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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5652, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580306

RESUMO

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses' receptor-binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Both antibodies confer good resistance to mutations in the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics. They can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Células CHO , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Células Sf9 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero
2.
Cell Rep ; 36(13): 109760, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534459

RESUMO

Many anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding site on viral spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs). Potent antibodies recognize exposed variable epitopes, often rendering them ineffective against other sarbecoviruses and SARS-CoV-2 variants. Class 4 anti-RBD antibodies against a less-exposed, but more-conserved, cryptic epitope could recognize newly emergent zoonotic sarbecoviruses and variants, but they usually show only weak neutralization potencies. Here, we characterize two class 4 anti-RBD antibodies derived from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) donors that exhibit breadth and potent neutralization of zoonotic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 variants. C118-RBD and C022-RBD structures reveal orientations that extend from the cryptic epitope to occlude ACE2 binding and CDRH3-RBD main-chain H-bond interactions that extend an RBD ß sheet, thus reducing sensitivity to RBD side-chain changes. A C118-spike trimer structure reveals rotated RBDs that allow access to the cryptic epitope and the potential for intra-spike crosslinking to increase avidity. These studies facilitate vaccine design and illustrate potential advantages of class 4 RBD-binding antibody therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539645

RESUMO

The mutants resulted from the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic have showed resistance to antibody neutralization and vaccine-induced immune response. The present study isolated and identified two novel SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) from convalescent COVID-19 patients. These two nAbs (XG81 and XG83) were then systemically compared with nine nAbs that were reconstructed by using published data, and revealed that, even though these two nAbs shared targeting epitopes on spike protein, they were different from any of the nine nAbs. Compared with XG81, XG83 exhibited a higher RBD binding affinity and neutralization potency against wild-typed pseudovirus, variant pseudoviruses with mutated spike proteins, such as D614G, E484Q, and A475V, as well as the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. To explore potential broadly neutralizing antibodies, heavy and light chains from all 18 nAbs (16 published nAbs, XG81 and XG83) were cross-recombined, and some of the functional antibodies were screened and studied for RBD binding affinity, and neutralizing activity against pseudovirus and the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results demonstrated that several recombined antibodies had a more potent neutralization activity against variant pseudoviruses compared with the originally paired Abs. Taken together, the novel neutralizing antibodies identified in this study are a likely valuable addition to candidate antibody drugs for the development of clinical therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2 to minimize mutational escape.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452287

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most of the currently approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines use the prototype strain-derived spike (S) protein or its receptor-binding domain (RBD) as the vaccine antigen. The emergence of several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about potential immune escape. In this study, we performed an immunogenicity comparison of prototype strain-derived RBD, S1, and S ectodomain trimer (S-trimer) antigens and evaluated their induction of neutralizing antibodies against three circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1. We found that, at the same antigen dose, the RBD and S-trimer vaccines were more potent than the S1 vaccine in eliciting long-lasting, high-titer broadly neutralizing antibodies in mice. The RBD immune sera remained highly effective against the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1 variants despite the corresponding neutralizing titers decreasing by 1.2-, 2.8-, and 3.5-fold relative to that against the wild-type strain. Significantly, the S-trimer immune sera exhibited comparable neutralization potency (less than twofold variation in neutralizing GMTs) towards the prototype strain and all three variants tested. These findings provide valuable information for further development of recombinant protein-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and support the continued use of currently approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the regions/countries where variant viruses circulate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
5.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452443

