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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18752, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914096

RESUMO

The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in Asia raises the question as to whether HBV infection is associated with ICAS. To answer this question, we tested the association between HBV infection and ICAS. Totally, 3072 in-hospital subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All subjects underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and serological testing for HBV infection. Based on the results of CTA, all subjects were categorized into 4 groups including ICAS, extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), ICAS/ECAS (both ICAS and ECAS), and normal. HBV infection was divided into 4 patterns including hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive/hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-positive, and anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-negative. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were collected based on medical records. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between infection patterns and ICAS. We found that the anti-HBc-positive / HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS (OR = 1.462) and not associated with ECAS or ICAS / ECAS. The HBc-positive/HBsAg-positive pattern was not associated with ICAS, ECAS or ICAS/ECAS. In conclusions, the anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS. Anti-HBc should be employed to investigate the association between HBV infection and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20180533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994654

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
3.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(1): 20-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590597

RESUMO

The present study aimed to find out the levels of anti-HBsAb among vaccinated children in a rural community in Fars Province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 550 children, aged 1-12 years (mean 6.4 ± 3.5), in 2017 from three villages in the area. A structured questionnaire was used to get the sociodemographic data of the subjects along with determinants concerning the Hepatitis B. Sera samples were examined for anti-HBsAb, using an ELISA commercial kit. Anti-HBsAb were detected in 468 (85.1%) of the subjects. Of the seropositive subjects, 37 (45.1%) were female and 45 (54.9%) were male. In the age group of 0-5 years, 88.7% of the subjects were seropositive. This rate was 84.3% and 78.1% in the age group of 6-10 years old and older than 10 years, respectively. There was a significant association (p < .05) between the anti-HBsAb and age. Findings of the current study revealed that children living in a rural community in southern Iran have appropriate protection against HBV even more than 10 years after being vaccinated. The decline in seropositivity rate of anti-HBsAb with age may further point out the need for a booster dose of HBV vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 299, 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several cases of hepatitis B virus reactivation have been described in patients with a history of hepatitis B virus infection while undergoing treatment for hepatitis C virus infection with direct acting antivirals, the question of whether hepatitis B virus surface antigen immune-escape mutations might play a role has not been addressed so far. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of hepatitis B virus reactivation in a Caucasian patient infected with hepatitis C virus during treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir. A 50-year-old man with a genotype 1a hepatitis C virus infection was considered for therapy. His serological profile was hepatitis B virus surface antigen-negative, hepatitis B virus core antibody-positive, hepatitis B virus surface antibody-negative, and anti-hepatitis D virus-positive. The detection of hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) indicated active viral replication during the direct acting antiviral treatment that spontaneously returned to undetectable levels after treatment completion. Starting from week 12 after the end of treatment, hepatitis B virus surface antibody titers and hepatitis B virus e antibody developed. Sequencing analysis revealed the hepatitis B virus genotype D3 and the presence of two relevant immune-escape mutations (P120S and T126I) in the major hydrophilic region by analyzing the S region. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the presence of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen mutations, endowed with the enhanced capability to elude the immune response, could play a role in hepatitis B virus reactivation. This observation confirms that occult hepatitis B infection should also be carefully monitored, through surveillance of the hepatitis B virus viral load before and during direct acting antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico
5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(5): 343-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients remains controversial. This study was aimed to assess the association of this serological pattern with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with CHB. METHODS: In this cross-section study, 206 CHB patients with coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs and 206 CHB patients with HBsAg alone were included to evaluate the risk of HCC development by logistic regression analysis. In addition, a retrospective cohort of 260 patients with CHB was recruited to estimate the cumulative incidence of HCC by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: The serological pattern of coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs, with high levels of ("High") HBsAg/low levels of ("Low") anti-HBs, were considered as independent risk factors for HCC. In particular, patients with "High" HBsAg/"High" anti-HBs [odds ratio (OR), 4.295; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.104-16.699; p = 0.035] and "Low" HBsAg/ "High" anti-HBs (OR, 3.207; 95%CI, 1.299-7.919; p = 0.012) exhibited significantly higher risk for HCC development. However, only "Low" HBsAg /"High" anti-HBs might increase risk of HCC in CHB patients with high HBV load (logrank p < 0.001) in our cohort study. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of "Low" HBsAg /"High" anti-HBs might increase the risk of HCC development in CHB patients with high HBV load, which reflected that the long-term interaction between immune response and virus might lead to the development of HCC. The identification of the patients with poor prognosis will help clinicians to refine the therapeutic decisions and individualize follow-up strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral
6.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2645-2658, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399876

