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1.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 49(4): 647-663, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328673

RESUMO

A life-course approach incorporating appropriate preconception and contraception care is key to achieving optimal maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), there is a large unmet need for contraception and an estimated 49% of pregnancies are unintended. In this article, we discuss preconception and contraception care in LMIC settings including key recommendations for content and service delivery. We discuss barriers and facilitators to contraceptive provision, discuss considerations for providers who may practice in LMIC settings, and highlight strategies for achieving increased contraceptive uptake including several examples of successful programs.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento Contraceptivo
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 834, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy is a public health challenge that has well-defined causes, associated health risks, and social and economic consequences for adolescent, their families, communities, and society. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize studies published on socio-cultural determinants of adolescent pregnancy in Ghana. METHODS: Search for records was done in four major databases, including PubMed CENTRAL, Science Direct and JSTOR. Records from Google and Google Scholar were also added, and results and findings from published and unpublished studies were included. All the 22 studies that met the eligibility criteria, were critically appraised. The guidelines for conducting scoping reviews by Arksey and O'Malley were followed. RESULTS: The result revealed that poverty, peer influence, low level of education, dysfunctional family, lack of communication between parents and their daughters, lack of sexual and reproductive health education, child marriage, coerced sex, misconception and non-usage of contraceptives, and decline in cultural values such as puberty rites and virginity inspection are some of the determinants of adolescent pregnancy in Ghana. The study also showed that there is a lack of high-quality observational studies that adjust for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Interventions and policies should be designed to take into consideration the needs, context, and background of adolescents. Programmes to enhance adolescent reproductive health need to consider multilevel factors such as person, family, community, institutions, national, and global issues that affect such programmes.


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência , Gravidez , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gana , Educação Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Anticoncepcionais
3.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 209, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the instrumental role long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) play in reducing unintended pregnancies, there is a need to understand the factors that predict their use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries. Our study examined the prevalence and predictors of LARCs use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from the women's files of the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2010 to 2020 of the top ten high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which are part of the DHS programme. The total sample was 5854 sexually active adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 who were using modern contraceptives at the time of the survey. Descriptive and multilevel logistic regression models were used in the analyses. The results were presented using percentages and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: At the descriptive level, the overall prevalence of LARCs utilisation was 17.6% in the ten countries, with the lowest of 1.7% in Angola and the highest of 55.8% in Mali. Adolescent girls and young women who were married had a lower likelihood of LARCs utilisation than those who were never married [AOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.45, 0.88]. Adolescent girls and young women who wanted no more children had higher odds of LARCs use compared to those who wanted more children [AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.26]. Adolescent girls and young women with one to three births [AOR = 6.42, 95% CI = 4.27, 9.67], and those with four or more births [AOR = 7.02, 95% CI = 3.88, 12.67] were more likely to use LARCs compared to those who had no children. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa with lower probability of utilizing LARCs were Angola, Niger and Mozambique, whereas adolescent girls and young women in Mali had higher probability of utilizing LARCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that LARCs utilisation among adolescent girls and young women is low in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, it is imperative that adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa are educated on the advantages of utilising LARCs. Additionally, governments, policymakers, and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa should raise awareness by executing health promotion measures to enhance the demand for LARCs among adolescent girls and young women. Achieving these would not only prevent unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, but also help meet the United Nation's health and well being for all as enshrined in Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 5.


