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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the true prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the general population is essential. We evaluated a program implementing free universal HCV screening using a non-invasive point-of-care test (POCT) (OraQuick-HCV rapid test) in oral fluid in an urban area in Valencia, South-Eastern Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during 2015-2017. Free HCV screening was offered by regular mail to 11,500 individuals aged 18 and over, randomly selected from all census residents in the Health Department. All responding participants filled in a questionnaire about HCV infection risk factors and were tested in their tertiary Hospital. In those with a positive POCT, results were confirmed by enzyme-immunoassay and HCV-RNA. RESULTS: 1,206 persons agreed to participate (response rate: 11.16%). HCV antibodies were detected in 19 (1.60%) cases (age-sex standardized rate: 1.31%; 95%CI: 0.82-2.07), but only 8 showed positive HCV-RNA (age-sex standardized rate: 0.56%; 95%CI: 0.28-1.14). The majority (89%) of the cases were born before 1965 and 74% had at least one known risk factor for HCV infection. All anti-HCV positive individuals were already aware of their infection, and no undiagnosed cases were detected. The performance of the POCT was excellent for detecting active infection. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data suggest that HCV population screening with a POCT is feasible but, in our setting, mailing recruiting is not effective (11% response rate). The low prevalence of HCV antibodies and active infection in the participant population (with no new diagnoses made) suggests that, in our setting, underdiagnosis may be uncommon.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 593-607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016547

