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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 356-360, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) and Leptospira interrogans sensu lato (Lisl) and their possible concurrence in domestic cats living in variable conditions in South Moravia in the district of Brno and its environs. Additional objectives were to discover possible differences in seroprevalence between groups of cats living in different living conditions, and to determine the spectrum of Leptospira serogroups in cats in the same places. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 360 blood sera from domestic cats of 3 different sets were collected during the period 2013-2015. All samples were examined using ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Bbsl, and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the detection of antibodies against 8 serogroups of Lisl. RESULTS: The ELISA method determined 15.8%, 4.8% and 10.3% IgM anti-Borrelia antibodies in the patient group, shelter cats and street cats, respectively. IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in 6.2%, 9.5%, 5.2%, respectively. Antibodies specific for 5 Leptospira serogroups were detected by the use of MAT in 8.8%, 9.5% and 10.3% of cats from the investigated groups. The total positivity of all examined cats for anti-Borrelia antibodies was 18.0% and for anti-Leptospira - 9.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Cats can be infected with both Bbsl and Lisl. The obtained results are exclusive to the city of Brno and its environs, and are comparable to the limited previous studies. There is a need for further studies of clinical signs of both infections and the possible transmission of Leptospira by ticks.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
JAMA ; 324(11): 1068-1077, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930758

RESUMO

Importance: The standard schedule of national immunization programs for infants may not be sufficient to protect extremely and very preterm infants. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of routine vaccinations administered to preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of preterm infants stratified according to gestational age recruited from 8 hospitals across the Netherlands between October 2015 and October 2017, with follow-up until 12 months of age (October 2018). In total, 296 premature infants were enrolled and compared with a control group of 66 healthy term infants from a 2011 study, immunized according to the same schedule with the same vaccines. Exposures: Three primary doses of the diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenza type b-hepatitis B combination vaccine were given at 2, 3, and 4 months after birth followed by a booster at 11 months and a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 11 months after birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were (1) proportion of preterm infants who achieved IgG antibody against vaccine antigens at concentrations above the internationally defined threshold for protection after the primary series and booster dose and (2) serum IgG geometric mean concentrations after the primary series and booster vaccination. Proportions and geometric mean concentrations were compared in preterm infants and the control group of term infants. Results: Of 296 preterm infants (56.1% male; mean gestational age, 30 weeks), complete samples before vaccination, 1 month after the primary series, and 1 month after the booster were obtained from 220 preterm infants (74.3%). After the primary series, the proportion of preterm infants across all gestational age groups who achieved protective IgG antibody levels against pertussis toxin, diphtheria, tetanus and 6 of 10 pneumococcal serotypes varied between 83.0% and 100%, Haemophilus influenzae type b between 34.7% and 46.2% (40.6% among all preterm infants overall), and pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 18C, and 23F between 45.8% and 75.1%. After the booster dose, protective antibody levels were achieved in more than 95% of all preterm groups, except for Haemophilus influenzae type b (88.1%). In general, geometric mean concentrations of all vaccine-induced antibodies were significantly lower in all preterm infants vs term infants, except for pertussis toxin and pneumococcal serotypes 4 and 19F after the primary series and booster vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: Among preterm infants, administration of routine vaccinations during the first year of life was associated with protective antibody levels against most antigens in the majority of infants after the primary series and booster, except for Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, antibody concentrations were generally lower among preterm infants compared with historical controls.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Feminino , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785527