RESUMO

Anti-HBs antibodies develop after natural infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or vaccination against this virus, as a result of activation of the human immune system by the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Anti-HBs-positive individuals are immunologically competent against HBV infection. This immunity is determined by the antibody levels in the bloodstream after resolution of natural infection or after vaccination. Anti-HBs antibody levels have been observed to decrease to below the protective level years after natural infection or vaccination, and there is reason to doubt that protective immunity to HBV is maintained after that. Factors that affect the maintenance of the anti-HBs antibody level in the bloodstream have been reported. Maintenance of immunity to HBV has been reported in anti-HBs negative individuals and those with detectable but low levels after natural infection or after vaccination. On the other hand, detection of anti-HBs antibodies without protective activity has also been observed. The presence or absence of anti-HBs antibodies in the context of HBV immunity has been the subject of extensive discussion and clinical, laboratory and epidemiological interest. These three scenarios of the anti-HBs response are discussed in this review article.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinação
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1101, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors reflect the degree of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially in people in sexually active stages, such as youths. Hill tribe people have their own cultures, beliefs and lifestyles related to their behaviors, including sexual behaviors, which may lead to HIV, HBV, and HCV infections, especially among youths. The study aimed to examine sexual behaviors and assess the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV among hill tribe youths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from 60 randomly selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire and 5 mL blood specimens were used to collect data. Data were collected by a self-reporting method. Rapid immunochromatographic tests were used to detect hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus antibody-I and- II (anti-HIV-1 and -2). Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to detect the associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 1325 participants were recruited for the analysis. The majority were females (60.5%) and aged 15-17 years (58.9%). A total of 14.5% smoked, 22.4% drank alcohol, 14.2% were tattooed, and 61.4% had their ears pierced. Among the 30.3% who had sexual experience, 42.0% experienced one-night stands, 26.9% had sexual contact with a prostitute within 1 year prior to the study, 18.9% used alcohol prior to having sexual intercourse, and 15.7% had been tested for HIV/AIDS previously. Among males, 11.5% were males who had sex with males (MSM), and 4.6% were bisexual. Among females, 83.0% were females who had sex with males, and 5.0% were females who had sex with females. Different sexes and tribes were found to have significantly different risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, such as overall males having a greater proportion of sexual experience than females, and Lahu, Akha and Hmong had a higher proportion of sexual experience, having sexual experience with one-night stands, and having sexual experience with a prostitute 1 year prior to the study than others. Among the 836 obtained blood samples, none were positive for anti-HIV-I and -II, 6.4% were positive for anti-HBs, 1.9% were positive for HBsAg, and 0.2% were positive for anti-HCV. CONCLUSION: Hill tribe youths in Thailand are at risk of STIs such as HBV and HCV infections according to their risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, which differ between sexes and tribes. Effective behavioral interventions should be promoted among hill tribe youths to minimize the risk for these diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 65, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to providing free hepatitis B vaccine (HBvacc) series to all infants in China since 2005, the national programme on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) started providing free hepatitis B immunoglobulin for all new-borns born to hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in 2010. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of the programme and identify associated factors. METHOD: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected data on 4112 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their children aged 7-22 months in four representative provinces through interviews and medical record review. We tested HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) of children by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at designated maternal and child hospital laboratories. We used logistic regression to analyse factors associated with child HBsAg and anti-HBs positivity. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were HBsAg positive, indicating the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate was 0.9% (0.6-1.1%). The anti-HBs positive rate was 96.8% (96.3-97.4%). Children receiving HBvacc between 12 and 24 h of birth were 2.9 times more likely to be infected than those vaccinated in less than 12 h (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-6.3, P = 0.01). Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positivity was associated with higher MTCT rate (aOR = 79.1, 95% CI: 10.8-580.2, P <  0.001) and lower anti-HBs positive rate (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6, P <  0.001). Children with low birth weight (LBW) were 60% less likely to be anti-HBs positive than those with normal birth weight (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The MTCT rate was lower than the 2030 WHO elimination goal, which implies the programme is on track to achieve this target. As earlier HBvacc birth dose (HBvcc-BD) was associated with lower MTCT rate, we suggest that the PMTCT programme work with the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to modify the current recommendation for early HBvcc-BD to a requirement. Our finding that LBW was associated with lower anti-HBs positivity points to the need for further studies to understand factors associated with these risks and opportunities for program strengthening. The programme needs to ensure providing essential test to identify HBeAg-positive mothers and their infants and provide them with appropriate medical care and follow-up.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatite B/transmissão , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Pharm ; 567: 118489, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276760

