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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 851-854, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378048

RESUMO

There are many limitations in evaluating vaccine efficacy by comparing the incidence of clinical endpoint events (such as morbidity, bacterial colonization) between the vaccine group and the control group. Therefore, the researchers put forward the concept of Surrogate of protection to predict vaccine protection with immunological indicators. In 2012, WHO put forward the immunological substitution endpoint of pneumococcal vaccine, using 0. 35 µg/ml as the protective antibody level of pneumococcal vaccine. But subsequent studies have found that using this threshold to assess all vaccine serotypes may not be accurate.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Humanos , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(3): 336-342, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414635

RESUMO

The screening for syphilis during pregnancy is important to prevent intrauterine transmission and complications. Prozone phenomenon may cause a false negative result in non-treponemal syphilis tests, which complicates an accurate diagnosis. In this case report a newborn syphilis case was presented to emphasize the importance of reverse algorithm in diagnosis and the prozone phenomenon which can cause problems in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The 2920 g infant patient was born from a 24-year-old mother with no known diseases, at the 35th week of gestation by cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes. The initial physical examination of the newborn revealed erythema and exfoliation of the bilateral hands and feet. Laboratory results revealed CRP: 90 mg/L, WBC: 19.2 x 103/µl, hemoglobin: 9.5 g/dl, platelet count: 214 x 103/µl, HIV-Ag/Ab: non-reactive, anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG: negative, anti-cytomegalovirus IgM: negative, anti-cytomegalovirus IgG: positive (128.7 AU/ml), anti-Rubella IgM: negative, anti-Rubella IgG: positive (26 IU/ml), anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-T.pallidum) antibody [IgM and IgG by the chemiluminescence microparticle enzyme immunoassay (Architect Syphilis TP; Abbott Japan Co, Japan)]: positive (Signal Cut Off value (S/CO): 28.35), and RPR (Omega Diagnostics, UK): negative. All of the above ELISA tests were performed by using Architect (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany) kits. When the RPR test was repeated with serial dilutions of the serum in order to detect prozone phenomenon, positive reaction was detected starting from 1:2 and ending at 1:64 dilution. It was determined that the mother was not tested for syphilis during her pregnancy. When both the mother and the father were tested for syphilis, the mother's anti-T.pallidum total antibody test result was reactive (S/CO: 30.52) and the RPR was positive at 1:32 dilution, while the father's anti-T.pallidum total antibody test result was reactive (S/CO: 16.05) and the RPR was negative. A four-fold difference between the maternal and infant RPR dilutions is required by the guidelines for a laboratory diagnosis of congenital syphilis. Although this criterion was not met in the newborn, the case was accepted as congenital syphilis due to clinical findings. Congenital syphilis must be considered in the differential diagnosis in the presence of skin manifestations at the birth and early neonatal period. Accurate and early diagnosis of the disease is important to start appropriate treatment and prevent complications. As described in the presented case, the use of reverse syphilis test algorithm will enable to reach the correct diagnosis of the infection. If the result of the treponemal test is positive and the RPR test is negative, prozone phenomenon should be considered and the RPR test should be repeated with serial serum dilutions.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Sífilis Congênita , Adulto , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Cesárea , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/métodos , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/normas , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
4.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109886, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307667

RESUMO

The diagnosis of the early stages of paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a cumbersome task. In this study, an experimental Map-infection model of calves was used to improve the knowledge of early antibody response and to evaluate different in-house ELISAs in the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis. Calves were challenged with Map strain IS900-RFLPA (n = 3) or Map strain IS900-RFLPC (n = 2) (Argentinean isolated strains) or mock infected (n = 3), and their specific humoral response was evaluated. The diagnostic ELISA (IgG against Map protoplasmic antigen; PPA) could not detect the infection throughout the experimental period (180 days post-infection; dpi), whereas the IgG2/PPA-ELISA was able to identify infected calves at least once during the experiment. In addition, the use of crude Map extract detected most of the infections from 60 dpi onwards. Antibodies were also characterized by immunoblot: IgG2-reactivity to antigens of molecular weight lower than 50 kDa was detected in all infected calves. The experimental Map-infection model of calves used allows the study of the early humoral immune response in paratuberculosis. The evaluation of IgG2 specific to antigens lighter than 50 kDa emerges as an interesting alternative in calves naturally infected with paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109887, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307668

