of IUD use from 2 till 5 years. Microbiocenosis of women with IV type of smear was inconsistent with non-specific or hybrid vaginitis (IUD duration more than 5 years). Changes of total bacterial exudates, detection of opportunistic or pathogenic flora, especially for mixed bacterial associations for women with intra-uterine devices gives rise to vaginal biofilm formation. The type of vaginal biocenosis depends on the duration of IUC use. рН level of vaginal secretion, which conforms to the quantitative evaluation of microbiocenosis and the availability of lactobacteria in it can be used as an indicator for condition of vaginal biocenosis. pН level of vaginal secretion can be a screen control of vaginal biocenosis condition during intrauterine devices stay for the control of its durability in the uterus.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ucrânia , Vagina
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013680, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) worldwide is substantial, disproportionately affecting those living in low- and middle-income countries. Targeted client communication (TCC) delivered via mobile devices (MD) (TCCMD) may improve the health behaviours and service use important for sexual and reproductive health. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of TCC via MD on adolescents' knowledge, and on adolescents' and adults' sexual and reproductive health behaviour, health service use, and health and well-being. SEARCH METHODS: In July/August 2017, we searched five databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched two trial registries. A search update was carried out in July 2019 and potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of TCC via MD to improve sexual and reproductive health behaviour, health service use, and health and well-being. Eligible comparators were standard care or no intervention, non-digital TCC, and digital non-targeted communication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane, although data extraction and risk of bias assessments were carried out by one person only and cross-checked by a second. We have presented results separately for adult and adolescent populations, and for each comparison. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 trials (27 among adult populations and 13 among adolescent populations) with a total of 26,854 participants. All but one of the trials among adolescent populations were conducted in high-income countries. Trials among adult populations were conducted in a range of high- to low-income countries. Among adolescents, nine interventions were delivered solely through text messages; four interventions tested text messages in combination with another communication channel, such as emails, multimedia messaging, or voice calls; and one intervention used voice calls alone. Among adults, 20 interventions were delivered through text messages; two through a combination of text messages and voice calls; and the rest were delivered through other channels such as voice calls, multimedia messaging, interactive voice response, and instant messaging services. Adolescent populations TCCMD versus standard care TCCMD may increase sexual health knowledge (risk ratio (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 1.71; low-certainty evidence). TCCMD may modestly increase contraception use (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.35; low-certainty evidence). The effects on condom use, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and health service use are uncertain due to very low-certainty evidence. The effects on abortion and STI rates are unknown due to lack of studies. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC (e.g. pamphlets) The effects of TCCMD on behaviour (contraception use, condom use, ART adherence), service use, health and wellbeing (abortion and STI rates) are unknown due to lack of studies for this comparison. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication The effects on sexual health knowledge, condom and contraceptive use are uncertain due to very low-certainty evidence. Interventions may increase health service use (attendance for STI/HIV testing, RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.40; low-certainty evidence). The intervention may be beneficial for reducing STI rates (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.33; low-certainty evidence), but the confidence interval encompasses both benefit and harm. The effects on abortion rates and on ART adherence are unknown due to lack of studies. We are uncertain whether TCCMD results in unintended consequences due to lack of evidence. Adult populations TCCMD versus standard care For health behaviours, TCCMD may modestly increase contraception use at 12 months (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.48) and may reduce repeat abortion (RR 0.68 95% CI 0.28 to 1.66), though the confidence interval encompasses benefit and harm (low-certainty evidence). The effect on condom use is uncertain. No study measured the impact of this intervention on STI rates. TCCMD may modestly increase ART adherence (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.32, low-certainty evidence, and standardised mean difference 0.44, 95% CI -0.14 to 1.02, low-certainty evidence). TCCMD may modestly increase health service utilisation (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.31; low-certainty evidence), but there was substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 85%), with mixed results according to type of service utilisation (i.e. attendance for STI testing; HIV treatment; voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC); VMMC post-operative visit; post-abortion care). For health and well-being outcomes, there may be little or no effect on CD4 count (mean difference 13.99, 95% CI -8.65 to 36.63; low-certainty evidence) and a slight reduction in virological failure (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.01; low-certainty evidence). TCCMD versus non-digital TCC No studies reported STI rates, condom use, ART adherence, abortion rates, or contraceptive use as outcomes for this comparison. TCCMD may modestly increase in service attendance overall (RR: 1.12, 95% CI 0.92-1.35, low certainty evidence), however the confidence interval encompasses benefit and harm. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication No studies reported STI rates, condom use, ART adherence, abortion rates, or contraceptive use as outcomes for this comparison. TCCMD may increase service utilisation overall (RR: 1.71, 95% CI 0.67-4.38, low certainty evidence), however the confidence interval encompasses benefit and harm and there was considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 72%), with mixed results according to type of service utilisation (STI/HIV testing, and VMMC). Few studies reported on unintended consequences. One study reported that a participant withdrew from the intervention as they felt it compromised their undisclosed HIV status. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: TCCMD may improve some outcomes but the evidence is of low certainty. The effect on most outcomes is uncertain/unknown due to very low certainty evidence or lack of evidence. High quality, adequately powered trials and cost effectiveness analyses are required to reliably ascertain the effects and relative benefits of TCC delivered by mobile devices. Given the sensitivity and stigma associated with sexual and reproductive health future studies should measure unintended consequences, such as partner violence or breaches of confidentiality.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Comunicação , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Saúde Sexual/normas , Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3328, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the use of contraceptive methods and the intention to become pregnant among women attending the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHOD: a cross-sectional study conducted with 688 women aged 18-49 years old, attending the Family Health Strategy Facilities in the eastern part of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who were awaiting medical or nursing consultation. Data were obtained through interviews with a structured instrument, allocated in tablets. The analysis was conducted with "strong desire to avoid pregnancy" as the dependent variable. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used, calculated in Stata 14.2. RESULTS: 56.5% used some contraceptive method, covariates of the strong desire to avoid pregnancy were marital status (OR=0.49; CI95%=0.33-0.74), parity - two and more children (OR=15.9; IC95%=4.29-59.1); and pregnancy planning - planned (OR=0.69; IC95%=0.73-0.94) and ambivalent (OR=2.94; IC95%=1.30-3.83). There was no statistical difference between the strong desire to avoid pregnancy and the type of contraceptive used. CONCLUSION: women with a strong desire to avoid pregnancy used basically the same types of contraceptive methods as women in general, which shows that they have not been supported to achieve their reproductive preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Intenção , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until 2011, stockouts of family planning commodities were common in Senegalese public health facilities. Recognizing the importance of addressing this problem, the Government of Senegal implemented the Informed Push Model (IPM) supply system, which involves logisticians to collect facility-level stock turnover data once a month and provide contraceptive supplies accordingly. The aims of this paper were to evaluate the impact of IPM on contraceptive availability and on stockout duration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To estimate the impact of the IPM on contraceptive availability, stock card data were obtained from health facilities selected through multistage sampling. A total number of 103 health facilities pertaining to 27 districts and nine regions across the country participated in this project. We compared the odds of contraceptive stockouts within the health facilities on the 23 months after the intervention with the 18 months before. The analysis was performed with a logistic model of the monthly time-series. The odds of stockout for any of the five contraceptive products decreased during the 23 months post-intervention compared to the 18 months pre-intervention (odds ratio, 95%CI: 0.34, 0.22-0.51). To evaluate the impact of the IPM on duration of stockouts, a mixed negative binomial zero-truncated regression analysis was performed. The IPM was not effective in reducing the duration of contraceptive stockouts (incidence rate ratio, 95%CI: 0.81, 0.24-2.7), except for the two long-acting contraceptives (intrauterine devices and implants). Our model predicted a decrease in stockout median duration from 23 pre- to 4 days post-intervention for intrauterine devices; and from 19 to 14 days for implants. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the IPM has resulted in greater efficiency in contraceptive stock management, increasing the availability of contraceptive methods in health facilities in Senegal. The IPM also resulted in decreased duration of stockouts for intrauterine devices and implants, but not for any of the short-acting contraception (pills and injectables).


