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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 302, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653360

RESUMO

Waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection have resulted from the emergence of viral variants with neutralizing antibody resistance mutations. Simultaneously, repeated antigen exposure has generated affinity matured B cells, producing broadly neutralizing receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies with activity against emergent variants. To determine how SARS-CoV-2 might escape these antibodies, we subjected chimeric viruses encoding spike proteins from ancestral, BA.1 or BA.2 variants to selection by 40 broadly neutralizing antibodies. We identify numerous examples of epistasis, whereby in vitro selected and naturally occurring substitutions in RBD epitopes that do not confer antibody resistance in the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike, do so in BA.1 or BA.2 spikes. As few as 2 or 3 of these substitutions in the BA.5 spike, confer resistance to nearly all of the 40 broadly neutralizing antibodies, and substantial resistance to plasma from most individuals. Thus, epistasis facilitates the acquisition of resistance to antibodies that remained effective against early omicron variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Epistasia Genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 26(1): e26052, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infant HIV prophylaxis with broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) could provide long-acting protection against vertical transmission. We sought to estimate the potential clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of hypothetical bNAb prophylaxis programmes for children known to be HIV exposed at birth in three sub-Saharan African settings. METHODS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using the CEPAC-Pediatric model, simulating cohorts of infants from birth through death in Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa and Zimbabwe. These settings were selected to reflect a broad range of HIV care cascade characteristics, antenatal HIV prevalence and budgetary constraints. We modelled strategies targeting bNAbs to only WHO-designated "high-risk" HIV-exposed infants (HR-HIVE) or to all HIV-exposed infants (HIVE). We compared four prophylaxis approaches within each target population: standard of care oral antiretroviral prophylaxis (SOC), and SOC plus bNAbs at birth (1-dose), at birth and 3 months (2-doses), or every 3 months throughout breastfeeding (Extended). Base-case model inputs included bNAb efficacy (60%/dose), effect duration (3 months/dose) and costs ($60/dose), based on published literature. Outcomes included paediatric HIV incidence and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) calculated from discounted life expectancy and lifetime HIV-related costs. RESULTS: The model projects that bNAbs would reduce absolute infant HIV incidence by 0.3-2.2% (9.6-34.9% relative reduction), varying by country, prophylaxis approach and target population. In all three settings, HR-HIVE-1-dose would be cost-saving compared to SOC. Using a 50% GDP per capita ICER threshold, HIVE-Extended would be cost-effective in all three settings with ICERs of $497/YLS in Côte d'Ivoire, $464/YLS in South Africa and $455/YLS in Zimbabwe. In all three settings, bNAb strategies would remain cost-effective at costs up to $200/dose if efficacy is ≥30%. If the bNAb effect duration were reduced to 1 month, the cost-effective strategy would become HR-HIVE-1-dose in Côte d'Ivoire and Zimbabwe and HR-HIVE-2-doses in South Africa. Findings regarding the cost-effectiveness of bNAb implementation strategies remained robust in sensitivity analyses regarding breastfeeding duration, maternal engagement in postpartum care, early infant diagnosis uptake and antiretroviral treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: At current efficacy and cost estimates, bNAb prophylaxis for HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan African settings would be a cost-effective intervention to reduce vertical HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Feminino , Criança , Gravidez , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Costa do Marfim , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677538