RESUMO

This study systematically demonstrated the antigenicity kinetics of HBV vaccine microneedles (MNs) during the fabrication, application and storage. To improve the stability of HBsAg in a microneedle patch, several selected saccharides were added to the MN formulations as stabilizers. According to the experimental data, no significant decrease of the bio-activity of HBsAg antigen was found during the microneedle fabrication process. And then immune effects of HBsAg added with different sugars were tested. Chitosan and trehalose loaded HBsAg MNs enhanced the antibody levels to approximately 1.5-fold and 2-fold of the plain HBsAg MNs respectively while sucrose and glucose were not obviously beneficial. During the short-term storage under 60 °C, the antigenicity of HBsAg MNs encapsulated with glucose and chitosan declined sharply in 24 h and hardly left after 7 days. As for the groups of HBsAg MNs added with sucrose and trehalose, approximately 90% of HBsAg initial antigenicity maintained, which could be attributed to the protective function of non-reductive disaccharides. As for the long-term storage experiments, the pharmacological activity of HBsAg antigen protected by sucrose and trehalose slightly reduced in 3 months except for the samples under 60 °C. In extreme condition, trehalose performed even better protection function than sucrose, of which the antigenicity of HBsAg in MNs left approximately 81% and 63% of its initial, respectively. These results confirmed that trehalose loaded HBsAg MNs enabled stable encapsulation and storage of HBsAg antigen and realized reasonable enhancement of immune effect in a relatively painless, safe, and convenient manner.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microinjeções , Agulhas , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Transdérmico
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 574, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood donor plasma samples were detected by the Ultrio Plus NAT system for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 in Shenzhen blood center, China. Reactive samples underwent further discriminatory testing of a single virus by the same methodology. A large number of cases of non-discriminated reactive (NDR) donors were found, leaving potential risk of transmitting HBV if not deferrals. This study identified those non-discriminated samples. METHODS: The NDR plasma samples from blood donation screening were detected and classified by additional molecular and serological tests. Molecular characterizations of DNA+ NDR were determined by sequencing analysis. RESULTS: A number of 259 (0.21%) NDR plasma samples from screening of 123,280 eligible blood donors were detected, which presented a higher rate (91.1%) of anti-HBc reactivity and nearly half (46.7%) of HBV DNA+ that classified as occult HBV infection (OBI). Most OBI strains were wild-type HBV, but some substitutions V168A, S174 N, V177A, Q129R/L/H, G145A/R in S region of genotype B (OBIB) and T47K/V/A, P49H/L, Q101R/H/K, S174 N, L175S, V177A, T118 M/R/K, G145R/A/K/E, R160K/N in S region of genotype C (OBIC) strains were identified in high frequency. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of NDR blood samples were identified as OBI, in which a number of important mutations were detected. NDR donation might have potential risk for HBV transmission, but need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV-1/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
11.
Clin Lab ; 65(7)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, HBV infection serum markers have been globally measured, and the analysis of entire an-tibody details include the affinity, total protein content and antibody activity are rarely measured between two different ethnic groups. We detected and determined the entire characteristics of anti-HBs (antibody to HBs anti-gen) among Sudanese and Chinese HBV resolved patient's using a terminal antibody (TA) method. METHOD: Serum samples of Sudanese and Chinese resolved HBV infection positive anti-HBs were collected. All se-rum samples were diluted in serial dilutions (20, 40, 80, and 160 dilutions). Anti-HB markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibody affinity, total protein content, and total antibody activity to anti-HBs were calculated according to the results obtained for each dilution. RESULTS: The antibody affinity to HBV statistically showed higher significance among Sudanese than Chinese (p < 0.05). The total antibody activity to HBV among Sudanese was higher statistically than Chinese patients (p < 0.05). Statistically, there was a high correlation between age and antibody affinity to HBV among Sudanese compared to the Chinese group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of the antibody affinity, total antibody activity, and protein content of anti-HBs among Sudanese and Chinese, two different ethnic groups, may predict HBV infection status among African race and Asian race, and in addition, may play an important role in a high or a low incidence of the disease between different ethnicities.