RESUMO

The eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health priority. Despite the efficiency of treatment with direct-acting antivirals, the high cost of the therapy and the lack of accurate data about the HCV-infected population worldwide constitute important factors hampering this task. Hence, an affordable preventive vaccine is still necessary for reducing transmission and the future disease burden globally. In this work, chimeric proteins (EnvCNS3 and NS3EnvCo) encompassing conserved and immunogenic epitopes from the HCV core, E1, E2 and NS3 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice. The impact of recombinant HCV E2.680 protein and oligodeoxynucleotide 39M (ODN39M) on the immune response to chimeric proteins was also assessed. Immunization with chimeric proteins mixed with E2.680 enhanced the antibody and cellular response against HCV antigens and chimeric proteins. Interestingly, the combination of NS3EnvCo with E2.680 and ODN39M as adjuvant elicited a potent antibody response characterized by an increase in antibodies of the IgG2a subclass against E2.680, NS3 and chimeric proteins, suggesting the induction of a Th1-type response. Moreover, a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and a broad response of IFN-γ-secreting cells against HCV antigens were induced with this formulation as well. This T cell response was able to protect vaccinated mice against challenge with a surrogate model based on HCV recombinant vaccinia virus. Overall, the vaccine candidate NS3EnvCo/E2.680/ODN39M might constitute an effective immunogen against HCV with potential for reducing the likelihood of viral persistence.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Antígenos da Hepatite C/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 46, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to provide up-to-date hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) seroprevalence in rural Burkina Faso decade after hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the national immunization scheduled for children. METHODS: In 2018, a community-based, random sampling strategy with probability proportional to population size was conducted in Nanoro to investigate the prevalence of viral hepatitis in children and their mothers. Sociodemographic, vaccination history and risk factors were assessed by interview and health books. HBsAg rapid tests were done by finger prick and Dried Blood Spots (DBS) were collected for hepatitis seromarkers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples underwent confirmatory PCR and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Data were presented on 240 mother-child pairs. HBsAg Prevalence was 0.8% in children and 6.3% in mothers. Hepatitis B core antibody positivity was 89.2% in mothers, 59.2% in children and was associated with age, sex and scarification. Hepatitis B surface antibodies prevalence was 37.5% in children and 5.8% in mothers. Good vaccination coverage was limited by home delivery. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV strains based on full genome sequences (n = 7) and s-fragment sequences (n = 6) revealed genotype A, E, and recombinant A3/E. Viral genome homology was reported in one mother-child pair. Anti-HCV prevalence was 5.4% in mothers, 2.1% in children and strains belonged to genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: In Nanoro, HBsAg prevalence was low in children, intermediate in mothers and mother-to-child transmission persists. Home delivery was a limiting factor of Hepatitis B vaccination coverage. HBV genotype E was predominant and genotype A3/E is reported for the first time in Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226566, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem associated with considerable risk of mortality in different regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of HCV infection on all-cause and liver-related mortality, in a large cohort of blood donors in Brazil. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of blood donors from 1994 to 2013, at Fundação Pró-Sangue-Hemocentro de São Paulo (FPS). This cohort included 2,892 and 5,784 HCV antibody seropositive and seronegative donors, respectively. Records from the FPS database and the Mortality Information System (SIM: a national database in Brazil) were linked through a probabilistic record linkage (RL). Mortality outcomes were defined based on ICD-10 (10th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) codes listed as the cause of death on the death certificate. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for outcomes using Cox multiple regression models. RESULTS: When all causes of death were considered, RL identified 209 deaths (7.2%) among seropositive blood donors and 190 (3.3%) among seronegative blood donors. Donors seropositive for HCV infection had a 2.5 times higher risk of death due to all causes (95% CI: 1.76-2.62; p<0.001). When only liver-related causes of death were considered, RL identified 73 deaths among seropositive blood donors and only 6 among seronegative blood donors. Donors seropositive for HCV infection had a 23.4 times higher risk of death due to liver related causes (95% CI: 10.2-53.9; p<0.001). Donors seropositive for HCV had a 29.5 (95%CI: 3.9-221.7), 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4-5.5) and a 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2-3.0) times higher risk of death due to hepatocellular carcinoma, infection or trauma, respectively, compared to seronegative donors. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause and liver-related mortality rate was increased among blood donors seropositive for HCV compared with the mortality rate among seronegative blood donors. Our data confirms HCV as a relevant cause of death in Brazil and also suggest that interventions directed at following patients even after access to specific drug treatment are urgent and necessary.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 955, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and knowledge of settings with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important when aiming for elimination of HCV. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners. Secondary aims were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the proportion who have received hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all incarcerated persons (n = 667) at all prisons (n = 9) in Stockholm County was conducted. All prisoners are routinely offered opt-in screening for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), HCV RNA, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HIV Ag/Ab at prison in Sweden. Data on the results of these tests and the number of received HBV vaccine doses were collected from the prison medical records. The parameters of HCV RNA, anti-HCV, and occurrence of testing for HCV were analysed in multiple logistic regression models in relation to age, sex and prison security class. RESULTS: The median age was 35 (IQR 26-44) years, and 93.4% were men. Seventy-one percent (n = 471) had been tested for anti-HCV, 70% (n = 465) for HBsAg and 71% (n = 471) for HIV. The prevalence of anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HBsAg and HIV Ag/Ab was 17.0, 11.5, 1.9, and 0.2%, respectively among tested persons. The proportion of prisoners who had received full HBV vaccination was 40.6% (n = 271) among all study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners in Stockholm County was 11.5%, which is high in comparison to the general population. Therefore, when aiming for the WHO goal of HCV elimination, prisons could suit as a platform for identification and treatment of HCV infection. There is a need to increase testing for blood-borne viruses and to improve vaccination coverage against HBV in Swedish prisons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros , RNA Viral/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 932, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although DAAs hold promise to significantly reduce rates of chronic HCV infections, its eradication still requires development of an effective vaccine. Prolonged T cell responses and cross neutralizing antibodies are ideal for vaccination against the infection. We aimed to design and synthesize a 6 multi epitope peptide vaccine candidate and provide evidence for production of extended cellular and neutralizing Abs in mice. METHODS: Six peptides derived from conserved epitopes in E1, E2 (n = 2),NS4B, NS5A and NS5B were designed, synthesized in a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) form and administered w/o adjuvant to BALB/c mice as HCVp6-MAP at doses ranging from 800 ng to 16 µg. Humoral responses to structural epitopes were assayed by ELISA at different times after injection. ELISpot assay was used to evaluate IFN É£ producing CD4+/ CD8+ T- lymphocytes at extended durations i.e. > 20 weeks. Viral neutralization by mice sera was tested for genotypes 2a (JFH1) and a chimeric 2a/4a virus (ED43/JFH1) in HCVcc culture. RESULTS: HCVp6-MAP confers potent viral neutralization and specific cellular responses at > 1600 ng/ animal for at least 20 weeks. CONCLUSION: We report on a promising anti HCV vaccine for future studies on permissive hosts and in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Epitopos/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Imunidade Celular , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peptídeos/síntese química , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Analyst ; 144(21): 6365-6370, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566645

RESUMO

The early detection of low abundance anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV Ab) is critical for efficient diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection. In this work, a new colorimetric assay method has been proposed for the sensitive detection of anti-HCV Ab. In this method, the antibody-induced DNA strand displacement and the resulting rolling circle amplification (RCA) are integrated to generate a large amount of tandemly repeated G-quadruplex DNAzymes on the arm of the "Y"-shaped antibody. Consequently, oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine can be extensively catalyzed by the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes. Therefore, the readout signal can be greatly amplified. Further studies reveal that 0.998 pM anti-HCV Ab can be detected by this newly developed assay method. Moreover, the strategy proposed in this method can be adapted for the detection of other antibodies or bivalent targets.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/análise , Limite de Detecção , Animais , DNA Catalítico/química , DNA Catalítico/genética , DNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 169, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565130