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh identified human coronavirus. Understanding the extent of pre-existing immunity induced by seropositivity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the impact of cross-reactivity on COVID-19 disease progression remains a key research question in immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the immunopathology of COVID-2019 disease. This paper describes a panel of lentiviral pseudotypes bearing the spike (S) proteins for each of the seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs), generated under similar conditions optimized for high titre production allowing a high-throughput investigation of antibody neutralization breadth. Optimal production conditions and most readily available permissive target cell lines were determined for spike-mediated entry by each HCoV pseudotype: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 best transduced HEK293T/17 cells transfected with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV preferentially entered HUH7 cells, and CHO cells were most permissive for the seasonal betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1. Entry of ACE2 using pseudotypes was enhanced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in target cells, whilst TMPRSS2 transfection rendered HEK293T/17 cells permissive for HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 entry. Additionally, pseudotype viruses were produced bearing additional coronavirus surface proteins, including the SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins and HCoV-OC43/HCoV-HKU1 Haemagglutinin-Esterase (HE) proteins. This panel of lentiviral pseudotypes provides a safe, rapidly quantifiable and high-throughput tool for serological comparison of pan-coronavirus neutralizing responses; this can be used to elucidate antibody dynamics against individual coronaviruses and the effects of antibody cross-reactivity on clinical outcome following natural infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/fisiologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/fisiologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/fisiologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Testes de Neutralização , Plasmídeos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Transfecção , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452531

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic causing over 195 million infections and more than 4 million fatalities as of July 2021.To date, it has been demonstrated that a number of mutations in the spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern abrogate or reduce the neutralization potency of several therapeutic antibodies and vaccine-elicited antibodies. Therefore, the development of additional vaccine platforms with improved supply and logistic profile remains a pressing need. In this work, we have validated the applicability of a peptide-based strategy focused on a preventive as well as a therapeutic purpose. On the basis of the involvement of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), in addition to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the mechanism of virus entry, we analyzed peptides bearing DPP4 sequences by protein-protein docking and assessed their ability to block pseudovirus infection in vitro. In parallel, we have selected and synthetized peptide sequences located within the highly conserved receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, and we found that RBD-based vaccines could better promote elicitation of high titers of neutralizing antibodies specific against the regions of interest, as confirmed by immunoinformatic methodologies and in vivo studies. These findings unveil a key antigenic site targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies and pave the way to the design of pan-coronavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Coronavírus/química , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4676, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344900

RESUMO

Interventions against variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Stable and potent nanobodies (Nbs) that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike are promising therapeutics. However, it is unknown if Nbs broadly neutralize circulating variants. We found that RBD Nbs are highly resistant to variants of concern (VOCs). High-resolution cryoelectron microscopy determination of eight Nb-bound structures reveals multiple potent neutralizing epitopes clustered into three classes: Class I targets ACE2-binding sites and disrupts host receptor binding. Class II binds highly conserved epitopes and retains activity against VOCs and RBDSARS-CoV. Cass III recognizes unique epitopes that are likely inaccessible to antibodies. Systematic comparisons of neutralizing antibodies and Nbs provided insights into how Nbs target the spike to achieve high-affinity and broadly neutralizing activity. Structure-function analysis of Nbs indicates a variety of antiviral mechanisms. Our study may guide the rational design of pan-coronavirus vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/classificação , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/classificação , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Nature ; 597(7874): 97-102, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261126

RESUMO

An ideal therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape1-3, have activity against diverse sarbecoviruses4-7, and be highly protective through viral neutralization8-11 and effector functions12,13. Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and guide vaccine design. Here we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Despite a trade-off between in vitro neutralization potency and breadth of sarbecovirus binding, we identify neutralizing antibodies with exceptional sarbecovirus breadth and a corresponding resistance to SARS-CoV-2 escape. One of these antibodies, S2H97, binds with high affinity across all sarbecovirus clades to a cryptic epitope and prophylactically protects hamsters from viral challenge. Antibodies that target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escaped by mutations despite high neutralization potency. Nevertheless, we also characterize a potent RBM antibody (S2E128) with breadth across sarbecoviruses related to SARS-CoV-2 and a high barrier to viral escape. These data highlight principles underlying variation in escape, breadth and potency among antibodies that target the RBD, and identify epitopes and features to prioritize for therapeutic development against the current and potential future pandemics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinologia
9.
Nature ; 597(7874): 103-108, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280951

