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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 203-208, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074711

RESUMO

Objective: Meta-analysis was conducted on the tetanus antibody protection rate of healthy population born after 1978 in China (data from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan was excluded, the same below). Methods: Search the data on China's tetanus antibody level which were published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, VIP, SinoMed database, PubMed and the Cochrane Library. The Chinese search keywords were "Tetanus Antitoxin", "Tetanus Antibody", "Healthy Population" and "Mainland China". English search terms include "tetanus antitoxin", "tetanus vaccine", "tetanus vaccine", "general population" and "mainland of China". The time limit for inclusion in literature research was 2010-2019. Stata software was used to conduct meta-analysis on the protection rate of tetanus antibody. Results: A total of 24 articles were included. There was no obvious publication bias in the included articles. The total number of respondents was 23 530, the antibody protection rate was 49.5%-99.0%. A total of 20 817 people got effective antibody protection, which meant the antibody level reached and exceeded 0.1 IU/ml, and the combined protection rate was 78.6% (95%CI: 75.0%-88.2%). The combined protection rates of antibody in 0-7 years old and 8-15 years old groups were 88.9% (95%CI: 86.9%-91.0%) and 79.3% (95%CI: 72.9%-86.2%) respectively. The combined protection rates of antibodies in 16-20 years old, 21-30 years old and 31-40 years old groups were 58.9% (95%CI: 46.5%-71.2%), 47.7% (95%CI: 16.8%-78.7%) and 63.8% (95%CI:32.6%-95.1%) respectively. The combined protection rate of tetanus antibody for 0-15 years old people was 85.6% (95%CI: 83.1%-88.1%), and the combined protection rate of antibody for 16-40 years old people was 52.9% (95%CI: 39.3%-66.6%). Conclusion: With the increase of age, the protection rate of tetanus antibody among the healthy population aged 16-40 years in our country decreases. An individualized vaccination plan should be formulated according to the previous tetanus vaccination history and the tetanus antibody level when necessary.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Tétano/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(2): 50-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902236

RESUMO

Introduction: Exudative tonsillitis is a common clinical picture during childhood. The majority of these cases are caused by viruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus), and only some infections are caused by bacteria, mainly group A streptococci (GAS). On the basis of international guidelines, routine use of early antibiotic treatment is not recommended in these cases, because it seems not to prevent GAS-associated complications. Aim: Our aim was to determine those laboratory results which are useful to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections in children with exudative tonsillitis to reduce antibiotic overuse. Method: In our study, we evaluated 135 clinical data from 133 children with exudative tonsillitis. Patients were grouped according to the following criteria: the first group contained patients with acute CMV or EBV infections, while in the second group, CMV or EBV infections were not confirmed using serology. Results: On the basis of our results, EBV or CMV infections (66/135, 48.8%) were serologically confirmed in the majority of cases with exudative tonsillitis between 2016 and 2017, while the causative role of GAS was minimal in this patient group (3/65, 4.61%). In spite of this finding, the majority of patients (92%) were treated with antibiotics. Conclusion: Our retrospective findings confirmed that it is not possible to determine the causative agent of this clinical picture on the basis of symptoms, and physical findings, moreover laboratory results, such as high white blood cell count could not confirm bacterial infection. At the same time, elevated transaminase levels may refer to viral origin of infection, especially EBV or CMV with high predictive value; the use of extended laboratory tests may reduce the unnecessary antibiotic consumption. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(2): 50-55.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/etiologia , Tonsilite/etiologia , Viroses/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Faringe/microbiologia , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(5): 297-299, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650814

RESUMO

We report a patient with unilateral syphilitic intermediate uveitis without dermatological, neurological, or any systemic involvement. He presented to our clinic with complaints of eye floaters and worsening visual acuity in the left eye. He had intermediate uveitis and cystoid macular edema in that eye and both venereal disease research laboratory and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum serological tests were confirmatory for syphilis. Ocular manifestations of syphilis have variable presentations, and it should be considered when diagnosing unexplained ocular inflammatory diseases, even if the patient's recent history and systemic evaluation are not compatible.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/etiologia , Sífilis/complicações , Uveíte Intermediária/etiologia , Acuidade Visual , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Macula Lutea/patologia , Masculino , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/microbiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Uveíte Intermediária/diagnóstico , Uveíte Intermediária/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Intern Med ; 58(17): 2577-2579, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118400