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis C virus (HCV) has several extra-hepatic manifestations including cryoglubulinemia. Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the abnormal presence in the blood of one or several proteins (cryoglobulins) that can precipitate at low temperatures. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study in the Laboratory of Biology and in the Unit of Hepatology of the General Hospital in Douala (HGD) over a period of 6 months. All patients agreeing to participate to the study and with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies under treatment or not were enrolled. Cryoglobulins were detected using biuret method and the classification was performed using Brouet immunoelectrophoresis. A multivariate analysis was conducted, confounding factors such as age, sex and the length of time after Hepatitis C Virus screening were adjusted. Results: The study enrolled 116 patients. The average age of patients was 58.47±9.95 years. Male sex accounted for 50.86% of cases. Arthralgia was found in 69.80% of cases. Cryoglobulin was found in 63.80% of patients. After adjustment, female sex (OR =2.18; CI 95% [0,97-4,90]; p= 0.059), asthenia alone (OR =2.45;CI 95% [1,04-5,80]; p= 0.041), asthenia combined with arthralgia (OR =2.84;CI 95% [1,13-7, 10]; p= 0.026) and the presence of HCV RNA (OR =2.84;CI 95% [1,13-7,10]; p= 0.028) were factors independently associated with the presence of cryoglobulin. Conclusion: The prevalence of cryoglobubin is high in patients with anti-hepatitis-C antibodies at the HGD. Simple biological methods are used to detect it. Cryoglobulin test in patients with HCV is essential in resource-limited countries.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia/epidemiologia , Crioglobulinas/análise , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/complicações , Idoso , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/etiologia , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Crioglobulinemia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoeletroforese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1326, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. The recent development of highly effective direct acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), has opened the possibility of treating and curing HCV infection in the Egyptian population on a large scale. METHODS: A screening demonstration project was implemented in southern Egypt in and around the city of Luxor. Free screening and if indicated, treatment, was offered to those 16 years or older for anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using third generation enzyme immunoassays (Enzygnost® Anti-HCV and HbsAg). Statistical methods included estimation of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: There was a large turnout of 67,042 persons who were screened in a 12-month period starting in June 2016. Thirty-one thousand nine hundred sixty-four males (47.7%) and 35,074 females (52.3%) were screened with a mean age of 43.6 ± 14.3 years. Nine thousand seven hundred one patients (14.5%) were positive for anti-HCV and 2950 (4.4%) for HBsAg. Prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher in males than females (19.67% vs.9.73% OR = 2.27; CI 2.2 to 2.4; p < 0.001) and the same for HBsAg (6.2% vs. 2.8% OR = 2.3; CI 2.2 to 2.5; p < 0.001). The prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), ranging from between 1 and 4% in individuals below the age of 40 years, then increased steadily to 42% at age 60 followed by a precipitous decline in age specific prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed unanticipated patterns in the Luxor area of anti-HCV and HBsAg by age and gender in contrast to previous reports on this unique HCV epidemic in Egypt. Moreover, the level and rate of turnout, cost, and other logistical issues, provided essential information for effective planning, design, and evaluation methods for larger national mass screening and treatment programs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Public Health Rep ; 134(6): 626-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in jail provides an opportunity to educate and offer care to a high-risk population. We aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in jail; (2) describe the demographic characteristics, risk factors, and pre-incarceration health insurance status associated with HCV infection; and (3) examine the implementation of HCV screening in jail. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of an opt-out HCV screening program with HCV RNA confirmation and patient education at the Dallas County Jail from April 1 through November 2, 2017. We extracted data on test results, demographic characteristics, and release destination from electronic medical records. A nurse navigator recorded data on patient self-reported risk factors and pre-incarceration health insurance status. RESULTS: Of 4089 incarcerated persons screened, 708 (17.3%) had a positive HCV antibody result. Of these, 641 (90.5%) had an HCV RNA test ordered; 576 (89.9%) had RNA tests completed, of whom 413 (71.7%) had a positive HCV RNA result. Of these 413, 352 (85.2%) received patient education. Half of HCV RNA-positive incarcerated persons (n = 207, 50.1%) were born outside the birth cohort (1945-1965). Among those with HCV infection, commonly reported risk factors were injection drug use (168 of 352; 47.8%) and tattoos (82 of 352; 23.4%). Most incarcerated persons with HCV infection (284 of 350; 81.1%) did not have health insurance. HCV antibody prevalence was higher among incarcerated persons released to prison (232 of 961; 24.1%) than to outside agencies (38 of 403; 9.4%) or the community (178 of 1026; 17.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Screening for HCV with RNA confirmation in jail provides an opportunity for disease education, transmission prevention, and navigation to HCV treatment. Future efforts should examine post-incarceration linkage to care.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Prisões/organização & administração , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
13.
Infez Med ; 27(3): 316-321, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545776

