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1.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 808-811, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218393

RESUMO

Many routine and elective services have already been postponed or suspended by both Government and private setups in most parts of the world because of the unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19. Healthcare systems everywhere in the world are under pressure. Being a component of essential health services, family planning and abortion services should continue to cater the population in order to prevent the complications arising from unintended pregnancies and sudden rise in STIs. Due to airborne nature of transmission of the virus, it is advisable for all consultations relating to family planning services to be done remotely unless and until visit is absolutely necessary. Contraception initiation and continuation can be done by telemedicine in most individuals. Post partum contraception can be advised before discharge from hospital. In an individual planning for pregnancy, currently it is not advisable to discontinue contraceptive and plan for pregnancy as not much is known about the effect of the virus on foetal development. Also, pregnancy requires routine antenatal and peripartum care and complications arising from pregnancy may necessitate frequent hospital visits, exposing the individual to the risk of infection. Abortion services are time sensitive therefore should not be denied or delayed beyond legal limit. We need to change from real to virtual consultation to prevent the rise in unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and unsafe abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Anticoncepção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239903, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Modern contraceptive use during the first year postpartum potentially prevents unplanned pregnancies and help to improve maternal and child health. Therefore, identifying factors associated with contraceptive utilization among women of reproductive age during extended postpartum period is essential. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess factors associated with modern contraceptives use among postpartum women in Bukombe District, Geita region. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women who were in their first year after child birth in Bukombe district. A total of 511 women were included using multistage sampling techniques. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using Stata 15 (College Station, Texas, USA). RESULTS: The prevalence of postpartum modern contraceptive was 11.9%. The most frequently used method was implant (6.5%). Most women started to use the contraceptive during the first three months after delivery. Living in urban (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.20-3.79), having business (AOR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.31-2.28), last born aged 3-4 months (AOR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.11-9.85) and menses resumption (AOR = 9.24, 95% CI: 3.60-23.72) were predictors for postpartum contraceptive use. However, fear of side effects, poor knowledge about contraceptives, husband restrictions, distance to health facility and contraceptive availability were reported as barriers for postpartum modern contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of postpartum modern contraceptive use in the study area is still low. Numerous factors were reported as barriers for postpartum contraceptive use. A strategy such as health education on befits of post-partum modern contraceptive use and counseling women about side effects may help to improve its uptake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003333, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined records of 3,281,667 women aged 13 to 54 years registered with a primary care clinic in Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine trends in annual LARC and non-LARC hormonal contraception (NLHC) uptake and abortion rates, stratified by age and deprivation groups, before and after the P4P was introduced in 2009/2010. Between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014, crude LARC uptake rates increased by 32.0% from 29.6 per 1,000 women to 39.0 per 1,000 women, compared with 18.0% decrease in NLHC uptake. LARC uptake among women of all ages increased immediately after the P4P with step change of 5.36 per 1,000 women (all values are per 1,000 women unless stated, 95% CI 5.26-5.45, p < 0.001). Women aged 20 to 24 years had the largest step change (8.40, 8.34-8.47, p < 0.001) and sustained trend increase (3.14, 3.08-3.19, p < 0.001) compared with other age groups. NLHC uptake fell in all women with a step change of -22.8 (-24.5 to -21.2, p < 0.001), largely due to fall in combined hormonal contraception (CHC; -15.0, -15.5 to -14.5, p < 0.001). Abortion rates in all women fell immediately after the P4P with a step change of -2.28 (-2.98 to -1.57, p = 0.002) and sustained decrease in trend of -0.88 (-1.12 to -0.63, p < 0.001). The largest falls occurred in women aged 13 to 19 years (step change -5.04, -7.56 to -2.51, p = 0.011), women aged 20 to 24 years (step change -4.52, -7.48 to -1.57, p = 0.030), and women from the most deprived group (step change -4.40, -6.89 to -1.91, p = 0.018). We estimate that by 2013/2014, the P4P scheme resulted in an additional 4.53 LARC prescriptions per 1,000 women (relative increase of 13.4%) more than would have been expected without the scheme. There was a concurrent absolute reduction of -5.31 abortions per 1,000 women, or -38.3% relative reduction. Despite universal coverage of healthcare, some women might have obtained contraception elsewhere or had abortion procedure that was not recorded on CPRD. Other policies aiming to increase LARC use or reduce unplanned pregnancies around the same time could also explain the findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that LARC uptake increased and abortions fell in the period after the P4P scheme in British primary care, with additional impact for young women aged 20-24 years and those from deprived backgrounds.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/psicologia , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/tendências , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946480