RESUMO

Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens (TBRP) are important causes of infections in both dogs and humans. Dogs play an important role as a biological host for several tick species and can serve as sentinels for rickettsial infections. Our aim was to determine the presence of TBRP in dogs and in dog-associated ticks and their potential risk to human diseases in Medellin, Colombia. DNA for E. canis (16S rRNA and dsb) and A. platys (groEl) was detected in 17.6% (53/300) and 2.6% (8/300) of dogs, respectively. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. 82 (27.3%) and Anaplasma spp. 8 (2.6%) were detected in dogs. Antibody reactivity against both agents were found in 16 dogs (5.3%). Eight dogs showed antibody for Rickettsia spp. with titers that suggest 3 of them had a probable exposure to R. parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) was the main tick in dogs, followed by R. microplus (15/193). The minimum infection rates (MIR) in R. sanguineus were 11.8% for E. canis and 3.4% for A. platys. E. canis and A. platys are the main TBRP infecting dogs and ticks and R. sanguineus s.l. is likely involved in the transmission of both agents. Interestingly, we found serological evidence of exposure in dogs for spotted fever group rickettsiae.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Infecções por Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760105

RESUMO

Nutritional status contributes to the regulation of immune responses against pathogens, and malnutrition has been considered as a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, can modulate host lipid metabolism and induce lipid accumulation in macrophages, where the bacilli adopt a dormant phenotype. In addition, serum lipid components play dual roles in the regulation of and protection from Mtb infection. We analyzed the relationship between nutritional status and the humoral immune response in TB patients. We found that serum HDL levels are positively correlated with the serum IgA specific for Mtb antigens. Analysis of the relationship between serum nutritional parameters and clinical parameters in TB patients showed that serum albumin and CRP levels were negatively correlated before treatment. We also observed reduced serum LDL levels in TB patients following treatment. These findings may provide insight into the role of serum lipids in host immune responses against Mtb infection. Furthermore, improving the nutritional status may enhance vaccination efficacy.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760103

RESUMO

Several cohort studies have shown that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, it remains unclear whether serum antibody titers for a specific periodontal pathogen are associated with outcome after ischemic stroke, and which kinds of pathogens are associated with ischemic stroke. We examined the relationship between serum IgG titers to periodontal pathogens and outcome in ischemic stroke patients. A total of 445 patients with acute ischemic stroke (194 female [44.0%], mean age 71.9±12.3 years) were registered in this study. Serum IgG titers to 9 periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens) were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. An unfavorable outcome was defined as a 3 or higher on the modified Rankin Scale. The proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome was 25.4% (113 patients). Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, numbers of IgG antibodies positive for periodontal pathogens (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome in ischemic stroke patients.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Periodontite Agressiva/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/microbiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609243