RESUMO

Transmission of infections through blood and blood product transfusion is a serious healthcare problem. There are insufficient up-to-date data about seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV ½ among healthy blood donors in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV ½ in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV ½ analysis results among blood donors who applied to Dicle University Faculty of Medicine, Diyarbakir District Blood Centre, between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV 1/2 screenings were performed using a fully automated device with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay method (MEIA). The chi-square (χ2) test was applied to variables. Among the donors, 1607 (1.73%) were HBsAg-positive, 255 (0.27%) were anti-HCV-positive and two (0.0021%) were positive for anti-HIV 1/2. HBsAg positivity rates by years were 2.50% in 2011, 1.92% in 2012, 1.74% in 2013, 1.53% in 2014 and 1.27% in 2015 (p<0.001). HBsAg-positivity was 0.78% for the donors between 18-24 years of age, 1.90% for those between 25-49 years of age and 3.92% for donors over the age of 49 (p<0.001). Anti-HCV positivity rates were as follows: 0.35% in 2011, 0.34% in 2012, 0.29% in 2013, 0.23% in 2014 and 0.16% in 2015 (p<0.001). Verified anti-HIV 1/2 positivity was observed for only two donors (0.0021%) within five years. HBsAg and anti-HCV positivity were observed to decrease significantly over the years and were significantly lower among younger donors.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Soroprevalência de HIV , Nível de Saúde , Hepatite C/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 688, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are not well known; however, this information is crucial to shaping the country's public health approach to hepatitis C control. METHODS: A HCV screening campaign was conducted in the general population in 24 districts previously identified to have a high HCV disease burden. At the time of sample collection, sociodemographic information and self-reported risk factors were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess risk factors independently associated with hepatitis C antibodies (HCVAb) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Out of a total of 326,263 individuals screened for HCVAb, 22,183 (6.8%) were positive. In multivariate analysis, risk factors identified as statistically associated with HCVAb Seroprevalence include history of traditional operation or scarification (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.14), presence of viral hepatitis in the family (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.40), widowed or separated/divorced (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.26-1.47), Southern province (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.88-2.08) and aged 65 years and older (OR = 4.86, 95% CI: 4.62-5.11). Ubudehe category 3 (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.01) and participants using RAMA (Health insurances for employees of public and private sectors) insurance (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.70-0.85) had lower odds of HCV seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important information for Rwanda's strategy on prevention and case-finding. Future prevention interventions should aim to reduce transmission through targeted messaging around traditional healing practices and case-finding targeting individuals with a history of exposure or advanced age.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1101, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors reflect the degree of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially in people in sexually active stages, such as youths. Hill tribe people have their own cultures, beliefs and lifestyles related to their behaviors, including sexual behaviors, which may lead to HIV, HBV, and HCV infections, especially among youths. The study aimed to examine sexual behaviors and assess the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV among hill tribe youths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from 60 randomly selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire and 5 mL blood specimens were used to collect data. Data were collected by a self-reporting method. Rapid immunochromatographic tests were used to detect hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus antibody-I and- II (anti-HIV-1 and -2). Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to detect the associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 1325 participants were recruited for the analysis. The majority were females (60.5%) and aged 15-17 years (58.9%). A total of 14.5% smoked, 22.4% drank alcohol, 14.2% were tattooed, and 61.4% had their ears pierced. Among the 30.3% who had sexual experience, 42.0% experienced one-night stands, 26.9% had sexual contact with a prostitute within 1 year prior to the study, 18.9% used alcohol prior to having sexual intercourse, and 15.7% had been tested for HIV/AIDS previously. Among males, 11.5% were males who had sex with males (MSM), and 4.6% were bisexual. Among females, 83.0% were females who had sex with males, and 5.0% were females who had sex with females. Different sexes and tribes were found to have significantly different risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, such as overall males having a greater proportion of sexual experience than females, and Lahu, Akha and Hmong had a higher proportion of sexual experience, having sexual experience with one-night stands, and having sexual experience with a prostitute 1 year prior to the study than others. Among the 836 obtained blood samples, none were positive for anti-HIV-I and -II, 6.4% were positive for anti-HBs, 1.9% were positive for HBsAg, and 0.2% were positive for anti-HCV. CONCLUSION: Hill tribe youths in Thailand are at risk of STIs such as HBV and HCV infections according to their risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, which differ between sexes and tribes. Effective behavioral interventions should be promoted among hill tribe youths to minimize the risk for these diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 412, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of HBV and HCV infection and its associated factors among surgical patients at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized Hospital Hawassa City, southern Ethiopia. RESULT: In this study, the prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV among patients scheduled for surgery were 9% and 5.5%, respectively. Patients who practiced multiple sexual partner (AOR = 2.58, CI 1.18-5.61), dental procedure (AOR = 4.20, CI 1.87-9.55) and blood transfusion (AOR = 3.84, CI 1.27-11.65) had higher odds of HBV infection and those who had history of surgical procedure (AOR = 6.05: 95% CI 1.59-23.04) and dental procedure (AOR = 3.70: 95% CI 1.40-9.77) had higher odds of HCV infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hospitais Especializados , Hospitais Universitários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 634, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated rates of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection have been reported in epidemiological studies with people who used illicit drugs (PWUIDs) in different Brazilian regions. In Brazil's Amazon region, studies have already identified the common use of illicit drugs among adolescents and the high prevalence of HCV infections among PWUIDs. However, all studies done with PWUIDs were conducted with small samples and within limited geographic coverage. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for HCV infection in PWUIDs in the Amazon region, northern Brazil, as well as estimating the prevalence and factors associated with the HCV spontaneous clearance (HSC). METHODS: This cross-sectional study accessed 1666 PWUIDs from multiple municipalities of the Amazon region. Socio-demographic, economic, drug use and health-related information were collected through interviews. Blood samples collected were tested for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies and RNA-HCV. HCV genotypes were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Logistic regressions were run to identify factors independently associated with HCV infection status and HSC. RESULTS: In total, 577 (34.6%) featured HCV antibodies, of which 384 (23.1%) had active HCV infection and 193 (11.6%) indicated HSC. Genotypes 1 (80.2%) and 3 (18.8%) were detected. HCV infection status was associated with the length of illicit drug use history, factors related to parenteral and sexual transmission, and factors of socio-economic marginalization leading to potential risk activities for HCV. HSC was associated with the ethnic (including indigenous) background of participants. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of HCV infection were detected in PWUIDs. Genotype 1 was predominant. Intense use of illicit drugs, unprotected sexual intercourse, high number of sexual partners and social marginalization were associated with all HCV infection. HSC was associated with origin (Amazonian-born) and non-white (e.g., Black or Indigenous) of PWUIDs. These findings emphasize the need for improve HCV prevention and control services and care for PWUIDs in the Brazilian Amazon region.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/virologia
19.
J Pregnancy ; 2019: 7917894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316835