RESUMO

Pleuritis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria is uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We herein report a case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pleuritis with elevated anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody levels in the pleural effusion. A 73-year-old woman with MAC pulmonary disease presented with massive left pleural effusion. A pleural biopsy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, revealing many noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. MAC was not identified by culture of the pleural effusion or specimens, but the anti-GPL-core IgA antibody level was markedly elevated in the pleural effusion. Measurement of anti-GPL-core IgA levels in the pleural fluid may be useful for diagnosing MAC pleuritis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Pleurisia/microbiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Pleurisia/diagnóstico
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5233-5242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127336

RESUMO

Foodborne illness is a common yet preventable public health concern generating significant costs for the healthcare system, making systems to accurately detect this pathogen a topic of current research. Enzyme-based immunoassays are highly desirable because they offer shorter response times compared to traditional culture-based methods. Biosensors employing the electrochemical and optical detection of a substrate oxidized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) have been used to successfully detect biomolecules; however, their inability to handle large sample volumes severely limits their application to food safety despite their accuracy and reliability. Here, we describe a biosensor with the capacity to process a large sample volume by utilizing an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a platinum counter electrode, and a porous working electrode made from graphite felt coated with antibodies specific for Salmonella common structural antigens. This design allows samples to flow-through the electrode while capturing target pathogens. Following sample exposure, HRP-conjugated antibodies facilitate pathogen detection that culminates in an oxidation reaction with the output analyzed via Osteryoung square wave voltammetry. Detection limits of 1000 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cells were achieved using this newly devised flow-through, enzyme-amplified, electrochemical biosensor in samples as large as 60 mL. The low cost of the sensor allows for incorporation into disposable detection devices while its design not only broadens its applicability in sample processing but also permits the detection of various microbes by simply exchanging the antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia
6.
Clin Lab ; 65(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is the most predominant pathogen causing pneumonia. The present study compares two serological assays, the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and the passive particle agglutination assay (PPA), in order to assist clinicians in selecting accurate diagnosis methods. METHODS: Sera from 127 patients suffering from mycoplasma pneumonia and 76 from the healthy group were analyzed simultaneously by PPA and IFA. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to evaluate the detection value of PPA and IFA for mycoplasma pneumoniae. The kappa coefficient was analyzed to evaluate the agreement between the IFA and PPA assay. RESULTS: The AUC of PPA and IFA was more than 0.70, suggesting both assays were acceptable in clinical efficacy for detecting mycoplasma pneumoniae. When ± 1:40 antibody titers were interpreted as negative, PPA showed the highest specificity, Youden index, and AUC (86.84%, 65.58%, and 0.828, respectively), and the kappa coefficient between PPA and IFA was 0.360. CONCLUSIONS: IFA and PPA assays have advantages and disadvantages in the detection of MP antibodies. MP anti-bodies ± 1:40 antibody titers should be interpreted as negative to improve PPA detection abilities, and the consistency of the two methods was regular agreement. Clinicians should detect MP antibodies simultaneously with two methods or analyze paired samples with one method for diagnosing whether or not MP infection is present.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Testes de Aglutinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
7.