The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives can contribute to the reduction of unintended pregnancies. Hence, knowledge of the prevalence and predictors of long-acting reversible contraceptives use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa is important in public health. Our study examined the predictors of long-acting reversible contraceptives among adolescent girls and young women in ten high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A sample of 5854 sexually active adolescent girls and young women were included in the study.The overall prevalence of long-acting reversible contraceptives utilisation was 17.6% in the ten countries, with the lowest of 1.7% in Angola and the highest of 55.8% in Mali. Adolescent girls and young women who were married had a lower likelihood of using long-acting reversible contraceptives than those who were never married. Adolescent girls and young women who wanted no more children had higher odds of long-acting reversible contraceptive use compared to those who wanted more children. Adolescent girls and young women with one to three births, and those with four or more births were more likely to use long-acting reversible contraceptives than those who had no child. To reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, there is the need to educate adolescent girls and young women on the advantages of utilising long-acting reversible contraceptives. Additionally, governments, policymakers, and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa should raise awareness by executing health promotion measures to enhance the demand for long-acting reversible contraceptives among adolescent girls and young women.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Anticoncepcionais , Gravidez , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez não Planejada , Fertilidade , Mali
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275124, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low-income countries out of, 60.7 million unintended pregnancies, 19% of them are subjected to abortion of which 11% of were unsafe. Surprisingly, about 2.5 million occur in women under the age of 20 years. Aim of this study is to measure the level of contraceptive utilization and associated factors among youths in Hosanna town administration. METHOD: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hossana town administration, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. A multistage sampling procedure was employed by clustering health facilities into reproductive health clubs and health facilities to select 781 study participants. Data was collected by using structured pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. All coded and cleaned data were entered into EPI-info version 3.5.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 16.0 for recoding and further analysis. RESULT: Among youths who had been sexually active within the last 12 months, 67.6% had used contraceptives prior to the survey. Multivariate analysis was found statistically significant association between contraceptive utilization and education status of mothers who attained university AOR = 4.57 [95% CI (1.29, 16.19)], utilization of sexual and reproductive health services within last 12 months AOR = 2.26 [(95% CI: 1.33, 3.86)], age initiation of first sex between 15-19 year OR = 2.63 [(95% CI 1.48,4.64)], discussion with sexual partner AOR = 1.99 [(95% CI: 1.27, 3.13)], good knowledge on contraceptive advantage AOR = [1.89 (95%CI: 1.07, 3.32)]. Whereas educational status: being secondary level decrease utilization of contraceptives by 51% AOR = 0.49 [95% CI (0.27, 0.94)]. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION: The findings of our study imply that level of contraceptive utilization is higher than as compared to the previous studies. Discussion with a sexual partner as well as with a spouse, having awareness on contraceptive advantages, early age initiation of sexual intercourse, maternal educational status and getting sexual and reproductive health services recently were identified as predictors of contraceptive utilization.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Gravidez , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Saúde Reprodutiva
5.
FASEB J ; 36(12): e22658, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370122

RESUMO

Forty percent of US pregnancies are unintended despite currently available contraceptives. A substantial number of men use the currently available methods of male contraception, condoms and vasectomy, and a large majority would be interested in novel forms of male contraception if available. Research into male contraception has been ongoing for more than 50 years, with hormonal contraceptives nearing clinical utility and non-hormonal methods hopefully becoming available, albeit with a longer time frame. However, uncertainly regarding benchmarks for the efficacy and safety of male contraception continue to be an issue with development and regulatory approval. In addition, pharmaceutical industry support is minimal with the NIH and Foundations being the main research funders. Given the continuing high rates of unintended pregnancy, many of which are now occurring in areas with extremely restricted access to legal abortion, additional focus and investment in male contraceptive development is imperative.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Masculinos , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Preservativos
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18941, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344715