RESUMO

Chlamydia abortus produces ovine enzootic abortion (OEA). Symptoms are not observed until the organism colonises the placenta, eventually causing abortion. Infected animals become carriers and will shed the organism in the following oestruses. This process suggests that sex hormones might play an important role in the physiopathology of OEA, affecting the success of chlamydial clearance and also jeopardising the effectiveness of vaccination. However, the mechanisms through which sex hormones are involved in chlamydial pathogenicity remain unclear. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effect of progesterone on the immune response against C. abortus and on the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine in sheep. Eighteen sheep were ovariectomised and divided into four groups: vaccinated and progesterone-treated (V-PG), vaccinated and non-treated (V-NT), non-vaccinated and non-treated (NV-NT) and non-vaccinated and progesterone-treated sheep (NV-PG). Animals from both PG groups were treated with commercial medroxyprogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges before and during the vaccination (V-PG) or just before challenge (NV-PG). The animals from both V groups were subcutaneously immunised with an experimental inactivated vaccine, which was seen to confer high protection in previous studies. All sheep were challenged intratracheally with C. abortus strain AB7 and were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. Morbidity was measured as the variation in rectal temperature and samples of sera were collected for antibody and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-10) analysis by commercial ELISA. In addition, lung and lymph node samples were collected for chlamydial detection by qPCR and for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Sheep from the V-PG group showed less severe or no lesions and lower morbidity than the other groups. They also had the highest abundance of regulatory T-cells. The sheep from V-NT also manifested high antibody levels against C. abortus and less severe lesions than those observed in non-vaccinated sheep, which showed high morbidity, low antibody levels and severe lesions, especially in NV-NT. These results confirm the effectiveness of the experimental vaccine employed and suggest that progesterone could enhance the effect.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Aborto Animal/imunologia , Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307670

RESUMO

Protec™ is a commercial aquafeed (Skretting Italia) containing a combination of glucans, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc (immune support pack). No research information concerning its capability to improve fish immune response is available, so in this study the potential immunomodulatory effects of Protec™ were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Head kidney (HK) leukocytes from adult fish (100 g, n = 6) were in vitro incubated with Protec™ immune support pack resulting in significantly higher respiratory burst activity and proliferation. Specifically, sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (160 µg/ml) induced a respiratory burst response similar to that promoted by zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while non-sonicated Protec™ immune support pack induced a response comparable to that of cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Moreover, the proliferation of leukocytes exposed to sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (20 µg/ml) was significantly higher than that of cells stimulated with zymosan, and it was comparable to the proliferation of cells stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and LPS. Afterwards, a feeding trial was performed in a rainbow trout farm. Two groups of juvenile rainbow trout (10 g) were acclimated for 7 weeks before the experiment and fed daily with a commercial control diet (Optiline HE, Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day. At the end of acclimation, one group of fish was fed with Protec™ diet (Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day whereas the other group continued to feed the control diet at the same level for further 4 weeks. Then, fish were sampled (HK leukocytes from n = 6 fish/group, serum from n = 12 fish/group) or intraperitoneally vaccinated against lactococcosis (n = 160/dietary group/time point). Fish fed the same diets for further 4 weeks after vaccination, then feeding returned to the control diet in both groups until the end of the trial. The specific antibody response was recorded at 4 and 8 weeks after vaccination (n = 12 fish/group). The administration of Protec™ significantly enhanced the respiratory burst activity of leukocytes and the synthesis of specific IgM against Lactococcus garvieae, whereas the serum lysozyme activity was unaffected. The present research suggests that the administration of Protec™ can improve both innate and adaptive immune response of rainbow trout, proving to be an interesting strategy for enhancing the immune reactivity of fish to vaccines.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Lactococcus , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Leucócitos/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Explosão Respiratória
7.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1165-1176, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280529