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are potent in neutralizing a wide range of HIV strains. VRC01 is a CD4-binding-site (CD4-bs) class of bNAbs that binds to the conserved CD4-binding region of HIV-1 envelope (env) protein. Natural products that mimic VRC01 bNAbs by interacting with the conserved CD4-binding regions may serve as a new generation of HIV-1 entry inhibitors by being broadly reactive and potently neutralizing. This study aimed to identify compounds that mimic VRC01 by interacting with the CD4-bs of HIV-1 gp120 and thereby inhibiting viral entry into target cells. Libraries of purchasable natural products were virtually screened against clade A/E recombinant 93TH057 (PDB: 3NGB) and clade B (PDB ID: 3J70) HIV-1 env protein. Protein-ligand interaction profiling from molecular docking and dynamics simulations showed that the compounds had intermolecular hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions with conserved amino acid residues on the CD4-binding site of recombinant clade A/E and clade B HIV-1 gp120. Four potential lead compounds, NP-005114, NP-008297, NP-007422, and NP-007382, were used for cell-based antiviral infectivity inhibition assay using clade B (HXB2) env pseudotype virus (PV). The four compounds inhibited the entry of HIV HXB2 pseudotype viruses into target cells at 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 15.2 µM (9.7 µg/mL), 10.1 µM (7.5 µg/mL), 16.2 µM (12.7 µg/mL), and 21.6 µM (12.9 µg/mL), respectively. The interaction of these compounds with critical residues of the CD4-binding site of more than one clade of HIV gp120 and inhibition of HIV-1 entry into the target cell demonstrate the possibility of a new class of HIV entry inhibitors.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV
5.
AIDS ; 37(2): 247-257, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV can persist in a diverse range of CD4+ T-cell subsets. Through longitudinal env sampling from people with HIV (PWH) on ART, we characterized the persistence and phenotypic properties of HIV envs over two time-points (T1 and T2). METHODS: Longitudinal blood and lymphoid tissue samples were obtained from eight PWH on suppressive ART. Single genome amplification (SGA) was performed on env to understand the genetic diversity and degree of clonal expansions over time. A subset of envs were used to generate pseudovirus particles to assess sensitivity to autologous plasma IgG and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). RESULTS: Identical env sequences indicating clonal expansion persisted between T1 and T2 and within multiple T-cell subsets. At both time-points, CXCR4-tropic (X4) Envs were more prevalent in naive and central memory cells; the proportion of X4 Envs did not significantly change in each subset between T1 and T2. Autologous purified plasma IgG showed variable neutralization of Envs, with no significant difference in neutralization between R5 and X4 Envs. X4 Envs were more sensitive to neutralization with clinical bNAbs, with CD4-binding site bNAbs demonstrating high breadth and potency against Envs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the viral reservoir in PWH on ART was predominantly maintained over time through proliferation and potentially differentiation of infected cells. We found the humoral immune response to Envs within the latent reservoir was variable between PWH. Finally, we identified coreceptor usage can influence bNAb sensitivity and may need to be considered for future bNAb immunotherapy approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
6.
AIDS ; 37(1): 43-49, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been proposed as key actors for HIV vaccine development. However, they display features of highly matured antibodies, hampering their induction by vaccination. As protective broadly neutralizing antibodies should be induced rapidly after vaccination and should neutralize the early-transmitted founder (T/F) viruses, we searched whether such antibodies may be induced following HIV infection. DESIGN: Sera were collected during acute infection (Day 0) and at viral set point (Month 6/12) and the neutralizing activity against T/F strains was investigated. Neutralizing activity in sera collected from chronic progressor was analyzed in parallel. METHODS: We compared neutralizing activity against T/F strains with neutralizing activity against non-T/F strains using the conventional TZM-bL neutralizing assay. RESULTS: We found neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) preferentially directed against T/F viruses in sera collected shortly after infection. This humoral response evolved by shifting to nAbs directed against non-T/F strains. CONCLUSION: Although features associated with nAbs directed against T/F viruses need further investigations, these early-induced nAbs may display lesser maturation characteristics; therefore, this might increase their interest for future vaccine designs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2217883120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574685

RESUMO

Antibody heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) variable region exons are assembled by V(D)J recombination. V(D)J junctional regions encode complementarity-determining-region 3 (CDR3), an antigen-contact region immensely diversified through nontemplated nucleotide additions ("N-regions") by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). HIV-1 vaccine strategies seek to elicit human HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), such as the potent CD4-binding site VRC01-class bnAbs. Mice with primary B cells that express receptors (BCRs) representing bnAb precursors are used as vaccination models. VRC01-class bnAbs uniformly use human HC VH1-2 and commonly use human LCs Vκ3-20 or Vκ1-33 associated with an exceptionally short 5-amino-acid (5-aa) CDR3. Prior VRC01-class models had nonphysiological precursor levels and/or limited precursor diversity. Here, we describe VRC01-class rearranging mice that generate more physiological primary VRC01-class BCR repertoires via rearrangement of VH1-2, as well as Vκ1-33 and/or Vκ3-20 in association with diverse CDR3s. Human-like TdT expression in mouse precursor B cells increased LC CDR3 length and diversity and also promoted the generation of shorter LC CDR3s via N-region suppression of dominant microhomology-mediated Vκ-to-Jκ joins. Priming immunization with eOD-GT8 60mer, which strongly engages VRC01 precursors, induced robust VRC01-class germinal center B cell responses. Vκ3-20-based responses were enhanced by N-region addition, which generates Vκ3-20-to-Jκ junctional sequence combinations that encode VRC01-class 5-aa CDR3s with a critical E residue. VRC01-class-rearranging models should facilitate further evaluation of VRC01-class prime and boost immunogens. These new VRC01-class mouse models establish a prototype for the generation of vaccine-testing mouse models for other HIV-1 bnAb lineages that employ different HC or LC Vs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Vacinas , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , HIV-1/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , DNA Nucleotidilexotransferase , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
9.
Science ; 378(6623): eadd6502, 2022 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454825