RESUMO

Many women of reproductive age in sub Saharan Africa are not utilizing any contraceptive method which is contributing to the high burden of maternal mortality. This study determined the prevalence, trends, and the impact of exposure to family planning messages (FPM) on contraceptive use (CU) among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We utilized the most recent data from demographic and health surveys across 26 SSA countries between 2013 and 2019. We assessed the prevalence and trends and quantified the impact of exposure to FPM on contraceptive use using augmented inverse probability weighting with regression adjustment. Sensitivity analysis of the impact estimate was conducted using endogenous treatment effect models, inverse probability weighting, and propensity score with nearest-neighbor matching techniques. The study involved 328,386 women of reproductive age. The overall prevalence of CU and the percentage of women of reproductive age in SSA exposed to FPM were 31.1% (95% CI 30.6-31.5) and 38.9% (95% CI 38.8-39.4) respectively. Exposure to FPM increased CU by 7.1 percentage points (pp) (95% CI 6.7, 7.4; p < 0.001) among women of reproductive age in SSA. The impact of FPM on CU was highest in Central Africa (6.7 pp; 95% CI 5.7-7.7; p < 0.001) and lowest in Southern Africa (2.2 pp; 95% CI [1.3-3.0; p < 0.001). There was a marginal decline in the impact estimate among adolescents (estimate = 6.0 pp; 95% CI 5.0, 8.0; p < 0.001). Exposure to FPM has contributed to an increase in CU among women of reproductive age. Programs that are geared towards intensifying exposure to FPM through traditional media in addition to exploring avenues for promoting the appropriate use of family planning method using electronic media remain critical.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cobre , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo
7.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(3)2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332069

RESUMO

Information Mobilized for Performance Analysis and Continuous Transformation (IMPACT) Teams routinely bring together data, people, processes, and technology, under the leadership of governments, to institute a change in culture that leads to sustained improvements in supply chain processes and outcomes. This mixed methods study examined whether IMPACT Teams were effective in improving reproductive health supply chain outcomes in Guinea, Indonesia, Kenya, and Myanmar and identified enablers and barriers to IMPACT Team success and sustainability in Indonesia and Kenya.The study design employed a pre-post intervention comparison panel design with a nonrandomized matched comparison group to examine the IMPACT Teams' effect on 2 supply chain outcomes: stocked according to plan and stock-outs. Additional key informant interviews conducted in Kenya and Indonesia explored enablers and barriers to IMPACT Team success and sustainability.For nearly all products across the 4 countries, an increase in products being stocked according to plan and a reduction in stock-outs can be attributed to the IMPACT Team intervention, demonstrating that IMPACT teams are an effective approach for improving contraceptive supply chain inventory management and availability. However, our findings do not demonstrate a clear causal pathway as theorized in our theory of change, namely that government leadership leads to the installation of a data use culture, which in turn leads to improved product availability. In both Indonesia and Kenya, though product availability improved, there was a lack of leadership and culture change. This suggests that improved product availability does not depend on establishing a data use culture or government leadership, but rather, that a data use culture-rather than product availability-is the outcome of interest for sustained change, and that understanding motivations and incentives for leadership participation may be more important for scaling, institutionalizing, and sustaining gains in supply chain outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Humanos , Quênia , Indonésia , Guiné , Mianmar
8.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(3)2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332074