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to do a serological survey on three rickettsial species: Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri, two species of the spotted fever group (SFG) that are considered to be great importance for public health; and Rickettsia bellii, a species of unknown pathogenicity that infects a variety of human-biting ticks. Serum samples from 273 dogs were tested using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 52 samples (19.04%) were seropositive for at least one of the three Rickettsia spp. antigens. Thirty-eight (73.07%), twelve (23.07%) and one (1.92%) of these dogs showed homologous reactions to R. bellii, R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Our results showed that the seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. was relatively low. However, the positive serological tests indicated that these dogs had become infected by these agents at some point in their lives. Lastly, our study adds to the previous knowledge on the epidemiology of rickettsiosis in the state of Goiás by doing the first record of detection of anti-R. rickettsii, R. parkeri and R. bellii antibodies by IFA among dogs, thus indicating that these agents may be circulating in the dog population analyzed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a severe infectious disease with high mortality rates, but is under-recognized worldwide. In endemic areas, there is a great need for simple, low-cost and rapid diagnostic tools. In a previous study we showed, that a protein multiplex array with 20 B. pseudomallei-specific antigens detects antibodies in melioidosis patients with high sensitivity and specificity. In a subsequent study the high potential of anti-B. pseudomallei antibody detection was confirmed using a rapid Hcp1 single protein-based assay. Our protein array also showed that the antibody profile varies between patients, possibly due to a combination of host factors but also antigen variations in the infecting B. pseudomallei strains. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid test, combining Hcp1 and the best performing antigens BPSL2096, BPSL2697 and BPSS0477 from our previous study, to take advantage of simultaneous antibody detection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 4-plex dipstick was validated with sera from 75 patients on admission plus control groups, achieving 92% sensitivity and 97-100% specificity. We then re-evaluated melioidosis sera with the 4-plex assay that were previously misclassified by the monoplex Hcp1 rapid test. 12 out of 55 (21.8%) false-negative samples were positive in our new dipstick assay. Among those, 4 sera (7.3%) were Hcp1 positive, whereas 8 (14.5%) sera remained Hcp1 negative but gave a positive reaction with our additional antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Our dipstick rapid test represents an inexpensive, standardized and simple diagnostic tool with an improved serodiagnostic performance due to multiplex detection. Each additional band on the test strip makes a false-positive result more unlikely, contributing to its reliability. Future prospective studies will seek to validate the gain in sensitivity and specificity of our multiplex rapid test approach in different melioidosis patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Melioidose/sangue , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Fitas Reagentes , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias , Burkholderia pseudomallei/genética , Humanos , Melioidose/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 523, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the burden of rickettsial infections in Ontario, Canada, is challenging since rickettsial infections are not reportable to public health. In the absence of reportable disease data, we assessed the burden of rickettsial infections by examining patient serological data and clinical information. METHODS: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study included patients who had Rickettsia serological testing ordered by their physician, in Ontario, from 2013 to 2018. We tested sera from 2755 non-travel patients for antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) (positive IgG titers ≥1:64). We classified cases using a sensitive surveillance case definition: confirmed (4-fold increase in IgG titers between acute and convalescent sera with clinical evidence of infection), possible (single positive sera with clinical evidence) and previous rickettsial infection (single positive sera without clinical evidence). We classified cases seropositive for both SFGR and TGR as unspecified Rickettsia infections (URIs). RESULTS: Less than 5% of all patients had paired acute and convalescent sera tested, and of these, we found a single, laboratory-confirmed SFGR case, with a 4-fold increase in IgG titers and evidence of fever, maculopapular rash and headache. There were 45 possible (19 SFGR, 7 TGR, 19 URI) and 580 previous rickettsial infection (183 SFGR, 89 TGR, 308 URI) cases. The rate of positive tests for SFGR, TGR and URI combined (all case classifications) were 4.4 per 100,000 population. For confirmed and possible cases, the most common signs and symptoms were fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints and maculopapular rash. The odds of having seropositive patients increased annually by 30% (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of rickettsial infections in Ontario are difficult to determine. Based on confirmed and possible cases, rates are low, but inclusion of previous rickettsial infection cases would indicate higher rates. We highlight the need for education regarding the importance of testing acute and convalescent sera and consistent completion of the laboratory requisition in confirming rickettsial disease. We suggest further research in Ontario to investigate rickettsial agents in potential vectors and clinical studies employing PCR testing of clinical samples.


Assuntos
Rickettsia typhi/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/sangue , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/sangue , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(9): 825-829, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite substantial variation of streptococcal antibody titres among global populations, there is no data on normal values in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to establish normal values for antistreptolysin O (ASO) and antideoxyribonuclease B (ADB) antibodies in Uganda. DESIGN: This was an observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted at Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is located in the capital city, Kampala, and includes the Uganda Heart Institute. PATIENTS: Participants (aged 0-50 years) were recruited. Of 428 participants, 22 were excluded from analysis, and 183 (44.4%) of the remaining were children aged 5-15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ASO was measured in-country by nephelometric technique. ADB samples were sent to Australia (PathWest) for analysis by enzyme inhibition assay: 80% upper limit values were established. RESULTS: The median ASO titre in this age group was 220 IU/mL, with the 80th percentile value of 389 IU/mL. The median ADB titre in this age group was 375 IU/mL, with the 80th percentile value of 568 IU/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated Ugandan paediatric population standardised 80% upper-limit-of-normal ASO and ADB titres is higher than many global populations. Appropriateness of using population-specific antibody cutoffs is yet to be determined and has important implications for the sensitivity and specificity of rheumatic fever diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antiestreptolisina/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desoxirribonucleases/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Infecções Estreptocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 255-257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592549