Acta Med Port ; 32(2): 101-110, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections represent the most frequent conditions in pediatric clinical practice that motivate antibiotic prescribing. The objective was to identify the frequency and pattern of antibacterial prescribing in respiratory diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of two years (divided by the presentation of the clinical guideline standards) data was collected from clinical records of children with respiratory disease. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact test were used to test associations between variables, statistical significance p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were 547 visits (mean age 6 years ± 5.3, 55% male gender). Analysis for Group A Streptococcus of the oropharynx was most frequently requested by pediatric residents (p = 0.005). Chest x-rays were more frequently requested by the Family Physician (p = 0.033). An antibiotic was prescribed in 87% of pneumonias, 84% acute otitis media, 68% acute tonsillitis, 25% laryngitis, 17% upper respiratory infections, 16% acute bronchiolitis. The Family Physician prescribed antibiotics more often than the Pediatrics resident in acute tonsillitis (p = 0.003) and in acute otitis media (p = 0.013). The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin (61%). There were no significant differences between the two periods studied regarding the number of prescriptions and antibiotic choice of the conditions studied. DISCUSSION: Antibiotic prescribing in pediatric acute respiratory infections was high and the choice of antibiotic therapy could be adjusted. We found no difference in antibiotic prescribing after the presentation of the clinical guideline standards. CONCLUSION: An improvement in the antibiotic prescription in children and adolescents in the outpatient clinic is considered necessary.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007124, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a substantial health burden in Asia and Africa particularly in resource poor settings. The standard procedures to identify the etiological organism V. cholerae are isolation from microbiological culture from stool as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Both the processes are highly lab oriented, labor extensive, time consuming, and expensive. In an effort to control for outbreaks and epidemics; an effective, convenient, quick and relatively less expensive detection method is imperative, without compromising the sensitivity and specificity that exists at present. The objective of this component of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a locally produced rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for cholera diagnosis. METHODS: In Bangladesh, nationwide cholera surveillance is ongoing in 22 hospitals covering all 8 divisions of the country since June, 2016. In the surveillance, stool samples have been collected from patients presenting to hospitals with acute watery diarrhea. Crystal VCTM (Span diagnostics, India) and Cholkit (locally produced RDT) have been used to detect V. cholerae from stool samples. Samples have also been sent to the main laboratory at icddr,b where the culture based isolation is routinely performed. All the tests were carried out for both direct and enriched stool samples. RDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated using stool culture as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 7720 samples were tested. Among these, 5865 samples were solely tested with Crystal VC and 1355 samples with Cholkit whereas 381 samples were tested with both the RDTs. In comparison with culture, direct testing with Crystal VC showed a sensitivity of 72% (95% CI: 50.6% to 87.9%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI: 82.8% to 90.1%). After enrichment the sensitivity and specificity was 68% (95% CI: 46.5% to 85.1%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 95.3% to 98.8%) respectively. The direct Cholkit test showed sensitivity of 76% (95% CI: 54.9% to 90.6%) and specificity of 90.2% (95% CI: 86.6% to 93.1%). CONCLUSION: This evaluation has demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of Cholkit is similar to the commercially available test, Crystal VC when used in field settings for detecting V. cholerae from stool specimens. The findings from this study suggest that the Cholkit could be a possible alternative for cholera endemic regions where V. cholerae O1 is the major causative organism causing cholera.