RESUMO

Wild boar and feral swine number and range are increasing worldwide in parallel with their impact on biodiversity and human activities. The ecological and economic impact of this species include spread of diseases, vehicle collisions, damage to crops, amenities and infrastructures and reduction in plant and animal abundance and richness. As traditional methods such as culling have not contained the growth and spread of wild boar and feral pigs, alternative methods such as fertility control are now advocated. We used empirical data on two isolated wild boar populations to model and compare the effects of different regimes of culling and fertility control on population trends. We built a Bayesian population model and applied it to explore the implications for population control of various management options combining culling and/or contraception. The results showed that, whilst fertility control on its own was not sufficient to achieve the target reduction in wild boar number, adding fertility control to culling was more effective than culling alone. In particular, using contraceptives on 40% of the population to complement the culling of 60% of the animals, halved the time to achieve our target reduction compared with culling only. We conclude that, assuming the effort of adding fertility control to culling was found to be cost-effective in terms of population reduction, these two methods should be used simultaneously if a rapid decrease in wild boar number is required for a closed population.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Controle da População/métodos , Abate de Animais/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sus scrofa , Suínos
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 360-362, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of integrating a contraception clinic within an opioid agonist treatment (OAT) service to improve access to contraception, especially long-acting reversible methods of contraception (LARC), for women receiving OAT, who have increased risk of unplanned pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A contraception clinic was established at a Sydney OAT service. Forty-eight female OAT clients were surveyed regarding their contraception knowledge and needs. Interested and eligible women were referred to the contraception clinic. RESULTS: Women were aged a median of 39 years (range 24-54 years). Most women (83%) agreed it was acceptable for their OAT clinician to discuss contraception with them. Eight women reported current LARC use and 21 reported they would consider using LARC. Twenty-three women were eligible for contraception (sexually active, aged <50 years, not using contraception, wishing to avoid pregnancy). Six months post-survey two women had presented to the clinic and two reported an unintended pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Uptake of an on-site contraception service within OAT clinic was low, despite participants' expressed willingness to use the service. Access is therefore not the only driver of low contraception uptake for this group. Implications for public health: Other issues besides access to contraception warrant investigation to improve contraception uptake for women receiving OAT.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1151-1160, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women experiencing unintended and short-interval pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Nationally, researchers report disparities in women's use of effective contraceptive methods based on demographic, cultural, financial and system-level factors. Despite 58% of Louisiana births being unplanned, researchers have not reported on these relationships in Louisiana. METHODS: We used Louisiana Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 2015 to 2018. Among postpartum women who were not abstinent, pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, we estimated use of five categories of effective contraception versus no effective method. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to investigate the association between effective contraceptive use and race/ethnicity, postpartum insurance and education. RESULTS: Among Louisiana postpartum women who were not abstinent, pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, 35.4% were not using effective contraception. Women with public insurance had greater odds of using long-acting reversible contraception than women with private insurance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.16). Compared to women with a bachelor's or higher, women with less than high school (AOR 2.09; CI 1.22-3.56), high school (AOR 3.11; CI 2.01-4.82) or some college education (AOR 2.48; CI 1.64-3.75) had greater odds of using permanent contraception. Black (AOR 3.83; CI 2.66-5.54) and Hispanic (AOR 3.85; CI 2.09-7.11) women, women with less than high school (AOR 6.79; CI 2.72-16.94), high school (AOR 7.26; CI 3.06-17.21) and some college (AOR 7.22; CI 3.14-16.60), and women with public insurance (AOR 1.91; CI 1.28-2.87) had greater odds of using injectable contraception. DISCUSSION: Results showed variation in effective contraceptive method use by race/ethnicity, insurance and education. These findings highlight the need for state-level research into the individual, provider, and policy-level factors that influence women's contraceptive choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Louisiana , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525965