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to recognise the etiological factor of a disease with symptoms of lameness and cardiac failure, which occurred in one dog 4 weeks after invasion by ticks. A serological examination as well as molecular examination (PCR) was done. In the sample of the serum, the presence of antibodies specific to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline did not cause significant improvement, so the owners of the dog decided about its euthanasia. During the necroscopy, a dilated heart was recognised. In the heart samples, the genetic material of Borrelia was detected. The results of serological and molecular examinations showed that in the discussed case, an etiological factor of the disease was spirochetes. In light of the research, veterinary practitioners should keep in mind the presence of Lyme disease in dogs in Poland and include it in differential diagnoses for lameness and cardiological problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Doenças do Cão , Miocardite , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Borrelia/complicações , Infecções por Borrelia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eutanásia Animal , Coração/parasitologia , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Polônia , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 426, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous phase 2 study demonstrated the immunogenicity of a single dose of meningococcal A, C, W, Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (MenACWY-TT) or polysaccharide (MenACWY-PS) vaccine for up to 5 years in individuals aged 11-55 years. This follow-up study evaluated long-term antibody persistence up to 10 years and the immunogenicity and safety of a single MenACWY-TT booster dose given 10 years after primary vaccination. METHODS: Blood draws were conducted annually in Years 7-10. At Year 10, all subjects received a MenACWY-TT booster dose. Blood was drawn at 1 month and safety data were collected ≤6 months postbooster. Study endpoints included immunogenicity during the persistence phase (primary), and immunogenicity and safety during the booster phase (secondary). Statistical analyses were descriptive. RESULTS: A total of 311 subjects were enrolled in the persistence phase (MenACWY-TT, 235; MenACWY-PS, 76); 220 were enrolled in the booster phase (MenACWY-TT, 164; MenACWY-PS, 56). Descriptive analyses indicated that at Years 7-10, the percentages of subjects achieving serum bactericidal antibody assay using baby rabbit complement (rSBA) titers ≥1:8 and ≥1:128 were higher for serogroups A, W, and Y in the MenACWY-TT versus MenACWY-PS group; percentages were similar across groups for serogroup C. rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) for serogroups A, W, and Y were higher in the MenACWY-TT group and slightly higher in the MenACWY-PS group for serogroup C. One month postbooster, all primary MenACWY-TT and ≥98.1% of primary MenACWY-PS recipients had rSBA titers ≥1:8. For all serogroups, rSBA GMTs postbooster were higher in the MenACWY-TT versus MenACWY-PS group. Most local and general reactogenicity events were similar between groups and mild to moderate in severity. Adverse events at 1 month postbooster were 9.1% for the MenACWY-TT and 3.6% for the MenACWY-PS groups; all were nonserious. CONCLUSIONS: Immune responses to a single MenACWY-TT primary dose administered at age 11-55 years persisted in >70% of individuals evaluated at Years 7-10. A MenACWY-TT booster dose administered at Year 10 was safe and immunogenic with no new safety signals observed. These results provide important insights regarding long-term protection from primary vaccination and the benefits of booster dosing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01934140. Registered September 2013.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Coelhos , Sorogrupo , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008407, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598393