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can protect against HIV infection but have not been induced by human vaccination. A key barrier to bnAb induction is vaccine priming of rare bnAb-precursor B cells. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial, the HIV vaccine-priming candidate eOD-GT8 60mer adjuvanted with AS01B had a favorable safety profile and induced VRC01-class bnAb precursors in 97% of vaccine recipients with median frequencies reaching 0.1% among immunoglobulin G B cells in blood. bnAb precursors shared properties with bnAbs and gained somatic hypermutation and affinity with the boost. The results establish clinical proof of concept for germline-targeting vaccine priming, support development of boosting regimens to induce bnAbs, and encourage application of the germline-targeting strategy to other targets in HIV and other pathogens.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Células Germinativas , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Humanos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Células Germinativas/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Mutação , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto
11.
Cell Rep ; 41(12): 111845, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493787

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages have escaped most receptor-binding domain (RBD)-targeting therapeutic neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), which proves that previous NAb drug screening strategies are deficient against the fast-evolving SARS-CoV-2. Better broad NAb drug candidate selection methods are needed. Here, we describe a rational approach for identifying RBD-targeting broad SARS-CoV-2 NAb cocktails. Based on high-throughput epitope determination, we propose that broad NAb drugs should target non-immunodominant RBD epitopes to avoid herd-immunity-directed escape mutations. Also, their interacting antigen residues should focus on sarbecovirus conserved sites and associate with critical viral functions, making the antibody-escaping mutations less likely to appear. Following these criteria, a featured non-competing antibody cocktail, SA55+SA58, is identified from a large collection of broad sarbecovirus NAbs isolated from SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated SARS convalescents. SA55+SA58 potently neutralizes ACE2-utilizing sarbecoviruses, including circulating Omicron variants, and could serve as broad SARS-CoV-2 prophylactics to offer long-term protection, especially for individuals who are immunocompromised or with high-risk comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Epitopos , Anticorpos Antivirais
12.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560612

RESUMO

Significant advances in the field of HIV-1 therapeutics to achieve antiretroviral treatment (ART)-free remission and cure for persons living with HIV-1 are being made with the advent of broadly neutralizing antibodies and very early ART in perinatal infection. The need for HIV-1 remission and cure arises due to the inability of ART to eradicate the major reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells (the latent reservoir), and the strict adherence to lifelong treatment. To measure the efficacy of these cure interventions on reservoir size and to dissect reservoir dynamics, assays that are sensitive and specific to intact proviruses are critical. In this review, we provided a broad overview of some of the key interventions underway to purge the reservoir in adults living with HIV-1 and ones under study in pediatric populations to reduce and control the latent reservoir, primarily focusing on very early treatment in combination with broadly neutralizing antibodies. We also summarized assays currently in use to measure HIV-1 reservoirs and their feasibility and considerations for studies in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Adulto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Provírus , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Latência Viral
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7701, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513653

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 omicron is an immune escape variant. Meanwhile, however, omicron BA.2 and BA.5 became dominant in many countries and replaced BA.1. As both have several mutations compared to BA.1, we analyzed whether BA.2 and BA.5 show further immune escape relative to BA.1. Here, we characterized neutralization profiles against the BA.2 and BA.5 omicron sub-variants in plasma samples from individuals with different history of exposures to infection/vaccination and found that unvaccinated individuals after a single exposure to BA.2 had limited cross-neutralizing antibodies to pre-omicron variants and to BA.1. Consequently, our antigenic map including all Variants of Concern and BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5 omicron sub-variants, showed that all omicron sub-variants are distinct to pre-omicron variants, but that the three omicron variants are also antigenically distinct from each other. The antibody landscapes illustrate that cross-neutralizing antibodies against the current antigenic space, as described in our maps, are generated only after three or more exposures to antigenically close variants but also after two exposures to antigenically distant variants. Here, we describe the antigenic space inhabited by the relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants, the understanding of which will have important implications for further vaccine strain adaptations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Aclimatação , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1066361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569830