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by Clostridium botulinum, are the most toxic substances known. However, the number of currently approved medical countermeasures for these toxins is very limited. Therefore, studies on therapeutic antitoxins are essential to prepare for toxin-related emergencies. Currently, more than 10,000 Halla horses, a crossbreed between the native Jeju and Thoroughbred horses, are being raised in Jeju Island of Korea. They can be used for equine antitoxin experiments and production of hyperimmune serum against BoNT/A1. Instead of the inactivated BoNT/A1 toxoid, Halla horse was immunized with the receptor-binding domain present in the C-terminus of heavy chain of BoNT/A1 (BoNT/A1-HCR) expressed in Escherichia coli. The anti-BoNT/A1-HCR antibody titer increased rapidly by week 4, and this level was maintained for several weeks after boosting immunization. Notably, 20 µL of the week 24 BoNT/A1-HCR(-immunized) equine serum showed an in vitro neutralizing activity of over 8 international unit (IU) of a reference equine antitoxin. Furthermore, 20 µL of equine serum and 100 µg of purified equine F(ab')2 showed 100% neutralization of 10,000 LD50 in vivo. The results of this study shall contribute towards optimizing antitoxin production for BoNT/A1, which is essential for emergency preparedness and response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Antitoxina Botulínica/imunologia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/imunologia , Clostridium botulinum/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Antitoxina Botulínica/sangue , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/química , Feminino , Cavalos , Imunização/veterinária , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Coelhos
8.
APMIS ; 127(10): 671-680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344276

RESUMO

Regardless of the communal impact of Shiga toxins, till today neither a specific treatment nor licensed vaccine is available. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), generally regarded as safe organism, is well known to provide a valuable approach regarding the oral delivery of vaccines. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of Stx2a1 expressed in nisin-inducible L. lactis, against Shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2) in mouse model. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with LL-Stx2a1 elicited significant serum antibody titer with elevated fecal and serum IgA, along with minimized intestinal and kidney damage resulting in survival of immunized animals at 84% and 100% when challenged with 10 × LD50 of Escherichia coli O157 and Shigella dysenteriae toxins, respectively. HeLa cells incubated with immune sera and toxin mixture revealed high neutralizing capacity with 90% cell survivability against both the toxins. Mice immunized passively with both toxins and antibody mixture survived the observation period of 15 days, and the controls administered with sham sera and toxins were succumbed to death within 3 days. Our results revealed protective efficacy and toxin neutralization ability of LL-Stx2a1, proposing it as an oral vaccine candidate against Shiga toxicity mediated by E. coli O157 and S. dysenteriae.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Toxina Shiga/imunologia , Toxina Shiga/toxicidade , Shigella dysenteriae/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Antitoxinas/administração & dosagem , Antitoxinas/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Toxina Shiga/genética , Shigella dysenteriae/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 194, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the infectious cause of abortion in cattle is difficult. This case-control study was set up to investigate the infectious causes of abortion by determining the seroprevalence of three reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle in Ecuador and their association with abortion: Brucella abortus, Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii. RESULTS: Ninety-five blood samples were obtained from cows that had experienced a mid- or late gestation abortion of their first calf and seventy-seven samples from a control group of cows with the same age that did not experience abortion problems. No antibodies were detected for B. abortus in any of the serum samples, but a high seroprevalence for both C. burnetii (52.9%) and N. caninum infection (21.5%) was found in group of cows. The seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in cattle that had experienced abortions was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the seroprevalence in the control cows on one of the cattle farms, but no association between abortion and seropositivity for C. burnetii was found. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Neosporosis plays an important role in the epidemiology of abortion on one cattle farm, but that Q fever is apparently not an important cause for abortion in this setting.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15724, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169672