RESUMO

Confronted with the challenge of understanding population-level processes, disease ecologists and epidemiologists often simplify quantitative data into distinct physiological states (e.g. susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered). However, data defining these states often fall along a spectrum rather than into clear categories. Hence, the host-pathogen relationship is more accurately defined using quantitative data, often integrating multiple diagnostic measures, just as clinicians do to assess their patients. We use quantitative data on a major neglected tropical disease (Leptospira interrogans) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to improve individual-level and population-level understanding of this Leptospira reservoir system. We create a "host-pathogen space" by mapping multiple biomarkers of infection (e.g. serum antibodies, pathogen DNA) and disease state (e.g. serum chemistry values) from 13 longitudinally sampled, severely ill individuals to characterize changes in these values through time. Data from these individuals describe a clear, unidirectional trajectory of disease and recovery within this host-pathogen space. Remarkably, this trajectory also captures the broad patterns in larger cross-sectional datasets of 1456 wild sea lions in all states of health but sampled only once. Our framework enables us to determine an individual's location in their time-course since initial infection, and to visualize the full range of clinical states and antibody responses induced by pathogen exposure. We identify predictive relationships between biomarkers and outcomes such as survival and pathogen shedding, and use these to impute values for missing data, thus increasing the size of the useable dataset. Mapping the host-pathogen space using quantitative biomarker data enables more nuanced understanding of an individual's time course of infection, duration of immunity, and probability of being infectious. Such maps also make efficient use of limited data for rare or poorly understood diseases, by providing a means to rapidly assess the range and extent of potential clinical and immunological profiles. These approaches yield benefits for clinicians needing to triage patients, prevent transmission, and assess immunity, and for disease ecologists or epidemiologists working to develop appropriate risk management strategies to reduce transmission risk on a population scale (e.g. model parameterization using more accurate estimates of duration of immunity and infectiousness) and to assess health impacts on a population scale.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leões-Marinhos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/imunologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Derrame de Bactérias , California , Estudos Transversais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade , Cinética , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospirose/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520958

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and coxiellosis in animals. In humans, it causes acute febrile illnesses like influenza, pneumonia, hepatitis, and chronic illnesses such as endocarditis, vascular infection, and post-infectious fatigue syndrome. It is widely distributed worldwide, and its main reservoirs are sheep, goats, and cattle. This study aimed to determine the frequency of C. burnetii infection using molecular detection and to identify the associated factors in livestock farmers and cattle from the Magdalena Medio region of Antioquia, Colombia. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), molecular detection was performed for the IS1111 insertion sequence of C. burnetii using genomic DNA collected from the peripheral blood of 143 livestock farmers and 192 cattle from 24 farms located in Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare, and Puerto Triunfo. To confirm the results, bidirectional amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA was performed in four of the positive samples. Additionally, factors associated with C. burnetii were identified using a Poisson regression with cluster effect adjustment. Real-time PCR showed positive results in 25.9% and 19.5% of livestock farmer samples and cattle samples, respectively. For livestock farmers, factors associated with C. burnetii were the area where the farm was located [Puerto Berrío, adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-4.11], presence of hens (aPR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21-1.79), horses (aPR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.54-1.67), and ticks (aPR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.03-5.42) in the residence, and consumption of raw milk (aPR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.26-1.72). For cattle, the factors associated with Coxiella genus were municipality (Puerto Nare; aPR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.37-0.41) and time of residence on the farm (≥49 months; aPR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.03-5.20). By analyzing sequences of the 16S rRNA molecular marker, C. burnetii infection was confirmed in livestock farmers. However, in cattle, only the presence of Coxiella-type bacteria was identified. Further research is necessary to determine the potential role that these types of bacteria have as etiological agents for disease in livestock farmers and cattle from the study area.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/patogenicidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Gado/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/genética
14.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(5): 274-277, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583670

RESUMO

Glanders is a fatal bacterial infection of equids caused by Burkholderia mallei. The infection can be transmitted to humans through prolonged direct contact with glanderous equids. Recently, reemergence of equine glanders has been reported in many countries. To investigate zoonotic transmission of B mallei infection, sera were collected from 538 humans including equine handlers and veterinary professionals exposed to glanderous equids. Samples were tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and complement fixation test and found negative for B mallei-specific antibodies. Even though there was no incidence of human glanders during this survey period, occupational exposure will continue to remain a serious concern and a key risk factor. Therefore, we emphasize the need for intersectoral collaboration and coordination among veterinary, human, and public health authorities for continuous surveillance and monitoring of human glanders under one health concept.