RESUMO

Introduction: Imprinting broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) paratopes by shape complementary protein mimotopes represents a potential alternative for developing vaccine immunogens. This approach, designated as a Non-Cognate Ligand Strategy (NCLS), has recently been used for the identification of protein variants mimicking CD4 binding region epitope or membrane proximal external region (MPER) epitope of HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. However, the potential of small binding proteins to mimic viral glycan-containing epitopes has not yet been verified. Methods: In this work, we employed a highly complex combinatorial Myomedin scaffold library to identify variants recognizing paratopes of super candidate bNAbs, PGT121 and PGT126, specific for HIV-1 V3 loop epitopes. Results: In the collection of Myomedins called MLD variants targeted to PGT121, three candidates competed with gp120 for binding to this bNAb in ELISA, thus suggesting an overlapping binding site and epitope-mimicking potential. Myomedins targeted to PGT126 designated MLB also provided variants that competed with gp120. Immunization of mice with MLB or MLD binders resulted in the production of anti-gp120 and -Env serum antibodies. Mouse hyper-immune sera elicited with MLB036, MLB041, MLB049, and MLD108 moderately neutralized 8-to-10 of 22 tested HIV-1-pseudotyped viruses of A, B, and C clades in vitro. Discussion: Our data demonstrate that Myomedin-derived variants can mimic particular V3 glycan epitopes of prominent anti-HIV-1 bNAbs, ascertain the potential of particular glycans controlling neutralizing sensitivity of individual HIV-1 pseudoviruses, and represent promising prophylactic candidates for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1 , Animais , Camundongos , Epitopos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV , Polissacarídeos
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_4): S562-S570, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410381

RESUMO

Long-acting antiretroviral products have the potential to transform human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric populations. Broadly neutralizing antibodies and/or long-acting antiretroviral formulations by injection could dramatically improve provision of HIV prophylaxis and/or early treatment to newborns and infants at risk of HIV infection. Challenges in daily oral antiretroviral administration to toddlers and school age children living with HIV may be relieved by use of long-acting formulations, but the pharmacokinetics and safety of these products in children must be studied before they can enter routine clinical use. Although some initial studies of broadly neutralizing antibodies and injectable long-acting agents in infants and young children are underway, more studies of these and other long-acting products are needed. For many adolescents, compliance with daily medication administration is especially challenging. Long-acting products hold particular promise for adolescents living with HIV as well as those at high risk of HIV acquisition, and adolescents can usually be included in the drug development pipeline simultaneously with adults. Long-acting products have the potential to provide alternatives to lifelong daily oral drug administration across the pediatric age spectrum, leading to more effective prevention and treatment of HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Lactente , Adulto , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Injeções , HIV
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7271, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434005

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 58 million people and causes ~300,000 deaths yearly. The only target for HCV neutralizing antibodies is the highly sequence diverse E1E2 glycoprotein. Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved cross-neutralizing epitopes is important for an effective HCV vaccine. However, most recombinant HCV glycoprotein vaccines, which usually include only E2, induce only weak neutralizing antibody responses. Here, we describe recombinant soluble E1E2 immunogens that were generated by permutation of the E1 and E2 subunits. We displayed the E2E1 immunogens on two-component nanoparticles and these nanoparticles induce significantly more potent neutralizing antibody responses than E2. Next, we generated mosaic nanoparticles co-displaying six different E2E1 immunogens. These mosaic E2E1 nanoparticles elicit significantly improved neutralization compared to monovalent E2E1 nanoparticles. These results provide a roadmap for the generation of an HCV vaccine that induces potent and broad neutralization.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Nanopartículas , Vacinas , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Glicoproteínas
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1029167, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405722

