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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 17-29, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796508

RESUMO

Leptospirosis and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases with global distributions that represent severe hazards to humans and animals. We investigated exposure to Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. in samples from Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis, Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis, and a tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis. The animals were free-ranging or undergoing in situ rehabilitation in the mid-Solimões River region, Brazilian Amazon. Serum samples from 19 Amazonian manatees were tested by microscopic agglutination test, Rose Bengal test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were detected in 63% of the manatees tested and serovar Patoc was considered the infecting serovar in all positive samples. Titers were generally low, indicating chronic exposure, but higher titers indicative of an active infection were detected in 3 animals. Anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were not detected. Tissue and/or body fluid samples from 12 Amazon river dolphins, a tucuxi, and 2 Amazonian manatees were investigated by multiplex PCR and bacteriology for Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. All samples were negative. However, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from uterine fluid, lymph node, and lung of 3 Amazon river dolphins. Bacillus spp. were isolated from milk and synovial fluid from 2 Amazon river dolphins and from a milk sample from 1 Amazonian manatee. Knowledge of the pathogens present in Amazonian manatees, Amazon river dolphins, and tucuxis is of great relevance to species conservation and environmental health. Although no clinical signs were noted, further research is needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of infection by Leptospira sp. serovar Patoc in Amazonian aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Golfinhos , Leptospira , Trichechus inunguis , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Golfinhos/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Trichechus inunguis/microbiologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2109667119, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275791

RESUMO

SignificanceYersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has been responsible for high mortality in several epidemics throughout human history. This plague bacillus has been used as a biological weapon during human history and is currently one of the deadliest biological threats. Currently, no licensed plague vaccines are available in the Western world. Since an array of immunogens are enclosed in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), immune responses elicited by OMVs against a diverse range of antigens may reduce the likelihood of antigen circumvention. Therefore, self-adjuvanting OMVs from a remodeled Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain as a type of plague vaccine could diversify prophylactic choices and solve current vaccine limitations.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Lipídeo A , Vacina contra a Peste , Peste , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Lipídeo A/genética , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Camundongos , Peste/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra a Peste/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra a Peste/genética , Vacina contra a Peste/imunologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/imunologia , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/genética , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/imunologia
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838504, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211125

RESUMO

Over two decades ago acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) replaced whole cell pertussis vaccines (wP) in several countries. Since then, a resurgence in pertussis has been observed, which is hypothesized to be linked, in part, to waning immunity. To better understand why waning immunity occurs, we developed a long-term outbred CD1 mouse model to conduct the longest murine pertussis vaccine studies to date, spanning out to 532 days post primary immunization. Vaccine-induced memory results from follicular responses and germinal center formation; therefore, cell populations and cytokines involved with memory were measured alongside protection from challenge. Both aP and wP immunization elicit protection from intranasal challenge by decreasing bacterial burden in both the upper and lower airways, and by generation of pertussis specific antibody responses in mice. Responses to wP vaccination were characterized by a significant increase in T follicular helper cells in the draining lymph nodes and CXCL13 levels in sera compared to aP mice. In addition, a population of B. pertussis + memory B cells was found to be unique to wP vaccinated mice. This population peaked post-boost, and was measurable out to day 365 post-vaccination. Anti-B. pertussis and anti-pertussis toxoid antibody secreting cells increased one day after boost and remained high at day 532. The data suggest that follicular responses, and in particular CXCL13 levels in sera, could be monitored in pre-clinical and clinical studies for the development of the next-generation pertussis vaccines.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/imunologia , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Coqueluche/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL13/sangue , Imunização Secundária , Memória Imunológica , Camundongos , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 819089, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35154137