RESUMO

We examined where women access modern contraceptives, using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 36 low- and middle-income countries and disaggregating results by contraceptive method, age, marital status, residence, socioeconomic status, and country income. We used bivariate and multivariate regression analysis to assess how demographic factors are associated with contraceptive source. In pooled analysis across countries analyzed, we found that 34% of users rely on private sources, 63% use public sources, and 3% use other sources. Among private sector users, 41% use pharmacies or drug shops, 11% general shops or markets, 36% private hospitals and clinics, and 12% nongovernmental or faith-based organizations. This analysis demonstrates the importance of the private sector for specific population segments including women in the wealthiest population quintile (odds ratio [OR]: 4.09, P<.001 compared with women in the poorest quintile), adolescents (OR: 2.03, P<.001 compared with women ages 40-49), never married women (OR 1.55, P<.001 compared with ever-married women), and urban women (OR: 1.42, P<.001 compared with rural women). The private sector does not only serve these populations, however. On average across countries analyzed, 22% of the poorest contraceptive users and 27% of rural users use private sources. Leveraging both sectors is key to meeting the reproductive needs of women across all sociodemographic groups in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Comportamento Contraceptivo
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 450, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women's ability to make contraceptive decision can determine their contraceptive use which can improve their reproductive health and career. Improvement in such ability can increase contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria. However, factors that promote contraceptive decision-making among women are scarcely studied. This study examined factors associated with women's individual or joint contraceptive decision-making in Nigeria. METHODS: Secondary (cross-sectional) data were analysed. The data were extracted from the individual recode file of the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Partnered women (i.e., currently married or living with a partner) aged 15-49 years and currently using contraceptives before the survey were considered. They constituted 4,823 in total. Their data were analysed using frequency and percentage distributions of variables, Chi-square tests of independence and multinominal logistic regression. RESULTS: Findings reveal that 23% (1,125) of women made their own contraceptive decision, nearly 67% (3,213) were joint decision makers, and 10% (491) stated that their male partners had decided for them. The probability of solely making contraceptive decision and being a joint decision maker (relative to being a male partner's decision) was higher among women above 29 years and aged 30-34 years (than women aged 15-24 years) respectively as well as among the employed (than the unemployed) and among those from Yoruba ethnic group (than their counterparts from Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Beri Beri) respectively. The probability of being responsible for contraceptive decision (than being the male partner's decision) was higher among women from the Igbo group and women whose male partners desired more children (than those with the same number of desired children) respectively. The probability of being the main decision maker (relative to being the male partner) was lower among women in the poorer (RRR = 0.39; 95%CI = 0.21-0.73; p = 0.01), middle (RRR = 0.47; 95%CI = 0.25-0.90; p = 0.02) and richest (RRR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.20-0.82; p = 0.01) groups respectively, than the poorest women. The probability of being a joint decision maker was higher among women with secondary education (than the uneducated), practised Christianity (than the Muslims/ others), and among those residing in the North West region (than those in North East) respectively. However, the probability of being a joint decision-maker was lower among women whose partners desire more children and those who did not know their partners' desires. CONCLUSIONS: Women's age, highest level of education, employment status, wealth index, ethnicity, religion, region of residence and male partners' desire for children are associated with contraceptive decision making respectively. There is a need for reproductive empowerment interventions in Nigeria that devise effective ways of improving contraceptive decision-making power of partnered women aged 15-24 years, unemployed, in the poorer and richest groups, from the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Beri Beri ethnic group, practising Islam/ other religions, have the same fertility desire as their partners and those who do not know their male partner's desire for children respectively. Women whose partners desire more children should be empowered to participate effectively in contraceptive decision making.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Tomada de Decisões , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Demografia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20325, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434126