Assuntos
Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatite B/etnologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sudão , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357451

RESUMO

The origin of the hepatitis B virus is a subject of wide deliberation among researchers. As a result, increasing academic interest has focused on the spread of the virus in different animal species. However, the sources of viral infection for many of these animals are unknown since transmission may occur from animal to animal, human to human, animal to human, and human to animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepadnavirus circulation in wild and farm animals (including animals raised under wild or free conditions) from different sites in Brazil and Uruguay using serological and molecular tools. A total of 487 domestic wild and farm animals were screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers and tested via quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect viral DNA. We report evidence of HBsAg (surface antigen of HBV) and total anti-HBc (HBV core antigen) markers as well as low-copy hepadnavirus DNA among domestic and wild animals. According to our results, which were confirmed by partial genome sequencing, as the proximity between humans and animals increases, the potential for pathogen dispersal also increases. A wider knowledge and understanding of reverse zoonoses should be sought for an effective One Health response.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/sangue , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Uruguai/epidemiologia
13.
J Pregnancy ; 2019: 7917894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316835

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) are life-threatening infections of public health importance due to their association with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite HBV being moderately endemic in many low-income countries, there is no routine HBV vaccination among child bearing aged women making them at risk of transmitting infections to the foetus during pregnancy. This study investigated the seroprevalence of antihepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Mwanza city to provide data that can be used in devising preventive strategies. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 339 pregnant women was conducted between June and July 2017. Data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of anti-HBs was performed using enzyme immunoassay while qualitative rapid immunochromatographic tests were employed to detect HCV antibodies. Data was analyzed by using STATA version 13. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 25.6±5.8 years. The prevalence of anti-HBs was 85/339 (25.1%, 95% CI: 20.4-29.6) while that of HCV antibodies was 1/333 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4). By univariate logistic regression analysis, increase in age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09, P=0.03), unknown HIV status (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79, P=0.035), and multigravidity (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.18-3.8, P=0.038) were significantly associated with anti-HBs seropositivity. Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have anti-HBs while the seroprevalence of HCV is low among pregnant women in the city of Mwanza. Routine screening of HBV among pregnant women coupled with appropriate management should be emphasized in developing countries. Further studies to determine seroprevalence of HCV are recommended across the country.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Nephrol ; 92(4): 190-200, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis are at risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and antibodies against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) ≥ 10 IU/L are required. However, a high percentages of HBV vaccine nonresponders have been reported. We aimed to determine the optimal HBV vaccination protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kidney transplant waitlisted patients were followed for 12 months and categorized into two groups. Group A included patients with sustained anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L who did not require vaccination. Group B consisted of patients with anti-HBs < 10 IU/L who were treated with a course of 4 double-dose HBV vaccinations. Without seroconversion after the first course, a second course was initiated. A third course, coadministered with the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine, was performed upon failure of the second course. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were included, 140 were categorized into group A and 126 into group B. Higher serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, and antibodies against the hepatitis core antigen (anti-HBc) were associated with sustaining anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L without vaccination. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with the need for vaccination. For group B, 107 patients required 1 course of vaccination, 15 patients required 2 courses, and 4 patients required the third course with Td vaccine coadministration. Long dialysis vintage and low hemoglobin level were associated with seroconversion failure after the first course. CONCLUSION: Serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, DM, anti-HBc, and dialysis vintage were associated with the anti-HBs seroresponsiveness and sustainability. Our 3-course of 4 double-dose HBV vaccines regimen (with Td vaccine in the final course) conferred immunity to all patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Transplante de Rim , Vacinação , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(26): 3299-3312, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341357