RESUMO

The affordability of pharmaceuticals has been a major challenge in US health care. Generic substitution has been proposed as an important tool to reduce the costs, yet little is known how the prices of more expensive brand-name drugs would be affected by an increased utilization of generics. We aimed to examine the trend of overall utilization and the total costs of brand-name oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), the most widely used form of contraception, and its association with the pharmaceutical market concentration among the OCPs. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2011-2014, a nationally representative survey of healthcare utilization, were extracted on the utilization of generic and brand-name OCPs. A multiple logit regression analysis was conducted to assess the trend in utilization of brand-name OCPs over time. Total costs, including the costs to the payers and consumers, were synthesized. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), an index describing market concentration, was constructed, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the brand-name OCP prices and the market share of individual brand-name drugs. The odds of utilizing brand-name drugs decreased steadily in 2012, 2013, and 2014 compared to 2012 (AOR 0.87, 0.73, 0.55, respectively, p<0.05) controlling for patient mix. Despite significant decline in total utilization, there was a 90% increase in the price of brand-name OCPs, resulting an 18% increase in revenue from 2011 to 2014 for the industry. During this time, pharmaceutical market concentration for OCPs increased (HHI increased from 1105 in 2011 to 2415 in 2014). Each percentage point increase in the market share by a brand-name OCPs was associated with a $3.12 increase in its price. Market mechanisms matter. Practitioners and policy makers need to take market mechanisms into account in order to realize the benefits of generic substitutions.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Adulto , Anticoncepção/economia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/tendências , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Competição Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competição Econômica/tendências , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e14073, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the most effective methods of contraception are available in Bolivia, unmet need for contraception among women aged 15 to 19 years is estimated to be 38% (2008), and the adolescent fertility rate is 71 per 1000 women (2016). Mobile phones are a popular mode to deliver health behavior support. We developed a contraceptive behavioral intervention for young Bolivian women delivered by mobile phone and guided by behavioral science. The intervention consists of short instant messages sent through an app over 4 months. OBJECTIVE: This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of the intervention on young Bolivian women's use of and attitudes toward the effective contraceptive methods available in Bolivia. METHODS: This was a parallel group, individually randomized superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Women were eligible if they were aged 16 to 24 years, owned a personal Android mobile phone, lived in La Paz or El Alto, reported an unmet need for contraception, and could read Spanish. The target sample size was 1310 participants. Participants allocated to the intervention had access to an app with standard family planning information and intervention messages. Participants allocated to the control group had access to the same app and control messages. Coprimary outcomes were use of effective contraception and acceptability of at least one method of effective contraception at 4 months. Secondary outcomes were use of effective contraception during the study, acceptability of the individual methods, service uptake, unintended pregnancy, and abortion. Process outcomes included knowledge, perceived norms, personal agency, and intention. Outcomes were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. We also asked participants about physical violence. RESULTS: A total of 640 participants were enrolled, and 67.0% (429) of them contributed follow-up data for the coprimary outcome, the use of effective contraception. There was no evidence that use differed between the groups (33% control vs 37% intervention; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.77; P=.40). There was a borderline significant effect regarding acceptability (63% control vs 72% intervention; adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.28; P=.06). There were no statistically significant differences in any of the secondary or process outcomes. The intervention dose received was low. In the control group, 2.8% (6/207) reported experiencing physical violence compared with 1.9% (4/202) in the intervention group (Fisher exact test P=.75). CONCLUSIONS: This trial was unable to provide definitive conclusions regarding the effect of the intervention on use and acceptability of effective contraception because of under recruitment. Although we cannot strongly recommend implementation, the results suggest that it would be safe and may increase the acceptability of effective contraception if the intervention messages were offered alongside the download of the app. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02905526; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02905526.