Assuntos
Mormo/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Zoonoses/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Burkholderia mallei/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mormo/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Saúde Única , Saúde Pública
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574205

RESUMO

Viral infections complicated by a bacterial infection are typically referred to as coinfections or superinfections. Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus (GAS), is not the most common bacteria associated with influenza A virus (IAV) superinfections but did cause significant mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic even though all isolates are susceptible to penicillin. One approach to improve the outcome of these infections is to use passive immunization targeting GAS. To test this idea, we assessed the efficacy of passive immunotherapy using antisera against either the streptococcal M protein or streptolysin O (SLO) in a murine model of IAV-GAS superinfection. Prophylactic treatment of mice with antiserum to either SLO or the M protein decreased morbidity compared to mice treated with non-immune sera; however, neither significantly decreased mortality. Therapeutic use of antisera to SLO decreased morbidity compared to mice treated with non-immune sera but neither antisera significantly reduced mortality. Overall, the results suggest that further development of antibodies targeting the M protein or SLO may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of invasive GAS diseases, including IAV-GAS superinfections, which may be particularly important during influenza pandemics.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Estreptolisinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Soros Imunes/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/terapia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Coelhos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/fisiologia , Estreptolisinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Estreptolisinas/metabolismo , Superinfecção/microbiologia , Superinfecção/terapia , Superinfecção/virologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 392, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first yaws eradication campaign reduced the prevalence of yaws by 95%. In recent years, however, yaws has reemerged and is currently subject to a second, ongoing eradication campaign. Yet, the epidemiological status of Tanzania and 75 other countries with a known history of human yaws is currently unknown. Contrary to the situation in humans in Tanzania, recent infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with the yaws bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) have been reported. In this study, we consider a One Health approach to investigate yaws and describe skin ulcers and corresponding T. pallidum serology results among children living in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, an area with increasing wildlife-human interaction in northern Tanzania. METHODS: To investigate human yaws in Tanzania, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen and interview skin-ulcerated children aged 6 to 15 years, who live in close proximity to two national parks with high numbers of naturally TPE-infected monkeys. Serum samples from children with skin ulcers were tested for antibodies against the bacterium using a treponemal (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination assay) and a non-treponemal (Rapid Plasma Reagin) test. RESULTS: A total of 186 children aged between 6 and 15 years (boys: 10.7 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD), N = 132; girls: 10.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD), N = 54) were enrolled. Seven children were sampled at health care facilities and 179 at primary schools. 38 children (20.4%) reported active participation in bushmeat hunting and consumption and 26 (13.9%) reported at least one physical contact with a NHP. None of the lesions seen were pathognomonic for yaws. Two children tested positive for treponemal antibodies (1.2%) in the treponemal test, but remained negative in the non-treponemal test. CONCLUSIONS: We found no serological evidence of yaws among children in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem. Nevertheless, the close genetic relationship of human and NHPs infecting TPE strains should lead to contact prevention with infected NHPs. Further research investigations are warranted to study the causes and possible prevention measures of spontaneous chronic ulcers among children in rural Tanzania and to certify that the country is free from human yaws.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Bouba/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/sangue , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Bouba/epidemiologia , Bouba/microbiologia
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(10): 1959-1970, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548683