Assuntos
Cólera/diagnóstico , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antígenos O/análise , Antígenos O/imunologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorotipagem
11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 1, 2019 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides offer protection against acquisition and carriage of encapsulated bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Measurements of salivary antibodies as replacement for blood testing has important (cost-effective) advantages, particular in studies that assess the impact of large-scale vaccination or in populations in which blood sampling is difficult. This study aimed to estimate a threshold for meningococcal IgG salivary antibody levels to discriminate between unprotected and protected vaccinated individuals. METHODS: MenA-, MenC-, MenW- and MenY-polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG levels in serum and saliva from participants in a meningococcal vaccination study were measured using the fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Functional antibody titers in serum against the four serogroups were measured with serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). A threshold for salivary IgG was determined by analysis of ROC curves using a serum rSBA titer ≥128 as correlate of protection. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the salivary test and was considered adequate when ≥0.80. The optimal cut-off was considered adequate when salivary IgG cut-off levels provided specificity of ≥90%. True positive rate (sensitivity), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated to explore the possible use of salivary antibody levels as a surrogate of protection. RESULTS: The best ROC curve (AUC of 0.95) was obtained for MenC, with an estimated minimum threshold of MenC-PS specific salivary IgG ≥3.54 ng/mL as surrogate of protection. An adequate AUC (> 0.80) was also observed for MenW and MenY with an estimated minimal threshold of 2.00 and 1.82 ng/mL, respectively. When applying these thresholds, all (100%) samples collected 1 month and 1 year after the (booster) meningococcal vaccination, that were defined as protective in the saliva test for MenC, MenW and MenY, corresponded with concomitant serum rSBA titer ≥128 for the respective meningococcal serogroups. CONCLUSION: The saliva test offers an alternative screening tool to monitor protective vaccine responses up to one year after meningococcal vaccination against MenC, MenW and MenY. Future (large) longitudinal vaccination studies evaluating also clinical protection against IMD or carriage acquisition are required to validate the currently proposed threshold in saliva.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Cápsulas Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
12.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 48(1): 24-31, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers, which include infectious agents. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that frequently colonizes the stomach, is associated with the development of certain autoinflammatory disorders. This study examined a possible association between H. pylori infection and RA. METHOD: This cohort study was performed in the Central Denmark Region. Patients were enrolled from primary healthcare centres after a urea breath test (UBT) for H. pylori and followed for a median of 8 years. Nationwide administrative registries provided information about the patients' diagnoses, country of birth, and gender. Comorbidity was determined using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. We compared the prevalence of RA via odds ratios (ORs) and incidences using Cox regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) by comparing H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative individuals and adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 56 000 people diagnosed as H. pylori positive or negative had similar rates of comorbidity. No link was found between H. pylori and RA. There was no difference in RA prevalence until time of UBT [OR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.19)] or incidence of new RA cases after UBT (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.56-1.13) between H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects. Validation via four other RA definitions provided similar results. CONCLUSION: This study found no association between H. pylori infection and RA. This result does not support the involvement of H. pylori in a gut-joint axis of importance for RA development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Hum Antibodies ; 27(1): 31-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital toxoplasmosis is an important disease that occurs when pregnant women become infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. gondii B1 gene in placental tissues of IgM seronegative women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this research, chronic toxoplasmosis was identified through examination of blood samples in a group of pregnant women by anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM ELISA and nested-PCR techniques. IgG avidity test was used to estimate the onset of infection in some pregnant women with chronic infection. After delivery, some umbilical cord and neonatal blood were tested by anti-Toxoplasma IgM ELISA, and also the B1 gene of T. gondii was investigated in their placental tissue by nested-PCR. Some factors such as blood sampling time and some clinical symptoms experienced during pregnancy were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty seven out of 653 (25.6%) pregnant women were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG. Of them, 165 (98.8%) were negative for anti-T. gondii IgM. Six out of 10 (60%) placental tissues from IgG seropositive, IgM seronegative women were positive for T. gondii B1 gene, while anti-Toxoplasma IgM was negative in the umbilical cord and neonatal blood samples. The results of IgG avidity test showed low avidity in one and high avidity in two women's samples. The B1 gene was not found in the blood samples of any of the six mothers. The most symptoms experienced during pregnancy were headache and nausea. CONCLUSION: The detection of B1 gene in placental tissues of the healthy newborn infants reiterates that presence of T. gondii in the placenta does not always result in congenital toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Genes de Protozoários , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Placenta/química , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/genética , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/genética , Afinidade de Anticorpos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 208(1): 89-100, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209565