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) are life-threatening infections of public health importance due to their association with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite HBV being moderately endemic in many low-income countries, there is no routine HBV vaccination among child bearing aged women making them at risk of transmitting infections to the foetus during pregnancy. This study investigated the seroprevalence of antihepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Mwanza city to provide data that can be used in devising preventive strategies. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 339 pregnant women was conducted between June and July 2017. Data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of anti-HBs was performed using enzyme immunoassay while qualitative rapid immunochromatographic tests were employed to detect HCV antibodies. Data was analyzed by using STATA version 13. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 25.6±5.8 years. The prevalence of anti-HBs was 85/339 (25.1%, 95% CI: 20.4-29.6) while that of HCV antibodies was 1/333 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4). By univariate logistic regression analysis, increase in age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09, P=0.03), unknown HIV status (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79, P=0.035), and multigravidity (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.18-3.8, P=0.038) were significantly associated with anti-HBs seropositivity. Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have anti-HBs while the seroprevalence of HCV is low among pregnant women in the city of Mwanza. Routine screening of HBV among pregnant women coupled with appropriate management should be emphasized in developing countries. Further studies to determine seroprevalence of HCV are recommended across the country.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307313

RESUMO

A 38-year-old female with tricuspid atresia and normally related great arteries, initially palliated with Björk modified Fontan, and ultimately converted to extracardiac conduit Fontan, with a history of ventricular tachycardia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, was referred to our center for consideration of combined heart and liver transplantation. The patient's blood group was O with panel reactive antibodies of 52%. She consented to consideration of HCV-positive donors. Fifteen days later, an HCV-positive donor was identified, and she underwent heart transplantation with pulmonary artery reconstruction performed jointly by adult and pediatric transplant surgeons. To our knowledge, this the first time an HCV-positive donor heart has been to transplant an adult with congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Transplantados , Carga Viral
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