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/instrumentação , Anticoncepção/métodos , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolívia , Feminino , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 277-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the impact of providers disclosing personal contraceptive experiences with patients is limited. In this study, we examine patient and provider perspectives about provider self-disclosure (PSD) of personal contraceptive experiences and its effects on contraceptive decision making and the provider-patient relationship. METHODS: We conducted 18 one-on-one telephone interviews with clinicians who provide contraceptive services to young women and 17 patients seeking emergency contraception from three Bay Area community-based, youth-friendly clinics regarding their contraceptive counseling practices and experiences, respectively. After transcribing and coding all interviews, we summarized structural codes related to contraceptive counseling and PSD. RESULTS: Although providers noted that PSD could help to build rapport and increase patient comfort, most did not report self-disclosing their contraceptive experiences, primarily owing to concerns that it might cross professional boundaries or compromise patient autonomy. All patients held positive attitudes toward and welcomed PSD practices, with many noting that it increased their comfort and trust in their provider. CONCLUSIONS: There were notable differences between patient and provider attitudes toward PSD of contraceptive method use, with patients expressing more positive feelings about the practice than providers. Community-based providers should consider that many young women welcome self-disclosure of provider contraceptive experiences and that more research is needed to understand the effects of PSD practices around contraception on the patient-provider relationship and autonomous contraceptive decision making.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais Pós-Coito/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Revelação , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 705, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malawi has a high fertility rate which is also characterized by a relatively high prevalence of unmet need for contraception. However, little is known about the influence of individual- and community- level characteristics on unmet need in Malawi. This study examined the individual- and community- level factors associated with unmet need for family planning (FP) among Malawian women. METHODS: Data from the 2015-16 Malawi demographic and health survey were used to analyze 15, 931 women. The association between individual- and community- level factors and unmet need was assessed using multilevel binary logistic regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of total unmet need was 21.0%. Women aged ≥35 years were more likely to have total unmet need [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.35] compared with those aged 15-24 years. Women who were married [aOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.35-0.48], and those employed [aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71-0.85] were associated with less likelihood of having total unmet need compared with unmarried, and unemployed women, respectively. At community-level, women from communities with a high percentage of women from rich households [aOR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.96], and those from communities with a middle and high percentage of educated women [aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96 and aOR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.70-0.93, respectively] were less likely to have total unmet need for FP compared with those from communities with low percentages of rich and educated women, respectively. The proportional change in variance showed that about 36.0% of total variations in the odds of unmet need across the communities were explained by both individual- and community-level factors. Moreover, the intraclass correlation showed that about 3.0% of the total variation remained unexplained even after controlling for both individual- and community-level factors. CONCLUSION: Both individual- and community- level factors influenced unmet need for FP in Malawi. Public health practitioners should conduct community profiling and consider individual and community factors when designing FP programs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 260-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sterilization is used by one-quarter of women in the United States for contraception and is a preferred birth control method among women with Medicaid. A history of coercive sterilization practices in the United States led to federal regulation of consent for Medicaid sterilization (including a mandated waiting period); this regulation can be a barrier to sterilization in Medicaid-insured women. This study aimed to develop a revised model of Medicaid sterilization policy grounded in the experiences of women impacted by current regulations. METHODS: This prospective study used in-depth interviews with 32 Medicaid-insured women who had obtained or tried to obtain sterilization to elicit recommendations regarding the Medicaid waiting period. Deliberative methods (a planning cell including 20 key community stakeholders) were used to evaluate women's recommendations and propose a revised policy for sterilization under Medicaid. RESULTS: In-depth interview data demonstrated that women were often not made aware of the 30-day waiting period during informed consent before sterilization. Once informed about the policy, women described the Medicaid waiting period as "unfair," because it did not apply to all women. After deliberating women's recommendations to change the policy, key stakeholders came to a consensus around replacing the current waiting period policy with an improved consent process that would acknowledge the problematic history of coercive sterilization. Participants could not endorse removing the waiting period altogether without evidence that the health system had shifted away from coercive sterilization practices. CONCLUSIONS: Using deliberative methods and the recommendations of women with Medicaid insurance, community stakeholders recommended developing a revised Medicaid sterilization consent policy that acknowledged the historical context of this procedure.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Medicaid , Esterilização Reprodutiva/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Esterilização , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