RESUMO

Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is a fatal zoonotic disease with a high lethality and poor prognosis. Inhalational anthrax is the most severe of the three forms of anthrax. The currently licensed commercial human anthrax vaccines require a complex immunization procedure for efficacy and have side effects that limit its use in emergent situations. Thus, development of a better anthrax vaccine is necessary. In this study, we evaluate the potency and efficacy of aerosolized intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) subunit vaccines against aerosolized B. anthracis Pasteur II spores (an attenuated strain) challenge in a B10.D2-Hc0 mouse (deficient in complement component C5) model. Immunization of rPA in liquid, powder or powder reconstituted formulations via i.t. route conferred 100% protection against a 20× LD50 aerosolized Pasteur II spore challenge in mice, compared with only 50% of subcutaneous (s.c.) injection with liquid rPA. Consistently, i.t. inoculation of rPA vaccines induced a higher lethal toxin (LeTx) neutralizing antibody titer, a stronger lung mucosal immune response and a greater cellular immune response than s.c. injection. Our results demonstrate that immunization with rPA dry powder vaccine via i.t. route may provide a stable and effective strategy to improve currently available anthrax vaccines and B10.D2-Hc0 mice challenged with B. anthracis attenuated strains might be an alternative model for anthrax vaccine candidate screening.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Antraz/imunologia , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Vacinação/métodos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Bacillus anthracis/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Pós , Análise de Sobrevida , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
5.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2031696, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130127

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are growing burdens for individuals and the health-care system. Bariatric surgery is an efficient, but drastic treatment to reduce body weight, normalize glucose values, and reduce low-grade inflammation. The gut microbiome, which is in part controlled by intestinal antibodies, such as IgA, is involved in the development of both conditions. Knowledge of the effect of bariatric surgery on systemic and intestinal antibody response is limited. Here, we determined the fecal antibody and gut microbiome response in 40 T2D and non-diabetic (ND) obese individuals that underwent bariatric surgery (N = 40). Body weight, fasting glucose concentrations and inflammatory parameters decreased after bariatric surgery, whereas pro-inflammatory bacterial species such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin increased in the feces. Simultaneously, concentrations of LPS- and flagellin-specific intestinal IgA levels increased with the majority of pro-inflammatory bacteria coated with IgA after surgery. Finally, serum antibodies decreased in both groups, along with a lower inflammatory tone. We conclude that intestinal rearrangement by bariatric surgery leads to expansion of typical pro-inflammatory bacteria, which may be compensated by an improved antibody response. Although further evidence and mechanistic insights are needed, we postulate that this apparent compensatory antibody response might help to reduce systemic inflammation by neutralizing intestinal immunogenic components and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bactérias/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia
7.
J Immunol ; 208(5): 1180-1188, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149529

RESUMO

Pulmonary infections elicit a combination of tissue-resident and circulating T cell responses. Understanding the contribution of these anatomically distinct cellular pools in protective immune responses is critical for vaccine development. Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterium capable of causing lethal systemic disease following pulmonary infection for which there is no currently licensed vaccine. Although T cells are required for survival of F. tularensis infection, the relative contribution of tissue-resident and circulating T cells is not completely understood, hampering design of effective, long-lasting vaccines directed against this bacterium. We have previously shown that resident T cells were not sufficient to protect against F. tularensis, suggesting circulating cells may serve a critical role in host defense. To elucidate the role of circulating T cells, we used a model of vaccination and challenge of parabiotic mice. Intranasally infected naive mice conjoined to immune animals had increased numbers of circulating memory T cells and similar splenic bacterial burdens as vaccinated-vaccinated pairs. However, bacterial loads in the lungs of naive parabionts were significantly greater than those observed in vaccinated-vaccinated pairs, but despite early control of F. tularensis replication, all naive-vaccinated pairs succumbed to infection. Together, these data define the specific roles of circulating and resident T cells in defense against infection that is initiated in the pulmonary compartment but ultimately causes disseminated disease. These data also provide evidence for employing vaccination strategies that elicit both pools of T cells for immunity against F. tularensis and may be a common theme for other disseminating bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , /imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Carga Bacteriana/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tularemia/imunologia , Tularemia/patologia , Vacinação
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 793382, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35154110