RESUMO

In recent years, the prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide has increased, and with it, the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis strains. This has brought new challenges towards prevention and control of the disease. Therefore, it is urgent to find reliable and rapid diagnostic methods for tuberculosis in general, and for the drug-resistant forms of the disease. To this aim, we assessed 17 tuberculosis-specific protein candidates for the detection of tuberculosis-specific antibodies. First, we established an indirect ELISA method to detect anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis IgM and IgG. We tested 453 sera and analyzed the efficacy of the protein candidates for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Next, we screened antigens rich in T cell epitopes for their ability to induce high levels of IFN-γ, in order to define their suitability does develop detection tests based on IFN-γ release assay (IGRAs). The antigens CFP-10, PPE57, 38kDa, and Rv3807 showed higher diagnostic potential for the detection of anti-tuberculosis IgM, whereas PPE57, Ag85B, CFP-10, Rv0220, and 38kDa antigens performed better for anti-tuberculosis IgG detection. Worth noting is that CFP-10, 38kDa, and PPE57 detected efficiently both IgM and IgG. Rv1987, Rv3807, PPE57, Rv0220, and MPT64 proteins alone and combinations of Rv1987 + Rv3807, 16kDa + Rv0220, and MPT64 + Rv1986 tested in IGRAs displayed a good correlation with the positive control constituted by a cocktail of ESAT-6 + CFP-10 + TB7.7 (ECT), known for their stimulating properties (r > 0.5, p < 0.01). Among these antigen candidates, Rv0220 and Rv1987 + Rv3807 were the most potent. We discovered CFP-10, 38kDa, and PPE57 for the detection of anti-M. tuberculosis IgM and IgG, and Rv0220 alone or the combination Rv1987 + Rv3807 as the strongest stimulators in IGRAs. These antigens provide new references for the screening of tuberculosis-specific antibodies and effective stimulation in IGRAs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/sangue
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 364, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of human rickettsial infection in Indonesia are limited. This study sought to characterize the epidemiology of human rickettsioses amongst patients hospitalized with fever at 8 tertiary hospitals in Indonesia. METHODS: Acute and convalescent blood from 975 hospitalized non-dengue patients was tested for Rickettsia IgM and IgG by ELISA. Specimens from cases with seroconversion or increasing IgM and/or IgG titers were tested for Rickettsia IgM and IgG by IFA and Rickettsia genomes using primers for Rickettsia (R.) sp, R. typhi, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. Testing was performed retrospectively on stored specimens; results did not inform patient management. RESULTS: R. typhi, R. rickettsii, and O. tsutsugamushi IgG antibodies were identified in 269/872 (30.8%), 36/634 (5.7%), and 19/504 (3.8%) of samples, respectively. For the 103/975 (10.6%) non-dengue patients diagnosed with acute rickettsial infection, presenting symptoms included nausea (72%), headache (69%), vomiting (43%), lethargy (33%), anorexia (32%), arthralgia (30%), myalgia (28%), chills (28%), epigastric pain (28%), and rash (17%). No acute rickettsioses cases were suspected during hospitalization. Discharge diagnoses included typhoid fever (44), dengue fever (20), respiratory infections (7), leptospirosis (6), unknown fever (6), sepsis (5), hepatobiliary infections (3), UTI (3), and others (9). Fatalities occurred in 7 (6.8%) patients, mostly with co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Rickettsial infections are consistently misdiagnosed, often as leptospirosis, dengue, or Salmonella typhi infection. Clinicians should include rickettsioses in their differential diagnosis of fever to guide empiric management; laboratories should support evaluation for rickettsial etiologies; and public policy should be implemented to reduce burden of disease.


Assuntos
Febre/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Rickettsia rickettsii/imunologia , Rickettsia typhi/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orientia tsutsugamushi/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008292, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407387