RESUMO

There are 150 million women worldwide using combined or progestogen-only hormonal contraceptive methods who may be at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Previous systematic reviews that have sought to establish whether there is an aetiological association between hormonal contraceptive methods/use and STIs have been limited in their methods and have mixed findings. We sought to update these reviews using appropriate control groups. We undertook a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and meta-analysis to examine the association between the use of all hormonal contraceptive methods and the acquisition of STIs (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis/Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and/or bacterial vaginosis in literature published between 2005 and 2020. We analysed the effect of hormonal contraceptive methods/use separately on the prevalence, incidence and recurrence of STIs. A total of 37 studies were included in this review that reported 61 associations, in which 27 prevalence, eight incidence and two recurrence studies provided 43, 16, and two associations, respectively. We observed a positive association between hormonal contraceptive methods/use and the risk of chlamydia and herpes but a negative association for trichomoniasis and vaginosis. A negative but statistically insignificant association was observed between hormonal contraceptive methods/use and gonorrhoea. Hormonal contraceptive methods/use influences a woman's risk of STIs/ bacterial vaginosis, but the risk may differ depending on the type of STI. These findings should be contextualized carefully, particularly when formulating practice guidelines and policy, as the effects of hormonal contraceptive methods/use on the risk of STIs varied in direction when analysed separately by STI.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Herpes Simples , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Tricomoníase , Vaginose Bacteriana , Humanos , Feminino , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060073, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with intention to use contraceptives among married and cohabiting women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: Data for the study were extracted from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of 29 countries in SSA conducted from 2010 to 2020. We included a total of 180 682 women who were married or cohabiting. Multilevel regression analysis was carried out and the results were presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). SETTING: 29 countries in SSA. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 15-49 years in sexual unions. OUTCOME MEASURE: Intention to use contraceptives. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of intention to use contraceptives among married and cohabiting women in the 29 countries was 41.46%. The prevalence ranged from 18.28% in Comoros to 71.39% in Rwanda. Intention to use contraceptives was lower among women aged 45-49 (AOR=0.06, 95% CI= 0.05 to 0.07), those with no education (AOR=0.60, 95% CI= 0.58 to 0.61), and primary education (AOR=0.90, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.93), married women (AOR=0.81, 95% CI= 0.79 to 0.84), those of the poorest wealth quintile (AOR=0.78, 95% CI= 0.75 to 0.82), and women who were not exposed to mass media (AOR=0.87, 95% CI= 0.86 to 0.90). Women with four or more births (AOR=2.09, 95% CI= 1.99 to 2.19) had greater likelihood of contraceptive use intention compared to those with no birth. Women in rural settings were found to have greater likelihood of intention to use contraceptives compared to those in urban settings (AOR=1.10, 95% CI= 1.07 to 1.14). CONCLUSION: There is a low prevalence of contraceptive use intention among married and cohabiting women in SSA with differences between countries. It is imperative for policymakers to consider these factors when developing and executing contraceptive programmes or policies to enhance contraceptive intents and use among married and cohabiting women. To resolve discrepancies and increase contraceptive intention among women, policymakers and other key stakeholders should expand public health education programmes.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Intenção , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Análise Multinível
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2169, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demand satisfied with modern contraceptive can be seen on both a health and economic level. Additionally, family planning helps to regulate fertility, prevent unintended pregnancies and their consequences. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the magnitude of demand satisfied with modern contraceptive among married/in-union women in ten high fertility sub Saharan African countries. METHODS: Recent Demographic and Health Surveys that included a weighted sample of 43,745 women of reproductive age provided the data for this study. All statistical analyses were conducted once the data had been weighted, and Stata version 16.0 was used. A multilevel mixed-effect binary logistic regression model was fitted. To determine statistically significant individual and community-level factors associated with demand satisfied for modern contraceptive, odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval was generated. A p-value less than 0.05 was declared as statistical significance. RESULTS: Overall, demand satisfied to use modern contraceptive in high fertility sub-Saharan Africa countries was 39.53% (95%CI: 39.06, 39.98). Women aged 25-34 (AOR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.26, 1.42) and 35-49 (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.20, 1.38), women education: primary (AOR: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.27, 1.44) and secondary (AOR: 2.05, 95%CI: 1.90, 2.21), husband education: primary (AOR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.18, 1.35) and secondary (AOR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.43, 1.66), husband residence (AOR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.60, 1.91), media exposure (AOR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.29), wealth index: poorer (AOR: 1.1, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.19), middle (AOR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.08, 1.28), richer (AOR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.26, 1.49) and richest (AOR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.56, 1.89), number of children: 4-6 (AOR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.55) and above 6 (AOR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.59), perceived distance to the health facility not big problem (AOR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.15), urban residence (AOR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.27), high community level poverty (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.74, 0.97) were significantly associated with demand satisfied for modern contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Only four in ten married reproductive age women demands satisfied with modern contraceptives in high fertility Sub Saharan African countries. Modern contraceptives should therefore be more widely available, especially in rural areas and for those living away from health facilities. Also, increasing media exposure and education, providing financial support, and making contraceptive access easier for married women from poor households are important interventions that need to be put in place.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Estudos Transversais , Casamento , Fertilidade
13.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 30(1): 2141965, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416064