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7. However, mucosally administered recombinant proteins have low immunogenicity which could be overcome by the use of mucosal adjuvants. The quest for safe, potent mucosal adjuvant has recognized ΔG fragment of Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae with such properties. ΔG enhances mucosal permeability via the paracellular route by altering epithelial tight junction structure in a reversible, ephemeral and non-toxic manner. Therefore, we tested whether recombinant ΔG intranasally co-administered with truncated EspB (EspB + ΔG) could serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant. Results showed that EspB + ΔG group induced higher systemic IgG and mucosal IgA than EspB alone. Moreover, EspB alone developed Th2 type response with IgG1/IgG2a ratio (1.64) and IL-4, IL-10 cytokines whereas that of EspB + ΔG group generated mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response evident from IgG1/IgG2a ratio (1.17) as well as IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokine levels compared to control. Sera of EspB + ΔG group inhibited TTSS mediated haemolysis of murine RBCs more effectively compared to EspB, control group and sera of both EspB + ΔG, EspB group resulted in similar levels of efficacious reduction in E. coli O157:H7 adherence to Caco-2 cells compared to control. Moreover, vaccination with EspB + ΔG resulted in significant reduction in E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding compared to EspB and control group in experimentally challenged streptomycin-treated mice. These results demonstrate mucosal adjuvanticity of ΔG co-administered with EspB in enhancing overall immunogenicity to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Toxina da Cólera/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/administração & dosagem , Derrame de Bactérias , Células CACO-2 , Toxina da Cólera/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli/imunologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Mutantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(2): 190-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present investigation of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and farm workers on an organized cattle dairy farm, which appears to be the first of its kind in India, was undertaken to assess the status of this largely neglected and masked zoonosis. METHODS: A total of 665 samples comprising of serum (n=224), milk (n=217) and vaginal swabs (n=224) collected from milch animals (n=224) with a history of reproductive disorders were screened. Besides these, ticks (n=114); animal feed (n=4) and environmental samples (n=13) as well as serum (n=19) of farm workers were also collected. The animal sera and milk samples as well as human sera were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii by commercial ELISA kit, whereas, all the collected samples were subjected to trans-PCR targeting the IS1111 gene of C. burnetii. RESULTS: A high positivity for coxiellosis was detected in sera (29.91%) and milk (26.73%) samples of dairy cattle as well as sera from human contacts (84.21%) by ELISA. The trans-PCR detected the pathogen in 12.94% sera, 14.73% vaginal swabs and 5.53% milk samples of cattle, and in one soil sample, however, the sera of the farm workers and tick were tested negative. CONCLUSIONS: The high positivity for coxiellosis among cattle and farm workers highlight the need to undertake extensive epidemiological studies to unravel the trends of C. burnetii infection in India.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Sangue/imunologia , Sangue/microbiologia , Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leite/imunologia , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vagina/microbiologia
16.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(1): 44-52, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and follow-up ophthalmological findings in individuals diagnosed with neuroborreliosis, confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals (13 males), mean age 43.5 ± 18.2 years, with strong clinical suspicion of neuroborreliosis, were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology by the Department of Infectious Diseases at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. All subjects underwent serological and CSF analysis. A structured history taking and a detailed ophthalmological examination were performed prospectively. RESULTS: Diagnosis for neuroborreliosis was confirmed as definite in 16, possible in two and negative in four individuals, while two had unknown diagnosis. The majority (n = 14/18) with definite and possible diagnoses had ophthalmological symptoms and/or findings either in history or at examination. The most common findings were visual disturbance, diplopia, red eyes, photophobia, facial palsy with palpebral diastasis, strabismus and sixth nerve palsy. The number of symptoms and findings was correlated with immunoglobulin G (IgG)/IgM in CSF (r = 0.6, p = 0.009/0.016; Spearman's correlation). All subjects improved, except one with initially fulminant papilloedema, who still suffered from optic disc atrophy and affected visual fields at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients diagnosed with neuroborreliosis had ophthalmological symptoms and/or findings. Facial palsy with palpebral diastasis was a common finding. Onset of diplopia and/or sixth nerve affection may be a first sign of neuroborreliosis. Number of ophthalmological findings was correlated with the CSF antibody titre. Ticks are becoming more widespread and abundant, resulting in a higher incidence of neuroborreliosis. Hence, the knowledge of ophthalmological symptoms and findings is of great importance.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Criança , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Incidência , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmoscopia , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Testes de Campo Visual , Adulto Jovem
17.
Transfusion ; 58 Suppl 3: 3114-3120, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is a cornerstone of the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Preparations used for replacement therapy are processed by purifying immunoglobulins from large pools of plasma, which were obtained from healthy donors. The constituent antibodies in these products depend on the immune history of the donor pool as well as manufacturing processes that differ among manufacturers. For these reasons various methods have been proposed to examine the levels and function of antibodies to organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, which frequently causes infections in patients with immunodeficiencies. Pneumococcal antibody levels or antibody function can be measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Although these assays were developed initially to assess the immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccines, the techniques have been adapted to evaluate immunoglobulin products as well. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article provides a concise review of the analytic techniques for measuring pneumococcal antibodies and prior studies of immunoglobulin products utilizing these methods. RESULTS: Studies utilizing these assays have demonstrated that antibody levels of immunoglobulin products can vary with time, location, and manufacturer. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight current issues and future considerations concerning measurement of pneumococcal antibodies in immunoglobulin products, and the assays used for this purpose.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Imunoglobulinas/química , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/química , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/análise
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(43): e12430, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412059