RESUMO

Pneumonic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an infectious disease with high mortality rates unless treated early with antibiotics. Currently, no FDA-approved vaccine against plague is available for human use. The capsular antigen F1, the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV), and the recombinant fusion protein (rF1-LcrV) of Y. pestis are leading subunit vaccine candidates under intense investigation; however, the inability of recombinant antigens to provide complete protection against pneumonic plague in animal models remains a significant concern. In this study, we compared immunoprotection against pneumonic plague provided by rF1, rV10 (a truncation of LcrV), and rF1-V10, and vaccinations delivered via aerosolized intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. We further considered three vaccine formulations: conventional liquid, dry powder produced by spray freeze drying, or dry powder reconstituted in PBS. The main findings are: (i) rF1-V10 immunization with any formulation via i.t. or s.c. routes conferred 100% protection against Y. pestis i.t. infection; (ii) rF1 or rV10 immunization using i.t. delivery provided significantly stronger protection than rF1 or rV10 immunization via s.c. delivery; and (iii) powder formulations of subunit vaccines induced immune responses and provided protection equivalent to those elicited by unprocessed liquid formulations of vaccines. Our data indicate that immunization with a powder formulation of rF1-V10 vaccines via an i.t. route may be a promising vaccination strategy for providing protective immunity against pneumonic plague.


Assuntos
Vacina contra a Peste/imunologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Yersinia pestis/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Composição de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunização/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peste/imunologia , Peste/mortalidade , Vacina contra a Peste/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra a Peste/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/química
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010191, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192629

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a fatal zoonosis caused by contact between skin or a mucosal surface and contaminated soil or water. Hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal injection fto establish experimental leptospirosis, which is not a natural route of infection. There are no reports of nasal mucosal infection in hamsters. In this study, infection of the nasal mucosa was performed to establish a model of natural infection. Both methods of infection can cause lethal models with similar symptoms in the later stages of infection, such as weight loss, blood concentration, increased neutrophils (GRAN), and decreased lymphocytes (LYM) in the blood, severe organ damage and liver function obstruction. The burden of Leptospira in the organs and blood was lower in the mucosal inoculation groups at 1 day after infection. However, mucosal infection induced a higher Leptospira burden in urine than intraperitoneal infection in the late stages of infection. After nasal mucosal infection, antibody levels were higher and lasted longer. These results indicated that the route of nasal mucosal infection is a good choice for studying leptospirosis in hamsters.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Cricetinae , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/mortalidade , Fígado/microbiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010177, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139116

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of children's and travelers' diarrhea. Developing effective vaccines against this heterologous group has proven difficult due to the varied nature of toxins and adhesins that determine their pathology. A multivalent candidate vaccine was developed using a multi-epitope fusion antigen (MEFA) vaccinology platform and shown to effectively elicit broad protective antibody responses in mice and pigs. However, direct protection against ETEC colonization of the small intestine was not measured in these systems. Colonization of ETEC strains is known to be a determining factor in disease outcomes and is adhesin-dependent. In this study, we developed a non-surgical rabbit colonization model to study immune protection against ETEC colonization in rabbits. We tested the ability for the MEFA-based vaccine adhesin antigen, in combination with dmLT adjuvant, to induce broad immune responses and to protect from ETEC colonization of the rabbit small intestine. Our results indicate that the candidate vaccine MEFA antigen elicits antibodies in rabbits that react to seven adhesins included in its construction and protects against colonization of a challenge strain that consistently colonized naïve rabbits.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Epitopos/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli/genética , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Coelhos
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126397

RESUMO

The identification of an appropriate animal model for use in the development of meningococcal vaccines has been a challenge as humans are the only natural host for Neisseria meningitidis. Small animal models have been developed and are widely used to study the efficacy or immunogenicity of vaccine formulations generated against various diseases. Here, we describe the development and optimization of a mouse model for assessing the immunogenicity of candidate tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide (MenACYW-TT) protein conjugate vaccines. Three inbred (BALB/c [H-2d], C3H/HeN [H-2k], or C57BL/6 [H-2b]) and one outbred (ICR [H-2g7]) mouse strains were assessed using serial two-fold dose dilutions (from 2 µg to 0.03125 µg per dose of polysaccharide for each serogroup) of candidate meningococcal conjugate vaccines. Groups of 10 mice received two doses of the candidate vaccine 14 days apart with serum samples obtained 14 days after the last dose for the evaluation of serogroup-specific anti-polysaccharide IgG by ELISA and bactericidal antibody by serum bactericidal assay (SBA). C3H/HeN and ICR mice had a more dose-dependent antibody response to all four serogroups than BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice. In general, ICR mice had the greatest antibody dose-response range (both anti-polysaccharide IgG and bactericidal antibodies) to all four serogroups and were chosen as the model of choice. The 0.25 µg per serogroup dose was chosen as optimal since this was in the dynamic range of the serogroup-specific dose-response curves in most of the mouse strains evaluated. We demonstrate that the optimized mouse immunogenicity model is sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between conjugated polysaccharides, against unconjugated free polysaccharides and, to degradation of the vaccine formulations. Following optimization, this optimized mouse immunogenicity model has been used to assess the impact of different conjugation chemistries on immunogenicity, and to screen and stratify various candidate meningococcal conjugate vaccines to identify those with the most desirable profile to progress to clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções Meningocócicas/veterinária , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Sorogrupo , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010054, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108271