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is an untypical anthrax-causing pathogen responsible for high wildlife mortality in Taï National Park (TNP), Côte d'Ivoire. However, nothing is known about its effect on the rural population living in the region bordering TNP. Contact to bushmeat is a known risk factor for exposure to a variety of zoonotic pathogens, but no human infections with Bcbva were noted so far. Therefore, we performed a retrospective seroprevalence analysis with sera from 1,386 study volunteers. We used assays which detect antibodies against the protective antigen PA, which is synthesized by both Bcbva and classic B. anthracis, and against the recently described antigen pXO2-60, a 35-kDa protein only produced by Bcbva. We found a high seroprevalence (22.37%) of antibodies against PA, and approximately half of those sera (10.46%) were also positive for the Bcbva-specific antigen pXO2-60. All sera negative for PA were also negative for antibodies against pXO2-60, confirming specificity and suitability of the PA/pXO2-60 combined serological assay. The fact that a large fraction of sera was positive for PA but negative for pXO2-60 can most likely be explained by lower immunogenicity of pXO2-60, but exposure to classic B. anthracis cannot be excluded. As only Bcbva has been detected in the TNP area so far, exposure to Bcbva can be suspected from the presence of antibodies against PA alone. In a questionnaire, most study participants reported contact to bushmeat and livestock carcasses. Unfortunately, risk factor analysis indicated that neither animal contacts, sex, age, nor country of origin were significant predictors of Bcbva seroprevalence. Nevertheless, our study added to an assessment of the distribution of Bcbva and its impact on the human population, and our data can serve to raise awareness of anthrax in the affected regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Bacillus cereus/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental , Parques Recreativos , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 403-407, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392957

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the value of nucleic acid detection methods in pharyngeal swabs in the etiological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection in children. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-four (male 210, female 244) children with pneumonia in Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were enrolled from July, 2018 to October, 2018. Pharyngeal swabs and venous blood were obtained on the first or the second day after hospitalization. Fluorescence detection quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA, MP culture and MP-IgM were used to detect MP simultaneously. MP infection is diagnosed if MP culture is positive or the two of the other three methods are positive. Pharyngeal swabs were acquired and detected using fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA and MP culture again for children with confirmed MP infection before discharge. The detection rates and quantitative changes of the three methods were compared, and χ(2) test was used for comparison among groups. Results: A total of 454 hospitalized children with pneumonia were included in this study. The detection rates of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA, thermostatic amplification of RNA, MP culture and MP-IgM IgM were 43.6% (198/454), 43.2% (196/454), 40.0% (180/454) and 30.6% (139/454) respectively. The difference of detection rates of the four methods was statistically significant (χ(2)=20.8, P<0.05),but no significant difference between the detection rates of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA and thermostatic amplification of RNA was found (χ(2)=0.018, P=0.900). They both had higher detection rates than MP-IgM or MP culture. MP infection is diagnosed if MP culture is positive or the two of the other three methods are positive, and two hundred and nine children were diagnosed as MP infection. In the second test of MP infection in 209 children before discharge, the positive rate of MP culture was 67.5% (141/209), with 39.4% (13/33) changed from negative to positive, and 27.3% (48/176) changed from positive to negative. The positive rate of thermostatic amplification of RNA was 82.3% (172/209), with 16.2% (31/191) turned from positive to negative, and 66.7% (12/18) turned from negative to positive. The positive rate of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA was 67.0% (140/209), with 52.9% (18/34) cases changed from negative to positive, and 30.3% (53/175) cases changed from positive to negative. MP-DNA load decreased in 141 cases (67.5%) and increased in 68 cases (32.5%) in the second test among the positive samples tested by fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA. The detection rates of the four methods in the non-severe group and the severe group were similar, and the differences among the groups were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). In the second test, the proportion of changing from negative to positive in the severe group was higher than that in the non-severe group, but only the difference in the thermostatic amplification of RNA was statistically significant (P=0.038) and the cases of changing from negative to positive of thermostatic amplification of RNA in the severe group and non-severe group are 7 and 5 respectively. Conclusions: The methods of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid detection have high sensitivity and application value in the etiological diagnosis of acute MP infection in children. The results of fluorescence quantitative amplification of DNA and thermostatic amplification of RNA are highly consistent, and they are both more advantageous than MP-IgM. Repeated testing in the acute phase is helpful to find MP infection children whose first test is negative. The load of MP-DNA did not decrease in some children in the acute stage after antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Faringe/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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