RESUMO

RATIONAL: Granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA) is a type of vasculitis involving medium and small arteries, typically affecting the upper and lower respiratory tract with coexisting glomerulonephritis. GPA is also characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). So far, various infections have lead to elevation of titers of serum ANCA, making it difficult to diagnose. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed as tuberculous lymphadenitis. During the treatment by anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, rapidly progressive renal failure and pleurisy had appeared with elevated titer of PR3-ANCA. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis. DIAGNOSIS: Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and diagnosis of GPA was made. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid therapy had been started with continuation of anti-TB drugs. OUTCOMES: Renal dysfunction had gradually recovered and pleurisy had disappeared with decreasing titer of PR3-ANCA. LESSONS: This is the first report of GPA complicated by TB infection. When we encounter a case with rapidly progressive renal failure during the TB infection, complication of GPA should be suspected as 1 of the different diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/análise , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/etiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/imunologia
19.
Microb Pathog ; 125: 507-513, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to initiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection via the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract, intranasal administration of new tuberculosis vaccines is highly regarded to enhance mucosal immunity. Our outline was evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses in BALB/c mice after nasal delivery of HspX/EsxS fused antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis along with MPLA adjuvant entrapped in PLGA:DDA hybrid nanoparticles. METHODS: In this study, the double emulsion solvent evaporation method (w/o/w) was used to prepare different nanoparticle formulations containing HspX/EsxS protein and MPLA. Three weeks after the last nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, IgA antibody levels in nasal lavage and IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-ß cytokines in supernatant of cultured splenocytes and also serum IgG1 and IgG2a titers were evaluated using ELISA method. RESULTS: Our results indicated that nasal vaccination with PLGA:DDA nanoparticles loaded with HspX/EsxS protein±MPLA, both with and without a prime dose of BCG could provide efficient Th1, Th17, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2a immune responses. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that both PLGA:DDA hybrid nanoparticles as carrier/adjuvant and MPLA as adjuvant, could efficiently induce mucosal and systemic immune responses against HspX/EsxS antigen, alone or as a booster for BCG.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
20.
Microb Pathog ; 125: 438-442, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a persistent polymicrobial infection, which leads to chronic inflammation in the tooth supporting tissues. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are normal commensals of oral cavity but are low in number in periodontally healthy subjects. They are one of the major pathogens aetiologically linked to periodontal disease. Plasma and salivary antibody measurement may be useful to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification and prognosis of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the serum and salivary antibody levels to A. actinomycetemcomitans and therefore, to find whether this association was varying in different grades of periodontitis. METHOD: Total of 50 periodontally healthy and 50 chronic periodontitis subjects (35-65 years) of both sexes were included for the study. 2 ml of un-stimulated saliva and 5 ml of venous blood was collected under sterile conditions. The detection of antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis was performed using indirect ELISA. RESULTS: Results showed serum IgG, IgA mean levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans were higher in chronic periodontitis subjects compared to mean levels in periodontally healthy subjects. Similarly, salivary IgG, IgA levels were also raised in chronic periodontitis patients as compared in healthy subjects. Also the mean levels of serum IgG and salivary IgA were increased as the severity of disease increased. CONCLUSION: Antibody titer using saliva and serum could be useful tool for screening of patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, monitoring the various phases of treatment outcome using saliva could be a useful, non-invasive, prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Soro/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia
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