RESUMO

The incidence of Q fever has rapidly increased in South Korea since 2015. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence and seroreactivity of Q fever and the risk factors associated with its seroprevalence among workers in the veterinary service laboratory (VSL) in South Korea. This seroepidemiologic study was conducted in a total of 661 human subjects out of 1,328 subjects working in 50 VSL existing in South Korea between July 15 and July 29, 2019. Data were collected by administering survey questionnaires and by analyzing collected blood samples to determine the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. The seroprevalence and seroreactivity of C. burnetii infection were determined based on serum titers as (phase II IgG ≥1:256 and/or IgM ≥1:16) and (phase II IgG ≥1:16 and/or IgM ≥1:16) as determined by indirect immunofluorescent assay. Work, work environment, behavioral risk and protective factors associated with seroprevalence of Q fever were assessed by employing multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among the 661, the seroprevalence and seroreactivity of C. burnetii infection were 7.9% and 16.0%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the risk factors significantly associated with seroprevalence were the antemortem inspection of cattle, goats, or sheep (APR (adjusted prevalence ratio), 2.52; 95% CI, 1.23-4.70)), animal blood splashed into or around eyes (APR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.04-4.41), and contact with animals having Q fever (APR, 6.58; 95% CI, 3.39-10.85) during the previous year. This study suggests the need for precautions when contact with cattle, goats, or sheep is expected, especially during the antemortem inspection, when dealing with C. burnetii infected animals, or when there is a risk of ocular contact with animal derivatives. Therefore, we recommend the consistent use of appropriate personal protective equipment and other protective measures including PPE treatment and washing of body surfaces after work to prevent C. burnetii infections among VSL staff in South Korea.


Assuntos
Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Medicina Veterinária , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii , Humanos , Laboratórios , Exposição Ocupacional , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0147721, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138118

RESUMO

Neurosyphilis (NS) diagnosis is challenging because clinical signs are diverse and unspecific, and a sensitive and specific laboratory test is lacking. We tested the performance of an antibody index (AI) for intrathecal synthesis of specific anti-Treponema IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NS diagnosis. We conducted a retroprospective monocentric study including adults with neurological symptoms who had serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between 2006 and 2021. Two NS definitions were used. NS1 included patients with neurological symptoms, positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) serology, and CSF-TPPA of ≥320, as well as CSF-leukocytes of >5 cells/mm3 and/or CSF-protein of >0.45 g/L and/or a reactive CSF-VDRL/RPR test. NS2 included patients with acute ocular and/or otologic symptoms, positive TPPA serology, and a response to NS treatment. Controls were patients with central nervous system disorders other than neurosyphilis. Anti-Treponema pallidum IgG were measured simultaneously in serum and CSF, and AI was calculated according to Reiber diagram. We assessed the AI test area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity/specificity, and estimated positive and negative predictive values. In total, 16 NS1 patients, 11 NS2 patients, and 71 controls were included. With an AI of ≥1.7 as a positive test for NS diagnostic, specificity was 98.6% (95% confidence interval [CI 95%] of 92.4 to 100.0) and sensitivity was 81.3% (CI 95% of 54.4 to 96.0) for NS1 and 98.6% (CI 95% 92.4 to 100.0) and 27.3% (CI 95% 6.0 to 61.0), respectively, for NS2. Positive and negative predictive values were >95% for NS1 and >85% for NS2, for prevalence above and below 20%. Measuring an AI for intrathecal synthesis of specific anti-Treponema pallidum IgG is a new promising tool highly specific for NS diagnosis. IMPORTANCE In the context of a lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis due to either nonspecific or nonsensitive tests, we present in this article a new promising tool highly specific for NS diagnosis. This new test involves measuring an intrathecal synthesis index of specific anti-Treponema IgG by ELISA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Neurossífilis/sangue , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurossífilis/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neurossífilis/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Treponema pallidum/classificação , Treponema pallidum/genética , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2148, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140240