RESUMO

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern1-10 and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses11,12 into the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here we describe a human monoclonal antibody designated S2X259, which recognizes a highly conserved cryptic epitope of the receptor-binding domain and cross-reacts with spikes from all clades of sarbecovirus. S2X259 broadly neutralizes spike-mediated cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.427/B.1.429), as well as a wide spectrum of human and potentially zoonotic sarbecoviruses through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding to the receptor-binding domain. Furthermore, deep-mutational scanning and in vitro escape selection experiments demonstrate that S2X259 possesses an escape profile that is limited to a single substitution, G504D. We show that prophylactic and therapeutic administration of S2X259 protects Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against challenge with the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant of concern, which suggests that this monoclonal antibody is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of emergent variants and zoonotic infections. Our data reveal a key antigenic site that is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies and will guide the design of vaccines that are effective against all sarbecoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Mesocricetus/virologia , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Zoonoses Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses Virais/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses Virais/virologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4320, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262046

RESUMO

The rational development of norovirus vaccine candidates requires a deep understanding of the antigenic diversity and mechanisms of neutralization of the virus. Here, we isolate and characterize a panel of broadly cross-reactive naturally occurring human monoclonal IgMs, IgAs and IgGs reactive with human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup I or II (GI or GII). We note three binding patterns and identify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize at least one GI or GII HuNoV strain when using a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assay. The HBGA blocking assay and a virus neutralization assay using human intestinal enteroids reveal that the GII-specific mAb NORO-320, mediates HBGA blocking and neutralization of multiple GII genotypes. The Fab form of NORO-320 neutralizes GII.4 infection more potently than the mAb, however, does not block HBGA binding. The crystal structure of NORO-320 Fab in complex with GII.4 P-domain shows that the antibody recognizes a highly conserved region in the P-domain distant from the HBGA binding site. Dynamic light scattering analysis of GII.4 virus-like particles with mAb NORO-320 shows severe aggregation, suggesting neutralization is by steric hindrance caused by multivalent cross-linking. Aggregation was not observed with the Fab form of NORO-320, suggesting that this clone also has additional inhibitory features.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Norovirus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Variação Antigênica , Sítios de Ligação , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Norovirus/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3991, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183681

RESUMO

As SARS-CoV-2 has been circulating for over a year, dozens of vaccine candidates are under development or in clinical use. The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine induces spike protein-specific neutralizing antibodies associated with protective immunity. The emergence of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants has raised concerns of reduced vaccine efficacy and increased re-infection rates. Here we show, that after the second dose, the sera of BNT162b2-vaccinated health care workers (n = 180) effectively neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 variant with the D614G substitution and the B.1.1.7 variant, whereas the neutralization of the B.1.351 variant is five-fold reduced. Despite the reduction, 92% of the seronegative vaccinees have a neutralization titre of >20 for the B.1.351 variant indicating some protection. The vaccinees' neutralization titres exceeded those of recovered non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our work provides evidence that the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine induces cross-neutralization of at least some of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/estatística & dados numéricos , Reinfecção/imunologia , Reinfecção/prevenção & controle , Reinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(8): 2051-2061, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086344

RESUMO

The potential of immunotherapy strategies utilizing broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs), such as 3BNC117 and 10-1074, to limit viral replication while also facilitating clearance of HIV infected cells has heightened interest in identifying the predominant NK effector subset(s) capable of mediating antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Utilizing advanced polychromatic flow cytometry, we identified that CD57 positive NK cells from ART-suppressed in People Living With HIV (PLWH) expressed significantly higher levels of the CD16 FcγR receptor, 2B4 ADCC coreceptor, and HLA-DR activation marker while NKG2C positive NK cells expressed significantly higher levels of the CD2 ADCC coreceptor (p < 0.001, n = 32). Functionally, CD57 positive NK cells from ART-suppressed PLWH with either high or low NKG2C expansion exhibited significantly enhanced degranulation and IFN-γ production against heterologous gp120-coated ADCC targets coated with HIV reference plasma compared to CD57 negative NK cells (p = 0.0029, n = 11). CD57 positive NK cells from control donors lacking NKG2C expansion also exhibited significantly more degranulation and IFN-γ production at every timepoint tested against both heterologous ADCC targets (p = 0.019, n = 9) and HIV-1 infected autologous CD4+ primary T cells coated with BNAbs. Together, our data support CD57 positive and NKG2C positive NK cells as the predominant ADCC effector subsets capable of targeting HIV-infected CD4+ cells in the presence of 3BNC117 and 10-1074 immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Humanos
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3789, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145279