RESUMO

Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of unmarried youth is an important issue, particularly in Indian society, where premarital sex is socially restricted. It is an uncomfortable subject for most people, including healthcare providers, who are responsible for catering to the reproductive health needs of youth. This is because of the prevailing social norms, where sex outside marriage is discouraged and stigmatised. These social norms give importance to virginity, and children outside marriage are not welcome. The present qualitative study was conducted in public health facilities (primary and secondary) to explore the attitudes of healthcare providers in providing contraceptive services to unmarried youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with family planning (FP) service providers (frontline healthcare workers [ASHAs] nurses and FP counsellors) between October 2017 and September 2018. Almost a quarter of the providers were either hesitant or against providing contraceptives to unmarried youth. Providers stated that they preferred emergency contraceptive pills for unmarried girls if they had already engaged in unprotected sex. Providers expressed strong personal views against premarital sex because they believed it was against existing social norms. Some providers were concerned about the possible negative reactions of the community if they recommended any contraceptive to unmarried youth. A few providers even considered it illegal to provide contraceptives to unmarried youth, though there is no such law in the country. Findings further indicated that though the country had launched programmes for improving adolescents and youth SRH, service providers were still conflicted between medical eligibility and social beliefs.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoa Solteira , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061849, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of studies have reported disruptions in health service utilisation due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions. However, little is known about the effect of lifting COVID-19 restrictions on health service utilisation. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of lifting COVID-19 restrictions on primary care service utilisation in Nepal. METHODS: Data on utilisation of 10 primary care services were extracted from the Health Management Information System across all health facilities in Nepal. We used a difference-in-differences design and linear fixed effects regressions to estimate the effect of lifting COVID-19 restrictions. The treatment group included palikas that had lifted restrictions in place from 17 August 2020 to 16 September 2020 (Bhadra 2077) and the control group included palikas that had maintained restrictions during that period. The pre-period included the 4 months of national lockdown from 24 March 2020 to 22 July 2020 (Chaitra 2076 to Ashar 2077). Models included month and palika fixed effects and controlled for COVID-19 incidence. RESULTS: We found that lifting COVID-19 restrictions was associated with an average increase per palika of 57.5 contraceptive users (95% CI 14.6 to 100.5), 15.6 antenatal care visits (95% CI 5.3 to 25.9) and 1.6 child pneumonia visits (95% CI 0.2 to 2.9). This corresponded to a 9.4% increase in contraceptive users, 34.2% increase in antenatal care visits and 15.6% increase in child pneumonia visits. Utilisation of most other primary care services also increased after lifting restrictions, but coefficients were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the ongoing pandemic, lifting restrictions can lead to an increase in some primary care services. Our results point to a causal link between restrictions and health service utilisation and call for policy makers in low- and middle-income countries to carefully consider the trade-offs of strict lockdowns during future COVID-19 waves or future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Anticoncepcionais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2225, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36447222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria has one of the world's highest fertility rates, which is detrimental to its public health and socioeconomic growth. Despite several efforts by the country and other development partners to reduce high fertility by increasing contraceptive use, the contraceptive prevalence rate among childbearing women remains low, particularly in the South-South compared to other Southern regions. This study, therefore, assessed the relationship between knowledge of and actual use of contraception among women in South-South Nigeria. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative weighted sub-sample of 4,553 South-South childbearing women extracted from the 2018 National Demographic and Health Survey dataset. The dataset was weighted and examined for missing values that were excluded during the analyses at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels. The analyses involved a baseline descriptive analysis, a chi-square test, and logistic regression models using Stata software. The results of the explanatory variables were presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Eighty-two per cent of the respondents knew at least one form of contraception, while approximately 82% never used any contraceptive method. The likelihood of using any contraceptive method increased among those who knew about contraceptives (aOR: 1.40; CI: 0.93-2.11). Also, contraceptive use was significantly higher among women and their partners who had post-primary education (aOR: 1.34; CI: 1.25-2.43 and aOR: 1.74; CI: 1.25-2.43, respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of contraceptive use among women significantly increased with an increase in the household wealth index. Similar results were recorded among women who had five or more living children, who were residents of Rivers State, were married or lived with their partners, were aged 35 years or older, and were currently working. CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive knowledge was high but did not translate into actual practice among childbearing women in South-South Nigeria. The use of any contraception was highly influenced by contraceptive knowledge, education, age, marital status, place of residence, and household wealth index, among others. Therefore, some policy issues relating to contraceptive knowledge and actual adoption must be addressed to improve the low rate of contraceptive use in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria , Casamento
16.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 205, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated one-third of women in Ghana use contraceptives without the knowledge of their partners, a phenomenon known as Covert Contraceptive Use (CCU). Most research on CCU to date has focused on individual women to the neglect of the role of health system. This study explores CCU in urban poor communities of Accra, Ghana, from the experiences and perspectives of health providers. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers in both the public and private sectors at multiple levels, from the community clinic to the tertiary hospital, to gain insights into the strategies women use and the ways in which the health system supports the practice of CCU. RESULTS: Five major thematic areas emerged: use of easily concealed-methods, discrete-access-and-information-keeping, time-of-day, non-verbal-communication and use of relationships. The study further revealed that fear, mistrust, shyness, myths, and misperceptions regarding contraceptives explain CCU among women in the communities that the providers serve. CONCLUSION: Importantly, disclosure of methods used by providers without women's consent could potentially lead to violent outcomes for both women and the providers. Our results highlight the pivotal role that providers play in confidentially supporting women's choices regarding the use of contraceptives.