13.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(1): 133-142, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358945

RESUMO

Contraceptive use in Nigeria has remained low despite the efforts of government and non-governmental agencies to increase its uptake. Most studies on contraceptive use have focused on individual-level determinants and evidence is sparse on the influence of social or community context. This study examines the influences of contextual factors on modern contraceptive use in Nigeria. We used data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and a sample of 12,186, currently married women aged 15-49 years. Multilevel logistic regression which provides a flexible modeling for hierarchical data was used to examine the effects of contextual factors on contraceptive use. Findings revealed considerable low usage of contraception across the regions of Nigeria. Living in high and moderate ethnically diverse communities and communities that have high proportion of educated women was significantly associated with increased usage. The findings provide useful information for policy makers to consider the social milieu in which women live for effective family planning interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 268-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Zika Contraception Access Network (Z-CAN) was designed to provide women in Puerto Rico who chose to delay or avoid pregnancy during the 2016-2017 Zika virus outbreak access to high-quality client-centered contraceptive counseling and the full range of reversible contractive methods on the same day and at no cost through a network of trained providers. We evaluated the implementation of Z-CAN from the patient perspective. METHODS: An online survey, administered to a subset of women served by the Z-CAN program approximately 2 weeks after their initial Z-CAN visit, assessed patient satisfaction and receipt of services consistent with select program strategies: receipt of high-quality client-centered contraceptive counseling, same-day access to the contraceptive method they were most interested in after counseling, and no-cost contraception. RESULTS: Of 3,503 respondents, 85.2% reported receiving high-quality client-centered contraceptive counseling. Among women interested in a contraceptive method after counseling (n = 3,470), most reported same-day access to that method (86.8%) and most reported receiving some method of contraception at no cost (87.4%). Women who reported receiving services according to Z-CAN program strategies were more likely than those who did not to be very satisfied with services. Women who received high-quality client-centered contraceptive counseling and same-day access to the method they were most interested in after counseling were also more likely to be very satisfied with the contraceptive method received. CONCLUSIONS: A contraception access program can be rapidly implemented with high fidelity to program strategies in a fast-moving and complex public health emergency setting.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Aconselhamento/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gravidez , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 87, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its relatively low effectiveness, withdrawal is a common contraceptive practice. In Vietnam, health concerns about hormonal contraception are strong and account for substantial method discontinuation. Given the paucity of evidence on withdrawal, our objective was to identify correlates of using withdrawal among women not desiring pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study of sexually-active adult women attending a public hospital in Hanoi, who did not desire pregnancy. We enrolled a stratified sample of women using the intrauterine device, combination oral contraception, or neither method. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics and reproductive history and behaviors. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate correlates of using a tier 3 contraception method (without withdrawal) and using withdrawal (alone or with a tier 3 method) compared to the referent category of using a tier 1 or 2 method (without withdrawal). RESULTS: Of the 489 participants in the analysis, 52.3% reported using tier 1 or 2 method (without withdrawal); 19.8% reported tier 3 contraception (without withdrawal) and 27.9% reported using withdrawal (alone or with a tier 3 method). Compared to those using a tier 1 or 2 method, women using withdrawal had lower odds of reporting that avoiding pregnancy was very important or important to them (aOR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7). Women using withdrawal had higher odds of reporting that their husband/partner refuses to give them money for household expenses, even when he has the money (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6). CONCLUSIONS: Women using withdrawal might have less relationship power than nonusers. They also might rely on the practice because they are more ambivalent about pregnancy.