RESUMO

Influenza viruses are a major public health problem. Vaccines are the best available countermeasure to induce effective immunity against infection with seasonal influenza viruses; however, the breadth of antibody responses in infection versus vaccination is quite different. Here, we show that nasal infection controls two sequential processes to induce neutralizing IgG antibodies recognizing the hemagglutinin (HA) of heterotypic strains. The first is viral replication in the lung, which facilitates exposure of shared epitopes that are otherwise hidden from the immune system. The second process is the germinal center (GC) response, in particular, IL-4 derived from follicular helper T cells has an essential role in the expansion of rare GC-B cells recognizing the shared epitopes. Therefore, the combination of exposure of the shared epitopes and efficient proliferation of GC-B cells is critical for generating broadly-protective antibodies. These observations provide insight into mechanisms promoting broad protection from virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Hemaglutininas Virais/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/sangue , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Vacinação
15.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019795

RESUMO

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Dimerização , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicosilação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Macaca mulatta , Polissacarídeos/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/química , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vacinas/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
16.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 74, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044890

RESUMO

Due to the substantial genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), commercial PRRS vaccines fail to provide sufficient cross protection. Previous studies have confirmed the existence of PRRSV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs are rarely induced by either natural infection or vaccination. In this study, we designed and synthesized a consensus sequence of PRRSV2 ORF2-6 genes (ORF2-6-CON) encoding all envelope proteins based on 30 representative Chinese PRRSV isolates. The ORF2-6-CON sequence shared > 90% nucleotide identities to all four lineages of PRRSV2 isolates in China. A chimeric virus (rJS-ORF2-6-CON) containing the ORF2-6-CON was generated using the avirulent HP-PRRSV2 JSTZ1712-12 infectious clone as a backbone. The rJS-ORF2-6-CON has similar replication efficiency as the backbone virus in vitro. Furthermore, pig inoculation and challenge studies showed that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is not pathogenic to piglets and confers better cross protection against the virulent NADC30-like isolate than a commercial HP-PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Noticeably, the rJS-ORF2-6-CON strain could induce bnAbs while the MLV strain only induced homologous nAbs. In addition, the lineages of VDJ repertoires potentially associated with distinct nAbs were also characterized. Overall, our results demonstrate that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is a promising candidate for the development of a PRRS genetic engineered vaccine conferring cross protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/genética , Sequência Consenso , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Virulência
17.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(5): 426-434, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927387

RESUMO

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are henipaviruses (HNVs) causing respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in humans, with fatality rates of 50-100%. There are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines to protect humans. HeV and NiV use a receptor-binding glycoprotein (G) and a fusion glycoprotein (F) to enter host cells. HNV F and G are the main targets of the humoral immune response, and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is a correlate of protection against NiV and HeV in experimentally infected animals. We describe here two cross-reactive F-specific antibodies, 1F5 and 12B2, that neutralize NiV and HeV through inhibition of membrane fusion. Cryo-electron microscopy structures reveal that 1F5 and 12B2 recognize distinct prefusion-specific, conserved quaternary epitopes and lock F in its prefusion conformation. We provide proof-of-concept for using antibody cocktails for neutralizing NiV and HeV and define a roadmap for developing effective countermeasures against these highly pathogenic viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vírus Hendra/imunologia , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Reações Cruzadas , Células HEK293 , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Camundongos , Internalização do Vírus
18.
J Virol ; 95(13): e0021921, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853957