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/instrumentação , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/provisão & distribução , Senegal
11.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 427-460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822554

RESUMO

As new government health policy was created and implemented in the late 1910s and the late 1960s, women patients and health practitioners recognized gaps in the new health services and worked together to create better programs. This article brings the histories of the district nursing program (1919-43) and local birth control centres (1970-79) together to recognize women's health provision (as trained nurses or lay practitioners) as community-based and collaborative endeavours in the province of Alberta. The district nursing and birth control centre programs operated under different health policies, were influenced by different feminisms, and were situated in different Indigenous-settler relations. But the two programs, occurring half a century apart, provided space for health workers and their patients to implement change at a community level. Health practitioners in the early and late twentieth century took women's experiential knowledge seriously, and, therefore, these communities formed a new field of women's health expertise.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/história , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/história , Anticoncepção/história , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/história , Saúde da Mulher/história , Alberta , Feminino , Feminismo/história , Política de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde da População Rural/história
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the desire of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to use contraceptives, the majority of them have challenges with access to contraceptive services. This is more evident in high fertility countries in SSA. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of unmet need for contraception among AGYW in selected high fertility countries in SSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from current Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) carried out between 2010 and 2018 in 10 countries in SSA were analysed. A sample size of 24,898 AGYW who were either married or cohabiting was used. Unmet need for contraception was the outcome variable in this study. The explanatory variables were age, marital status, occupation, educational level, frequency of reading newspaper/magazine, frequency of listening to radio, frequency of watching television and parity (individual level variables) and wealth quintile, sex of household head, place of residence and decision-maker in healthcare (household/community level variables). Descriptive and multilevel logistic regression analyses were carried out. The results of the multilevel logistic regression analyses were reported using adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The prevalence of unmet need for contraception in all the countries considered in this study was 24.9%, with Angola, recording the highest prevalence of 42.6% while Niger had the lowest prevalence of 17.8%. In terms of the individual level predictors, the likelihood of unmet need for contraception was low among AGYW aged 20-24 [aOR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.76-0.88], those with primary [aOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.13-1.31] and secondary/higher levels of formal education [aOR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.08-1.28, p < 0.001], cohabiting AGYW [aOR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.42-1.63] and AGYW with three or more births [aOR = 3.41; 95% CI = 3.02-3.85]. At the household/community level, the odds of unmet need for contraception was highest among poorer AGYW [aOR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.21-1.53], AGYW in female-headed households [aOR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.13-1.33], urban AGYW [aOR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.11-1.32] and AGYW who took healthcare decisions alone [aOR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21]. CONCLUSION: This study has identified disparities in unmet need for contraception among AGYW in high fertility countries in SSA, with AGYW in Angola having the highest prevalence. Both individual and household/community level factors predicted unmet need for contraception among AGYW in this study. However, based on the ICC values, household/community level factors prevailed the individual level factors. Enhancing access to contraception among poorer AGYW, those in female-headed households, those in urban areas and those who take healthcare decisions alone by both governmental and non-governmental organisations in high fertility countries is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) model was introduced by the National Department of Health in South Africa to tackle the dual burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases. One of the aims of the ICDM model is to reduce HIV-related stigma. This paper describes the viewpoints of service users and providers on HIV stigma in an ICDM model in rural South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A content analysis of HIV stigmatisation in seven primary health care (PHC) facilities and their catchment communities was conducted in 2013 in the rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Eight Focus Group Discussions were used to obtain data from 61 purposively selected participants who were 18 years and above. Seven In-Depth Interviews were conducted with the nurses-in-charge of the facilities. The transcripts were inductively analysed using MAXQDA 2018 qualitative software. RESULTS: The emerging themes were HIV stigma, HIV testing and reproductive health-related concerns. Both service providers and users perceived implementation of the ICDM model may have led to reduced HIV stigma in the facilities. On the other hand, service users and providers thought HIV stigma increased in the communities because community members thought that home-based carers visited the homes of People living with HIV. Service users thought that routine HIV testing, intended for pregnant women, was linked with unwanted pregnancies among adolescents who wanted to use contraceptives but refused to take an HIV test as a precondition for receiving contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: Although the ICDM model was perceived to have contributed to reducing HIV stigma in the health facilities, it was linked with stigma in the communities. This has implications for practice in the community component of the ICDM model in the study setting and elsewhere in South Africa.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Gravidez , População Rural , Estigma Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e160, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807254