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a common global zoonotic disease of man and all farm animals. Although most leptospiral infections in sheep and goats are asymptomatic, they may play a role in the epidemiology of the disease by the spread of Leptospira through the urine. This study was carried out to evaluate the role of sheep and goats in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. Blood and urine samples were taken from 210 goats and 246 sheep. To detect antibodies, sera samples were tested with 8 live serovars of L. interrogans (Hardjo, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Ballum, Icterhemorrhagiae, Tarasovi, and Australis) by MAT. Then, urine samples were tested by Nested PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene for detection of pathogenic Leptospira. Results of MAT showed that 10.95% of goats and 8.53% of sheep had antibodies against at least one examined serovars. In both species, the highest reacting was L. i. Pomona with a rate of 68.18% and 56% in sheep and goats, respectively. Moreover, in PCR, 2 (0.95%) urine samples of goat and 12 (4.87%) urine samples of sheep were positive. All of the MAT positive studied animals were PCR negative and, statistical analysis showed that there was no relationship and agreement between the results of PCR and MAT in sheep (kappa = - 0.07, p > 0.05) and goats (kappa = - 0.02, p > 0.05). Finally, it is concluded that sheep and goats can excrete L. interrogans in the urine and thus transmit them to other animals and humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Zoonoses Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Urina/microbiologia
15.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 5, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063026