RESUMO

Diagnosis of Q fever is difficult due to the lack of distinct clinical features that distinguish it from other febrile diseases. Serologic testing is the gold standard method for diagnosing Q fever, but antibody formation may not be detectable for 2 to 3 weeks from symptom onset, limiting early diagnosis. We thus evaluated the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Coxellia burnetii DNA in serum from patients with suspected acute Q fever.All adult patients with suspected acute Q fever were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary-care hospital from January 2016 through July 2018. Acute Q fever was diagnosed using clinical and laboratory criteria: fever with at least one other symptoms (myalgia, headache, pneumonia, or hepatitis) and single phase II immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers ≥1:200 or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody titer ≥1:50 (probable), or a fourfold increase or seroconversion in phase II IgG antibody titers as measured by indirect immunofluorescence assays between paired samples (confirmed). We performed PCR targeting the transposase gene insertion element IS1111a of C. burnetii.Of the 35 patients with suspected acute Q fever, 16 (46%) were diagnosed with acute Q fever including 8 probable and 8 confirmed cases; the remaining 19 (54%) were diagnosed with other febrile diseases. The proportion of males diagnosed with Q fever was higher than those diagnosed with other febrile diseases (88% vs 44%, P = .03), but there were no other significant differences in clinical characteristics between the 2 groups. The Q fever PCR sensitivity was 81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54-96), specificity was 90% (95% CI, 67-99), positive predictive value was 87% (95% CI, 63-96), and negative predictive value was 85% (95% CI, 67-94).Q fever PCR testing using blood from patients with suspected acute Q fever seems to be a rapid and useful test for early diagnosis of Q fever.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/genética , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Vet J ; 249: 67-72, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239168

RESUMO

Vaccination of pigs against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) can be effective for the control of Salmonella infections at the farm level and reduce the risk of Salmonella contamination in the food chain. However, vaccination may interfere with herd serological status in serology-based Salmonella monitoring programs. The present study investigated the effects of an attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine (Salmoporc, IDT Biologika) on Salmonella serology in sows, neonatal piglets and slaughter pigs from three subclinically infected herds. Within each herd, five different vaccination protocols were tested as follows: group 1, vaccination of sows; group 2, vaccination of sows and piglets; group 3, vaccination of sows and fattening pigs; group 4, vaccination of piglets; and group 5 vaccination of fattening pigs. Each group was compared to a non-vaccinated control group (group 6). Sera were analyzed by ELISA (HerdChek Swine Salmonella, IDEXX Laboratories) and sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios were calculated. At day 3 after farrowing, but not before vaccination, S/P ratios in vaccinated sows (mean: 2.21) were significantly higher than S/P ratios in non-vaccinated sows (mean: 0.87, P<0.001). S/P ratios in 3-day old piglets from vaccinated sows (mean: 2.46) were significantly higher than S/P ratios in similar piglets from non-vaccinated sows (mean: 0.73, P<0.001). At slaughter, S/P ratios in pigs from groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were significantly higher than those in the non-vaccinated control group (P<0.001). Therefore, vaccination of piglets and fattening pigs could have implications for current serology-based Salmonella monitoring programs in slaughter pigs.