RESUMO

Highly mutable infectious disease pathogens (hm-IDPs) such as HIV and influenza evolve faster than the human immune system can contain them, allowing them to circumvent traditional vaccination approaches and causing over one million deaths annually. Agent-based models can be used to simulate the complex interactions that occur between immune cells and hm-IDP-like proteins (antigens) during affinity maturation-the process by which antibodies evolve. Compared to existing experimental approaches, agent-based models offer a safe, low-cost, and rapid route to study the immune response to vaccines spanning a wide range of design variables. However, the highly stochastic nature of affinity maturation and vast sequence space of hm-IDPs render brute force searches intractable for exploring all pertinent vaccine design variables and the subset of immunization protocols encompassed therein. To address this challenge, we employed deep reinforcement learning to drive a recently developed agent-based model of affinity maturation to focus sampling on immunization protocols with greater potential to improve the chosen metrics of protection, namely the broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) titers or fraction of bnAbs produced. Using this approach, we were able to coarse-grain a wide range of vaccine design variables and explore the relevant design space. Our work offers new testable insights into how vaccines should be formulated to maximize protective immune responses to hm-IDPs and how they can be minimally tailored to account for major sources of heterogeneity in human immune responses and various socioeconomic factors. Our results indicate that the first 3 to 5 immunizations, depending on the metric of protection, should be specially tailored to achieve a robust protective immune response, but that beyond this point further immunizations require only subtle changes in formulation to sustain a durable bnAb response.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010945, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395347

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have remarkable breadth and potency against most HIV-1 subtypes and are able to prevent HIV-1 infection in animal models. However, bNAbs are extremely difficult to induce by vaccination. Defining the developmental pathways towards neutralization breadth can assist in the design of strategies to elicit protective bNAb responses by vaccination. Here, HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env)-specific IgG+ B cells were isolated at various time points post infection from an HIV-1 infected elite neutralizer to obtain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Multiple antibody lineages were isolated targeting distinct epitopes on Env, including the gp120-gp41 interface, CD4-binding site, silent face and V3 region. The mAbs each neutralized a diverse set of HIV-1 strains from different clades indicating that the patient's remarkable serum breadth and potency might have been the result of a polyclonal mixture rather than a single bNAb lineage. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the neutralizing mAbs (NAbs) in complex with an Env trimer generated from the same individual revealed that the NAbs used multiple strategies to neutralize the virus; blocking the receptor binding site, binding to HIV-1 Env N-linked glycans, and disassembly of the trimer. These results show that diverse NAbs can complement each other to achieve a broad and potent neutralizing serum response in HIV-1 infected individuals. Hence, the induction of combinations of moderately broad NAbs might be a viable vaccine strategy to protect against a wide range of circulating HIV-1 viruses.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV
19.
Cell Rep ; 41(7): 111650, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335937

RESUMO

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concerns (VOCs) continue to emerge, cross-neutralizing antibody responses become key toward next-generation design of a more universal COVID-19 vaccine. By analyzing published data from the literature, we report here that the combination of germline genes IGHV2-5/IGLV2-14 represents a public antibody response to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that potently cross-neutralizes a broad range of VOCs, including Omicron and its sub-lineages. Detailed molecular analysis shows that the complementarity-determining region H3 sequences of IGHV2-5/IGLV2-14-encoded RBD antibodies have a preferred length of 11 amino acids and a conserved HxIxxI motif. In addition, these antibodies have a strong allelic preference due to an allelic polymorphism at amino acid residue 54 of IGHV2-5, which is located at the paratope. These findings have important implications for understanding cross-neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its heterogenicity at the population level as well as the development of a universal COVID-19 vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6285, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271047

RESUMO

Vaccines that are broadly cross-protective against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) or across the sarbecoviruses subgenus remain a priority for public health. Virus neutralization is the best available correlate of protection. To define the magnitude and breadth of cross-neutralization in individuals with different exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, we here use a multiplex surrogate neutralization assay based on virus spike receptor binding domains of multiple SARS-CoV-2 VoC, as well as related bat and pangolin viruses. We include sera from cohorts of individuals vaccinated with two or three doses of mRNA (BNT162b2) or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavac or Sinopharm) vaccines with or without a history of previous SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-1 infection. SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-1 infection followed by BNT162b2 vaccine, Omicron BA.2 breakthrough infection following BNT162b2 vaccine or a third dose of BNT162b2 following two doses of BNT162b2 or Coronavac elicit the highest and broadest neutralization across VoCs. For both breadth and magnitude of neutralization across all sarbecoviruses, those infected with SARS-CoV-1 immunized with BNT162b2 outperform all other combinations of infection and/or vaccination. These data may inform vaccine design strategies for generating broadly neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants or across the sarbecovirus subgenus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes de Neutralização , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Receptores Virais , RNA Mensageiro
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