RESUMO

In recent years, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) has caused disease outbreaks in different animals, resulting in serious economic losses and biosafety concerns. Considering the broad antibiotic resistance of KP, vaccines are the most effective tools against infection. However, there is still no KP vaccine available in the veterinary field. Our results indicate that the highly conserved outer membrane phosphoporin (PhoE) of KP is immunogenic in mice and elicits high titers of antibodies that were shown to be specific for PhoE by immunoblotting. Immunization with PhoE also induced robust cell-mediated immunity and elicited the secretion of high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, suggesting the induction of mixed Th1 and Th2 responses. Sera from PhoE-immunized mice induced significantly higher complement-mediated lysis of KP cells than did sera from the PBS control mice. Finally, mice immunized with PhoE were significantly protected against KP challenge, with better survival and a reduced visceral bacterial load. Our data underscore the great potential of PhoE as a novel candidate antigen for a vaccine against KP infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Vacinas Bacterianas , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Porinas , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunização/veterinária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Porinas/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 6, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited clinical or epidemiological knowledge regarding Bartonella infection in cats, and no serological studies have compared the presence of antibodies against different Bartonella species. Moreover, there are limited feline Bartonella studies investigating co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens and the associated risk factors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate Bartonella spp. infections and co-infections with other pathogens in cats from Barcelona (Spain) based on serological and/or molecular techniques and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: We studied colony and owned cats (n = 135). Sera were tested for Bartonella henselae-, Bartonella quintana-, and Bartonella koehlerae-specific antibodies using endpoint in-house immunofluorescence antibody assays. Bartonella real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) were performed. In addition, cPCR followed by DNA sequencing was performed for other pathogenic organisms (Anaplasma, Babesia, Cytauxzoon, Ehrlichia, Hepatozoon, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Theileria spp.). RESULTS: From 135 cats studied, 80.7% were seroreactive against at least one Bartonella species. Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, and B. henselae seroreactivity was 67.4, 77.0, and 80.7%, respectively. Substantial to almost perfect serological agreement was found between the three Bartonella species. Colony cats were more likely to be Bartonella spp.-seroreactive than owned cats. Moreover, cats aged ≤ 2 years were more likely to be Bartonella spp.-seroreactive. Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in the blood of 11.9% (n = 16) of cats. Cats were infected with B. henselae (n = 12), B. clarridgeiae (n = 3), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Mycoplasma spp. DNA was amplified from 14% (n = 19) of cat blood specimens. Cats were infected with Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 8), Candidatus M. haemominutum (n = 6), Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (n = 4), and Mycoplasma wenyonii (n = 1). Anaplasma, Babesia, Cytauxzoon, Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon, and Theileria spp. DNA was not amplified from any blood sample. Of the 16 Bartonella spp.-infected cats based on PCR results, six (37%) were co-infected with Mycoplasma spp. CONCLUSIONS: Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma infections are prevalent in cats from the Barcelona area, whereas infection with Anaplasma spp., Babesia, Cytauxzoon, Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon, and Theileria infections were not detected. Co-infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma appears to be common in Bartonella-infected cats. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document M. wenyonii is infection in cats.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In cholera endemic areas, the periodicity of cholera outbreaks remains unpredictable, making it difficult to organize preventive efforts. Lack of data on duration of protection conferred by oral cholera vaccines further makes it difficult to determine when to deploy preemptive vaccination. We report on the immunogenicity and waning of immunity to Shanchol™ in Lukanga Swamps. METHODS: We enrolled a cohort of 223 participants aged between 18 and 65 years old from whom serum samples were collected at baseline, day 28 before administration of the second dose, and consecutively at 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months. Vibriocidal antibody titres were measured and expressed as geometric mean titres. Box plots and 95% CI were computed at each visit for both Inaba and Ogawa. Seroconversion was defined as a four fold or greater increase in antibody titres compared to baseline titres. RESULTS: Overall, seroconversion against V. cholerae Inaba and Ogawa after 1st dose was 35/134 (26%) and 34/134 (25%) respectively. We observed a statistical difference in seroconversion between the two subgroups of baseline titres (low <80 and high ≥80) for both Inaba (p = 0.02) and Ogawa (p<0.0001). From a baseline of 13.58, anti-Ogawa GMT increased to 21.95 after the first dose, but rapidly waned to 14.52, 13.13, and 12.78 at months 6, 12 and 24 respectively, and then increased to 13.21, 18.67 and 23.65 at months 30, 36 and 48 respectively. A similar trend was observed for anti-Inaba GMT across the same time points. CONCLUSION: We found that Shanchol™ was immunogenic in our study population and that vibriocidal antibodies may not be a good marker for long-term immunity. The observed rise in titres after 36 months suggests natural exposure, and this may be a critical time window opening for natural transmission in an endemic areas. We recommend re-vaccination at this time point in high risk areas.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/imunologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/imunologia , Vacinas contra Cólera/imunologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodicidade , Vigilância da População , Soroconversão , Vibrio cholerae/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0140621, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985326

RESUMO

Although serum anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody is a highly specific test for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium abscessus, and its subspecies abscessus, subsp. massiliense, and subsp. bolletii (MAB), its use for the definitive diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease (PD) and MAB-PD are unknown. To clarify the diagnostic accuracy of the anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test among patients with radiologically suspected MAC-PD or MAB-PD who already have a single positive sputum culture test. The first isolations of MAC and MAB from patients with radiologically suspected MAC-PD or MAB-PD at the Osaka Toneyama Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2020 were collected. Patients were enrolled when their serum anti-GPL-core IgA antibody was measured during the 3 months before and after the first isolation. We retrospectively compared the results of anti-GPL-core IgA antibody testing with the final diagnoses based on the current guidelines. We included 976 patients for analysis. The serum anti-GPL-core IgA antibody was positive in 699 patients (71.6%). The positive predictive value of anti-GPL-core IgA antibody for the diagnosis of MAC-PD or MAB-PD was 97.4%. The median time required for the second positive culture after the first isolation was 51 days (interquartile range 12 to 196 days). The positive serum anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test allowed an early and definitive diagnosis of MAC-PD or MAB-PD in those who already had a single positive sputum culture test. IMPORTANCE To satisfy the microbiologic criteria of the current diagnostic guideline for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (PD), at least two positive sputum cultures of the same species of mycobacteria from sputum are required to avoid the casual isolation of mycobacteria. This study showed that the positivity of a serum anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody test has an excellent diagnostic ability among patients with radiologically suspected Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-PD or Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB)-PD who already had a single positive sputum culture test. The usage of single culture isolation plus anti-GPL-core IgA antibody as another diagnostic criterion has a time, cost, and effort-saving effect. Furthermore, it will facilitate the diagnosis of MAC-PD or MAB-PD in the early stage of disease because serum anti-GPL-core IgA antibody becomes high in these patients. Therefore, we proposed adding single culture isolation plus anti-GPL-core IgA antibody as "combined microbiological and serological criteria" to the diagnostic guidelines for MAC-PD and MAB-PD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Mycobacterium abscessus/imunologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/sangue , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium abscessus/genética , Mycobacterium abscessus/isolamento & purificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(1): 21-27, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417687