RESUMO

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is characterized by increased HBV-DNA serum values of about 1 log or by HBV DNA turning positive if previously undetectable in serum, possibly associated with liver damage and seldom life-threatening. Due to HBV reactivation, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative/anti-HBc-positive subjects may revert to HBsAg-positive. In patients with hemo-lymphoproliferative disease, the frequency of HBV reactivation depends on the type of lymphoproliferative disorder, the individual's HBV serological status and the potency and duration of immunosuppression. In particular, it occurs in 10%-50% of the HBsAg-positive and in 2%-25% of the HBsAg- negative/anti-HBc-positive, the highest incidences being registered in patients receiving rituximab-based therapy. HBV reactivation can be prevented by accurate screening of patients at risk and by a pharmacological prophylaxis with anti-HBV nucleo(t)sides starting 2-3 wk before the beginning of immunosuppressive treatment and covering the entire period of administration of immunosuppressive drugs and a long subsequent period, the duration of which depends substantially on the degree of immunodepression achieved. Patients with significant HBV replication before immunosuppressive therapy should receive anti-HBV nucleo(t)sides as a long-term (may be life-long) treatment. This review article is mainly directed to doctors engaged every day in the treatment of patients with onco-lymphoproliferative diseases, so that they can broaden their knowledge on HBV infection and on its reactivation induced by the drugs with high immunosuppressive potential that they use in the care of their patients.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Viral/sangue , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Viral/imunologia
16.
Eur J Haematol ; 103(4): 410-416, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Causality between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was reported in various studies. However, the implication of different virological serum markers of HBV infection in patients with both HBV infection and DLBCL is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HBV markers on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with both HBV infection and DLBCL. METHODS: In this study, patients (n = 40) diagnosed with both HBV infection and DLBCL were identified between 2000 and 2017. Six patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection were excluded from this study. We retrospectively analyzed patients' demographic characteristics, treatment, and the prognostic impact of different HBV markers at first diagnosis of DLBCL (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and HBV-DNA) on OS and PFS. RESULTS: The majority of patients (n = 21, 62%) had advanced disease stage (III/IV) at diagnosis. In the first-line therapy, 24 patients (70%) were treated with R-CHOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone). HBeAg positive patients had a trend toward inferior OS and PFS compared with HBeAg negative patients. Anti-HBe positive patients had a statistically significant better OS and PFS compared with anti-HBe negative group (both P < .0001). Viremia with HBV-DNA ≥ 2 × 107 IU/L had a significant negative impact on OS and PFS (both P < .0001). CONCLUSION: High activity of viral replication is associated with a poor survival outcome of patients with both HBV infection and DLBCL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303913