RESUMO

AIMS: Although much research has focused on socio-demographic determinants of uptake of contraception, few have studied the impact of poor mental health on women's reproductive behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of poor mental health on women's unmet need for contraception and fertility rate in a low-income country setting. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 1026 women recruited in their third trimester of pregnancy in the Butajira district in rural Ethiopia was assessed for symptoms of antenatal common mental disorders (CMDs; depression and anxiety) using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. Women were followed up regularly until 6.5 years postnatal (between 2005 and 2012). We calculated unmet need for contraception at 1 year (n = 999), 2.5 (n = 971) and 3.5 years (n = 951) post-delivery of index child and number of pregnancies during study period. We tested the association between CMD symptoms, unmet need for contraception and fertility rate. RESULTS: Less than one-third of women reported current use of contraception at each time point. Unmet need for birth spacing was higher at 1 year postnatal, with over half of women (53.8%) not using contraception wanting to wait 2 or more years before becoming pregnant. Higher CMD symptoms 1 year post-index pregnancy were associated with unmet need for contraception at 2.5 years postnatal in the unadjusted [odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15] and fully adjusted model [OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12]. During the 6.5 year cohort follow-up period, the mean number of pregnancies per woman was 2.4 (s.d. 0.98). There was no prospective association between maternal CMD and number of pregnancies in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: CMD symptoms are associated with increased unmet need for family planning in this cohort of women with high fertility and low contraceptive use in rural Ethiopia. There is a lack of models of care promoting integration of mental and physical health in the family planning setting and further research is necessary to study the burden of preconception mental health conditions and how these can be best addressed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Fertilidade , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1151-1160, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women experiencing unintended and short-interval pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Nationally, researchers report disparities in women's use of effective contraceptive methods based on demographic, cultural, financial and system-level factors. Despite 58% of Louisiana births being unplanned, researchers have not reported on these relationships in Louisiana. METHODS: We used Louisiana Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 2015 to 2018. Among postpartum women who were not abstinent, pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, we estimated use of five categories of effective contraception versus no effective method. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to investigate the association between effective contraceptive use and race/ethnicity, postpartum insurance and education. RESULTS: Among Louisiana postpartum women who were not abstinent, pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, 35.4% were not using effective contraception. Women with public insurance had greater odds of using long-acting reversible contraception than women with private insurance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.16). Compared to women with a bachelor's or higher, women with less than high school (AOR 2.09; CI 1.22-3.56), high school (AOR 3.11; CI 2.01-4.82) or some college education (AOR 2.48; CI 1.64-3.75) had greater odds of using permanent contraception. Black (AOR 3.83; CI 2.66-5.54) and Hispanic (AOR 3.85; CI 2.09-7.11) women, women with less than high school (AOR 6.79; CI 2.72-16.94), high school (AOR 7.26; CI 3.06-17.21) and some college (AOR 7.22; CI 3.14-16.60), and women with public insurance (AOR 1.91; CI 1.28-2.87) had greater odds of using injectable contraception. DISCUSSION: Results showed variation in effective contraceptive method use by race/ethnicity, insurance and education. These findings highlight the need for state-level research into the individual, provider, and policy-level factors that influence women's contraceptive choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Louisiana , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 66: 107-118, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527659

RESUMO

This article sets out the progress that has been made in reducing levels of adolescent childbearing and in meeting adolescent contraceptive needs, over the last 25 years, and also makes the public health, economic, and human rights rationale for continued attention to and investment in these areas. Using an analytic framework that covers the perspectives of both the use and the provision of contraception, it examines the factors that make it difficult for adolescents to obtain and use contraceptives to avoid unintended pregnancies, and outlines what could be done to address these factors, drawing from research evidence and programmatic experience. In doing this, the article provides concrete examples from low- and middle-countries that have made tangible progress in these areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1214-1220, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552027

RESUMO

Objectives. To measure changes in the contraceptive methods used by Title X clients after implementation of Delaware Contraceptive Access Now, a public-private initiative that aims to increase access to contraceptives, particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs).Methods. Using administrative data from the 2008-2017 Family Planning Annual Reports and a difference-in-differences design, we compared changes in contraceptive method use among adult female Title X family planning clients in Delaware with changes in a set of comparison states. We considered permanent methods, LARCs, moderately effective methods, less effective methods, and no method use.Results. Results suggest a 3.2-percentage-point increase in LARC use relative to changes in other states (a 40% increase from baseline). We were unable to make definitive conclusions about other contraceptive method types.Conclusions. Delaware Contraceptive Access Now increased LARC use among Title X clients. Our results have implications for states considering comprehensive family planning initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/tendências , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Delaware , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pobreza , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Estados Unidos
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