RESUMO

To characterize Lyme arthritis, with a focus on management, and outcome. Observational retrospective multicentre study in Western France, of all consecutive cases of Lyme arthritis, documented by Borrelia burgdorferi IgG on ELISA serological testing, confirmed by Western blot, with or without positive Borrelia PCR in synovial fluid, with no alternative diagnosis. We enrolled 52 patients (29 males), with a mean age of 43 ± 19.4 years. Most patients had monoarthritis (n = 43, 82.7%), involving the knee (n = 51, 98.1%), with a median delay between symptoms onset and Lyme arthritis diagnosis of 5 months (interquartile range, 1.5-8). Synovial fluid analysis yielded median white cell count of 16,000/mm3 (9230-40,500), and positive PCR in 16 cases (39%), for B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 5), B. garinii (n = 5), B. afzelii (n = 3), and undetermined (n = 3). All patients received antibiotics, for a median duration of 28 days (21-30), with doxycycline (n = 44, 84.6%), ceftriaxone (n = 6, 11.5%), or amoxicillin (n = 2). Twelve patients (23.1%) also received intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids as first-line treatment. Of 47 patients with follow-up, 35 (74.5%) had complete resolution of Lyme arthritis. Lyme arthritis in Western Europe may be due to B. burgdorferi ss, B. afzelii, or B. garinii. Clinical presentation is similar to Lyme arthritis in North America (i.e. chronic knee monoarthritis), with low sensitivity of synovial fluid PCR (39%).


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/classificação , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/genética , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/imunologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Immunol Methods ; 500: 113194, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801540

RESUMO

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen responsible for superficial infections through to life-threatening invasive disease and the autoimmune sequelae acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Despite a significant global economic and health burden, there is no licensed vaccine available to prevent GAS disease. Several pre-clinical vaccines that target conserved GAS antigens are in development. Assays that measure antigen-specific antibodies are essential for vaccine research. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex beadbased immunoassay that can detect and quantify antibody responses to multiple GAS antigen targets in small volume blood samples. This builds on our existing triplex assay comprised of antigens used in clinical serology for the diagnosis of ARF (SLO, DNase B and SpnA). Five additional conserved putative GAS vaccine antigens (Spy0843, SCPA, SpyCEP, SpyAD and the Group A carbohydrate), were coupled to spectrally unique beads to form an 8-plex antigen panel. After optimisation of the assay protocol, standard curves were generated, and assessments of assay specificity, precision and reproducibility were conducted. A broad range of antibody (IgG) titres were able to be quickly and accurately quantified from a single serum dilution. Assay utility was assessed using a panel of 62 clinical samples including serum from adults with GAS bacteraemia and children with ARF. Circulating IgG to all eight antigens was elevated in patients with GAS disease (n = 23) compared to age-matched controls (n = 39) (P < 0.05). The feasibility of using dried blood samples to quantify antigen-specific IgG was also demonstrated. In summary, a robust and reproducible 8-plex assay has been developed that simultaneously quantifies IgG antibodies to GAS vaccine and diagnostic antigens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Febre Reumática/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/fisiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Microesferas , Febre Reumática/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia
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