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in Senegal. HBV vaccine of all children has been introduced in 1999 and included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 2004. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV prevalence and immunity status against HBV amongst children in Senegal. Methods: Between March and August 2016, consecutive children aged from 6 months to 16 years old were recruited in outpatient department of three main children hospitals in Senegal. Serum samples were analyzed for HBV serology (HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb) using ARCHITECT analyzer. Children with HBsAb levels ≥ 10 IU/l) were considered as seroprotected against HBV. Results: During the study period, 295 children fulfilled the criteria for the study and were further analyzed. Three children were HBsAg positive giving a seroprevalence at 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-3.3), 12/267 (4.5%, 95% CI=2.3-7.7) had positive HBcAb and 226/295 (76.6%, 71.4-81.3) had positive HBsAb including 191 (77.3%, 71.6-82.4) with isolated HBsAb related to previous active immunization. However only 165 children (56%, CI 50-62) had seroprotective HBsAb levels (HBsAb ≥ 10 UI/L) and 63 (21.4, 16.8-26) had a strong seroprotectiondefined by HBsAb ≥ 100 IU/L. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although HBV prevalence has significantly decreased in children in Senegal following a better HBV vaccine coverage, the number of children correctly seroprotected is insufficient (56%). Assessing the levels of HBsAb and providing HBV vaccine boosters should be considered in children in Senegal.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 507, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Lao People's Demographic Republic (PDR) has not been examined since the national HBV vaccination program was started in 2002. Vaccine has been observed to be frozen at times during cold-chain transport in vaccination programs in Lao PDR and other developing countries, which will inactivate the vaccine. Therefore, this study used post-vaccination serologic testing to evaluate the effects of HBV immunization in Lao PDR. METHODS: A cross-sectional serologic study was conducted among children (age range, 5-9 years) and mothers (15-45 years) who were randomly selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling from central Lao PDR. Blood samples were collected as dried blood spots (DBS) and analyzed using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to detect anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) titers. We also evaluated the correlation between anti-HBs levels measured in DBS and serum among healthy healthcare workers in Vientiane. RESULTS: Anti-HBs titers from DBS were strongly correlated with serum levels (correlation coefficient = 0.999) in all 12 healthcare workers evaluated. A linear regression model showed that 10 mIU/mL of serum anti-HBs was equivalent to 3.45 mIU/mL (95% CI: 3.06-3.85) of DBS. Among 911 mother-child pairs tested, 171 children had documentation of vaccination. Of the 147 children who had received ≥3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, 1 (0.7%) was positive for anti-HBs. The remaining 24 children received the hepatitis B vaccine only twice, once or no dose. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed extremely low positivity for anti-HBs among vaccinated children in central Lao PDR. Therefore, post-vaccination serologic testing is important to evaluate population immunity against HBV infection. DBS testing is a potential low-cost tool to evaluating the effectiveness of HBV vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HBV vaccine is known to offer protection against transmission of HBV infection. Health care workers are mandated to have this vaccination as part of their occupational health safety measures. Post vaccination response data for HCWs in our setting is not available. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the anti-HBs titre levels after Hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs from selected heath facilities in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. METHODS: A multicenter (3 selected sites) analytical cross-sectional study involving 711 HCWs was conducted. Five (5mls) of blood samples were collected from each study participant and the serum used for HBV immunological profile testing anti-HBs quantification by ELISA test (Fortress Diagnostics Limited, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom). Data analyses were performed using Stata version 14.0 software (STATA Corp, Texas USA). RESULTS: The median age of participants was 29 years (IQR = 26-35 years). Majority (80.9%, n = 575) took their vaccination from Government health facilities compared with 19.1% (n = 136) from private vaccination sources. A total of 7 (3 males and 4 females) were found to be HBsAg positive giving prevalence of 1%. In all, 8.2% (n = 58) of the HCWs had anti-HBs titre levels <10IU/ml giving a sero-protection rate of 91.8%. HCWs who received 3 doses of HBV vaccine were more likely to be sero-protected as compared to those who received only one dose in multivariate analysis (aOR = 3.39, 95%CI: 1.08-10.67), p<0.037). Gender, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with sero-protection. CONCLUSION: There is a high HBV vaccine efficacy among HCWs in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana with higher prevalence of anti-HBs titre level associated with full vaccine dose adherence. Post vaccination antibody titre determination could be an integral part of HBV vaccination protocol for HCWs in Ghana.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 482, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the immune persistence conferred by a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) 17 to 20 years after primary immunization during early life. METHODS: Participants born between 1997 and 1999 who received a full course of primary vaccination with HepB (CHO) and who had no experience with booster vaccination were enrolled. Blood samples were required from each participant for measurement of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), surface antigen and core antibody levels. For those who possessed an anti-HBs antibody < 10 mIU/mL, a single dose of HepB was administered, and 30 days later, serum specimens were collected to assess the booster effects. RESULTS: A total of 1352 participants were included in this study. Of these, 1007 (74.5%) participants could retain an anti-HBs antibody ≥10 mIU/mL, with a geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 57.4 mIU/mL. HBsAg was detected in six participants, resulting in a HBsAg carrier rate of 0.4% (6/1352). Of those participants with anti-HBs antibodies < 10 mIU/mL, after a challenge dose, 231 (93.1%) presented an anti-HBs antibody ≥10 mIU/mL, with a GMC of 368.7 mIU/mL. A significant increase in the anti-HBs positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/mL) after challenge was observed in participants with anti-HBs antibodies between 2.5 and 10 mIU/mL and participants boosted with HepB (CHO), rather than those with anti-HBs antibodies < 2.5 mIU/mL and those boosted with HepB (SC). CONCLUSION: Since satisfactory immune protection against HBV infection conferred by primary vaccination administered 17-20 years ago was demonstrated, there is currently no urgent need for booster immunization.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária , Prevenção Primária , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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