RESUMO

No prophylactic vaccine has provided robust protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Vaccine-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have not been achieved in humans and most animals; however, cows vaccinated with HIV-1 envelope trimers produce bNAbs with unusually long third heavy complementarity-determining regions (CDRH3s). Alongside neutralization, Fc-mediated effector functions, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP), may be critical for in vivo bNAb antiviral activity. Here, we aimed to augment the Fc-dependent effector functions of a chimeric human-bovine bNAb, NC-Cow1, which binds the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and exhibits broader and more potent neutralization than most human CD4bs bNAbs by using an exceptionally long 60-amino acid (aa) CDRH3. The bovine variable region of NC-Cow1 was paired with a human IgG1 Fc region mutated to create the following three variants: G236R/L328R (GRLR) that abrogates Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) binding, and two variants that enhance binding, namely, G236A/S239D/I332E (GASDIE) and G236A/S239D/A330L/I332E (GASDALIE). Both GASDIE and GASDALIE improved binding to human FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA, enhanced human natural killer (NK) cell activation, and mediated higher levels of ADCC and ADP activity than the wild-type human IgG1 Fc. GASDALIE mediated higher phagocytic activity than GASDIE. As expected, GRLR eliminated binding to FcγRs and did not mediate ADCC or ADP. We demonstrated that mutations in the human Fc region of bovine chimeric antibodies with ultralong CDRH3s could enhance antibody effector functions while maintaining envelope binding and neutralization. This study will have significant implications in the development of multifunctional anti-HIV antibodies, which may be important to prevent HIV-1 transmission in an antibody-based topical microbicide. IMPORTANCE Despite successful antiviral chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a lifelong persistent virus, and no vaccine yet prevents HIV transmission. Topical microbicides offer an important alternative method to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1. With the production of highly potent anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and multifunctional antibodies, monoclonal antibodies are now important prophylactic agents. Recently discovered anti-HIV-1 bovine bNAbs (with higher potency and breadth than most human bNAbs) could be novel candidates as potent topical microbicides. Our study is significant as it demonstrates the compatibility of combining bovine-derived neutralization with human-derived antibody-effector functions. This study is a new approach to antibody engineering that strengthens the feasibility of using high-potency bovine variable region bNAbs with augmented Fc function and promotes them as a strong candidate for antibody-mediated therapies.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Engenharia de Proteínas , Receptores de IgG/imunologia
20.
J Virol ; 95(13): e0000521, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883221

RESUMO

A major goal of HIV vaccine design is to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Such bNAbs target HIV's trimeric, membrane-embedded envelope glycoprotein spikes (mEnv). Soluble Env (sEnv) trimers have been used as vaccines, but engineering sEnvs for stability, multivalency, and desired antigenicity is problematic and deletes key neutralizing epitopes on glycoprotein 41 (gp41) while creating neoepitopes that elicit unwanted antibodies. Meanwhile, multivalent mEnv vaccines are challenging to develop due to trimer instability and low mEnv copy number amid other extraneous proteins on virus-like particles. Here, we describe a multivalent mEnv vaccine platform that does not require protein engineering or extraneous proteins. mEnv trimers were fixed, purified, and combined with naked liposomes in mild detergent. On removal of detergent, mEnv spikes were observed embedded in liposome particles (mean diameter, 133 nm) in correct orientation. These particles were recognized by HIV bNAbs and not non-NAbs and are designated mEnv liposomes (MELs). Following a sequential immunization scheme in rabbits, MELs elicited antibodies that neutralized tier 2 HIV isolates. Analysis of serum antibody specificities, including those to epitopes involving a missing conserved N-glycosylation site at position 197 near the CD4 binding site on two of the immunogens, provides clues on how NAb responses can be improved with modified immunogens. In sum, MELs are a biochemically defined platform that enables rational immunization strategies to elicit HIV bNAbs using multimerized mEnv. IMPORTANCE A vaccine that induced broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV would likely end the AIDS pandemic. Such antibodies target membrane-embedded envelope glycoprotein spikes (mEnv) that HIV uses to enter cells. Due to HIV Env's low expression and instability, soluble stabilized Env trimers have been used as vaccine candidates, but these have an altered base that disrupts targets of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies that bind near the membrane and are not available for all HIV isolates. Here, we describe membrane Env liposomes (MELs) that display a multivalent array of stable mEnvs on liposome particles. MELs showed the expected antibody recognition properties, including targeting parts of mEnv missing on soluble Envs. Immunization with MELs elicited antibodies that neutralized diverse HIV isolates. The MEL platform facilitates vaccine development with potentially any HIV Env at high valency, and a similar approach may be useful for eliciting antibodies to membrane-embedded targets of therapeutic interest.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipossomos/imunologia , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Vacinação
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