Sometimes women use contraceptives without the knowledge of their sexual partners. That is to say, they hide their contraceptive use. Many studies have explored why women hide their contraceptive use. Reasons include the desire of men to have absolute control of their women's bodies including their sexuality and fertility regulation. This occurs in cultures where women do not have as much power as men. In Ghana, as much as one-in-three women hide their contraceptive use from their partners. This study explores the ways in which health facilities assist women to hide their contraceptives use by talking to leaders of units responsible for providing contraceptives in the hospitals. First, people prefer contraceptives like injectables that are not visible on the bodies of those using them. Second, some hospitals have modified their space to provide ample privacy and security for women. Third, some women visit the facilities at odd hours, such as very early in the morning, very late at night and at other favorable times. Sometimes nurses arrange to meet women outside the facility. Lastly, nurses create avenues through various personal relationships. For example, leaving their contacts in market spaces and arranging meeting places with market queens.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Gana , Populações Vulneráveis , Medo , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 913546, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339168

RESUMO

Background: Adopting contraception on time is a critical intervention for postpartum women, but violence exposure around pregnancy may interfere with postpartum contraceptive use behaviors. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the time duration of the first modern contraceptive adoption and its individual-and community-level predictors among postpartum women in the Wolaita zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based prospective follow-up study was conducted among 1,292 postpartum women nested in 38 "Kebles" (clusters) using multistage-clustered sampling techniques. A multilevel Weibull regression model was employed to investigate predictors of time-to-method initiation after childbirth using STATA Version 14. Kaplan-Meier curve and Wilcoxon log-rank test were used to estimate time-to-modern contraceptive use across different variables. All variables with p-values <0.05 were considered for multivariate analysis. Adjusted time ratios (ATR) with 95 % CI were computed using Weibull accelerated failure time models. Results: Of the respondents, 62% (95% CI: 59.1-64.5) had started the first modern contraception within a year after childbirth. The restricted mean survival time-to-postpartum modern contraceptive use was 6.28 months. Being a rural dweller (aTR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.99) and living in the middle household wealth quintiles (aTR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19) predicted longer time duration to adopt first modern contraception by 44 and 10%, respectively. The women from the community with a high early marriage (aTR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.28) took longer time to initiate modern postpartum methods. Furthermore, women who had no history of perinatal abuse took less time than those who had a history of abuse to start postpartum contraception (aTR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.66-0.78). Conclusion: Rural residence, poor household wealth status, history of perinatal abuse, and a high rate of early marriage in the community are predicted to lengthen the time duration to start modern postpartum contraception. Thus, community-level women's empowerment, particularly among rural women and integration of intimate partner violence screening into family planning counseling throughout the continuum of care will likely to improve postpartum contraception timing.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Conflito Familiar , Etiópia , Seguimentos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Anticoncepcionais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361287