Assuntos
Coito Interrompido , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Gravidez não Planejada , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/etnologia , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kinshasa is Africa's third largest city and one of the continent's most rapidly growing urban areas. PMA2020 data showed that Kinshasa has a modern contraceptive prevalence of 26.5% among married women in 2018. In Kinshasa's method mix, the contraceptive implant recently became the dominant method among contraceptive users married and in union. This study provides insight into patterns of implant use in a high-fertility setting by evaluating the 24-month continuation rate for Implanon NXT and identifying the characteristics associated with discontinuation. METHODOLOGY: This community-based, prospective cohort study followed 531 Implanon users aged 18-49 years at 6, 12 and 24 months. The following information was collected: socio-demographic characteristics, Method Information Index (MII) and contraceptive history. The main outcome variable for this study was implant discontinuation. The incidence rate of discontinuation is presented as events per 1000 person/months (p-m), from the date of enrolment. The Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to measure predictors of discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 9158.13 p-m were available for analysis, with an overall incidence rate of 9.06 (95% CI: 9.04-9.08) removals per 1000 p-m. Of nine possible co-variates tested, the likelihood of discontinuation was higher among women who lived in military camps, had less than three children, never used injectables or implants in the past, had experienced heavy/prolonged bleeding, and whose MII score was less than 3. CONCLUSION: In addition to four client characteristics that predicted discontinuation, we identified one programmatic factor: quality of counseling as measured by the Method Information Index. Community providers in similar contexts should pay more attention to clients having less than three children, new adopters, and to clients living military camps as underserved population, where clients have less access to health facilities. More targeted counselling and follow-up is needed, especially on bleeding patterns.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1275-1280, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of readmissions for postpartum venous thromboembolism (VTE) during the first 30 days postdelivery between women with and without the immediate postpartum insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database from 2016 was used to identify women with a singleton delivery, immediate postpartum insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant, and readmission for VTE within 30 days of discharge. Those with a prior history of VTE or anticoagulant therapy were excluded. These women were compared with the number of women readmitted within 30 days for VTE who did not have the contraceptive implant placed during delivery admission. RESULTS: Of 3,387,120 deliveries, 8,369 women underwent etonogestrel contraceptive implant placement during the delivery admission. There was no difference identified in the rate of readmission for VTE between exposed and unexposed women. Of these, seven had received a postpartum etonogestrel contraceptive implant (0.85/1,000; 95% CI 0.22-1.45/1,000 deliveries), compared with 1,192 without an etonogestrel contraceptive implant (0.35/1,000; 95% CI 0.33-0.37/1,000 deliveries); odds ratio (OR) 2.41; 95% CI 0.58-9.89. The rates of diabetes, thrombophilia, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cesarean birth did not differ between groups. Women who underwent etonogestrel contraceptive implant placement were younger and were more likely to have government-sponsored health insurance, a smoking history, hypertension, peripartum infection, or postpartum hemorrhage than women who did not receive an etonogestrel contraceptive implant (P<.001). After adjusting for these confounders, there remained no difference in rates of VTE, adjusted OR 1.81; 95% CI 0.44-7.45. CONCLUSION: The immediate postpartum placement of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant was not associated with an increased rate of VTE; however, our sample size was underpowered to determine no difference.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desogestrel/uso terapêutico , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Período Pós-Parto , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 102, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends postpartum family planning (PPFP) for healthy birth spacing. This study is an evaluation of an intervention that sought to improve women's access to PPFP in Tanzania. The intervention included counseling on PPFP during antenatal and delivery care and introducing postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) insertion as an integrated part of delivery services for women electing PPIUD in the immediate postpartum period. METHODS: This cluster-randomized controlled trial recruited 15,264 postpartum Tanzanian women aged 18 or older who delivered in one of five study hospitals between January and September 2016. We present the effectiveness of the intervention using a difference-in-differences approach to compare outcomes, receipt of PPIUD counseling and choice of PPIUD after delivery, between the pre- and post-intervention period in the treatment and control group. We also present an intervention adherence-adjusted analysis using an instrumental variables estimation. RESULTS: We estimate linear probability models to obtain effect sizes in percentage points (pp). The intervention increased PPIUD counseling by 19.8 pp (95% CI: 9.1 - 22.6 pp) and choice of PPIUD by 6.3 pp (95% CI: 2.3 - 8.0 pp). The adherence-adjusted estimates demonstrate that if all women had been counseled, we would have observed a 31.6 pp increase in choice of PPIUD (95% CI: 24.3 - 35.8 pp). Among women counseled, determinants of choosing PPIUD included receiving an informational leaflet during counseling and being counseled after admission for delivery services. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention modestly increased the rate of PPIUD counseling and choice of PPIUD, primarily due to low coverage of PPIUD counseling among women delivering in study facilities. With universal PPIUD counseling, large increases in choice of PPIUD would have been observed. Giving women informational materials on PPIUD and counseling after admission for delivery are likely to increase the proportion of women choosing PPIUD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02718222) on March 24, 2016, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Aconselhamento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Anticoncepção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Tanzânia
19.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 283-291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women veterans who use the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System theoretically have access to the full range of contraceptive methods. This study explores match between currently used and self-reported "ideal" methods as a potential marker of contraceptive access and preference matching. METHODS: This mixed methods study uses data from a nationally representative survey of reproductive-aged women veterans who use the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System for primary care, including 979 participants at risk of unintended pregnancy. Women reported all contraceptive methods used in the past month and were asked, "If you could choose any method of contraception or birth control to prevent pregnancy, what would be your ideal choice?" and selected a single "ideal" method. If applicable, participants were additionally asked, "Why aren't you currently using this method of contraception?" We used adjusted logistic regression to identify patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with ideal-current method match. We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses about reasons for ideal method nonuse. RESULTS: Overall, 58% were currently using their ideal method; match was greatest among women selecting an IUD as ideal (73%). Non-White race/ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.89) and mental illness (adjusted odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.92) were negatively associated with ideal-current match in adjusted analyses; the presence of a gynecologist at the primary care site was associated with an increased odds of match (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.75). Modifiable barriers to ideal method use were cited by 23% of women, including access issues, cost concerns, and provider-level barriers; 79% of responses included nonmodifiable reasons for mismatch including relationship factors and pregnancy plans incongruent with ideal method use, suggesting limitations of our measure based on differential interpretation of the word "ideal." CONCLUSIONS: Many women veterans are not currently using the contraceptive method they consider ideal. Results emphasize the complexity of contraceptive method selection and of measuring contraceptive preference matching.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Autorrelato , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(2): 200-205, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of contraception soon after abortion, ectopic, or molar pregnancy following the establishment of a surveillance network (MUSA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women admitted for abortion, or ectopic or molar pregnancy at UNICAMP Women's Hospital (part of the MUSA Network), Campinas, Brazil, between July 2017 and August 2019. Clinical and sociodemographic data were compared between women who initiated contraception before discharge and those who did not by using a Cochran-Armitage test and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 382 women were enrolled (mean ± SD age, 29.6 ± 7.4 years). Most women (287, 75.2%) had abortions, and 146 (38.2%) initiated contraception before hospital discharge. The most common contraceptives were injectables (75, 51.4%) followed by pills (65, 44.5%). Use of contraception increased during the study period (Z=3.69, P<0.01), mostly due to injectables (Z=3.84, P<0.01). Factors independently associated with contraceptive initiation were admission in 2019 (odds ratio [OR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-5.17) and not having an abortion for legal reasons (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.30-9.62). CONCLUSION: Implementation of a surveillance network optimized the health service and quality of care. There was an increase in contraception use and a vulnerable population was identified.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Anticoncepção/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
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