RESUMO

Enabling contraceptive use is critical for addressing high adolescent pregnancy rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Broader or 'upstream' determinants, such as poverty, education, and social norms, can affect the knowledge, attitudes, motivation, and ability to access and use contraception. Structural interventions aim to address these broader determinants, e.g., through poverty alleviation from livelihood training or cash transfers, increasing school participation, or changing social norms. We conducted an evidence synthesis using intervention component analysis, a case-based approach, following a systematic mapping of the evidence base. We identified 17 studies with 29 structural intervention arms, which reported adolescent contraceptive use outcomes compared to a control group or baseline. It was not possible to identify with certainty which interventions were 'likely effective' or 'likely ineffective' due to the high heterogeneity of the methods. We built on an existing framework of family planning use to propose three steps to designing interventions: (1) tailor interventions to adolescents' life stages; (2) assess the baseline situation; and (3) select appropriate activities to match the gaps. These steps will aid developers and evaluators of structural adolescent contraceptive interventions to develop an evidence base that is of use across a wide range of settings and use scenarios.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Pobreza
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064987, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the views of women over 40 years in choosing and using contraception, and to inform how contraceptive counselling for this age group could be improved. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen women aged 40-52 years were recruited through social media platforms to take part in online, semistructured, in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach. RESULTS: (1) Participants were anxious about unplanned pregnancy, and still highly motivated to avoid this. (2) Changes of contraceptive method over the lifecourse were occasionally precipitated by emergent health conditions, but healthcare providers often recommended a change in method on the basis of age alone. (3) Participants were experiencing perimenopausal symptoms but were largely unaware of how hormonal contraception could be used to treat these symptoms. (4) Prior negative experiences with contraceptive methods, coercive experiences with healthcare providers, and traumatic life events all contributed to a narrowing of contraceptive preference in later life. CONCLUSION: Women over 40 years may be highly motivated to avoid pregnancy. This age group may have complex contraceptive histories with emerging perimenopausal symptoms. Women over 40 years may have accumulated adverse experiences which impact their contraceptive choices. These factors need to be explored by clinicians, to facilitate shared decision-making.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Tomada de Decisões , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Contraceptivo
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 867, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antenatal care has the potential role to reduce maternal and child morbidity and mortality, utilization of a recommended number of antenatal care visits is still low in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the determinants of recommended antenatal care visits in Ethiopia. METHOD: Data from the 2019 mini-Ethiopian demographic and health survey (MEDHS) was used for this study. A total of 3916 women who gave birth 5 years preceding the MEDHS were included. A generalized linear mixed-effects (mixed-effects logistic regression) model was used to identify the determinants of recommended antenatal care service utilization. Finally, the adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and random effects were reported. RESULTS: In the generalized linear mixed-effects model, women with primary education (AOR = 1.55, 95%CI 1.22-2.01), secondary and above education (AOR = 5.12, 95%CI 2.80-8.16), women from the middle (AOR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.71) and rich wealth index (AOR = 1.54, 95%CI 1.12-2.25), women who were exposed to media (AOR = 1.23,95%CI 1.01-1.57) and who use contraception (AOR = 1.45 95%CI 1.25-2.03), had higher odds of recommended antenatal care service utilization. CONCLUSION: In this study, factors like maternal educational status, media exposure, wealth index and history of contraceptive utilization were significantly associated with recommended ANC visits in Ethiopia. Therefore, encouraging women for contraceptive service utilization, consulting women to be exposed to media and improving women's wealth status will help to have recommended number of ANC visits by pregnant women in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Etiópia , Modelos Lineares , Anticoncepcionais
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