Assuntos
Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Salmonella typhimurium , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 520, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is is still considered a public health issue and in Colombia 7-10% of new cases are found in children, indicating both active transmission and social inequality. We hypothesized that circulating antibodies against Natural Octyl Disaccharide-Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic (NDO-LID) (a combination of Mycobacterium leprae antigens) could reveal the social and environmental aspects associated with higher frequencies of M. leprae infection among children and adolescents in Colombia. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted involving sampling from 82 children and adolescents (younger than 18 years of age) who had household contact with index leprosy patients diagnosed in the last 5 years. Data were analyzed through bivariate analysis made by applying a Pearson x2 test for qualitative variables, while quantitative variables, depending on their distribution, were analyzed using either a Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate analysis was performed using a multiple regression and binomial logistic approach. RESULTS: A bivariate analysis demonstrated that antibody titers against NDO-LID were significantly greater in children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status that had: lived in vulnerable areas of the UAChR shared region; eaten armadillo meat; exposure of over 10 years to an index case and; not received BCG immunization. Moreover, a multivariate analysis showed that residing in the UAChR region has a strong association with a greater possibility of M. leprae infection. CONCLUSIONS: M. leprae transmission persists among young Colombians, and this is associated with social and environmental conditions. An intensification of efforts to identify new leprosy cases in vulnerable and forgotten populations where M. leprae transmission continues therefore appears necessary.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Tatus , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Classe Social , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 146(2): 200-205, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the correlates of tubal pathology among Ghanaian women undergoing hysterosalpingography for suspected tubal factor infertility. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 189 women with infertility who underwent hysterosalpingography at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, from September 1 to November 30, 2016. Demographic data; obstetric and gynecologic history; and hysterosalpingography findings were collected using a structured questionnaire. Endocervical swabs were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis using a rapid antigen-based diagnostic kit. Associations between the variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Positive test results for Chlamydia trachomatis were recorded among 15 participants, giving an overall prevalence of 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1%-11.7%). In all, 67 (35.4%) participants had abnormal findings on hysterosalpingography, with 40 (21.2%) displaying bilateral tubal occlusion. The remaining 122 (64.6%) women had normal findings on hysterosalpingography. Eight participants with normal tubal appearance tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (prevalence 6.6%, 95% CI 2.2%-11.0%), whereas seven participants with abnormal tubal appearance tested positive (prevalence 10.4%, 95% CI 3.1%-17.7%; P=0.402). No associations were found between participant characteristics and tubal pathology. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis did not differ by hysterosalpingography findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico , Histerossalpingografia , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Gravidez , Prevalência
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 283, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) represent a wide group of diseases of major significance for canine health. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these diseases are of great zoonotic concern, posing a risk of potential transmission to humans. To date, there has been scant knowledge regarding the prevalence, distribution and risk factors of CVBDs in Greece. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to update the current knowledge on the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in dogs in Greece and, furthermore, to assess possible environmental and any other risk factors associated with these infections. A total of 1000 apparently healthy and randomly selected dogs, presented in veterinary clinics, were involved at the national level (n = 66 municipalities). Serum samples were obtained from each individual dog and were tested using the SNAP® 4Dx® Plus kit from IDEXX Laboratories. Possible risk factors were assessed using binary regression models, including dogs' lifestyle, climatological parameters and the altitude of the region. RESULTS: Overall, 21.8% (95% CI: 19.4-24.5%) of the sampled dogs were found to be seropositive to at least one of the four pathogens examined. The most prevalent pathogen was Ehrlichia spp. (12.5%, 95% CI: 10.6-14.7) followed by D. immitis (9.0%, 95% CI: 7.8-11.5) and Anaplasma spp. (6.2%, 95% CI: 4.9-7.9). The lowest prevalence (0.1%) was recorded for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) where only one dog was found to be positive. Among the examined risk factors, low mean temperature was found to increase the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. (P ≤ 0.001) and Anaplasma spp. (P ≤ 0.001), while low minimum temperature increased the prevalence of D. immitis (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, low total annual rainfall had an effect of the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. (P ≤ 0.01). Altitude also had a significant effect on the prevalence of D. immitis (P ≤ 0.05) and Anaplasma spp. (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale seroepidemiological study of CVBDs in Greece. It has been evidenced that environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall and altitude can influence the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Anaplasma , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Borrelia burgdorferi , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 502, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia in humans and a large number of animal species. Considering recent evidence of the circulation of this bacterium in different parts of Iran, especially in the western provinces, the aim of current study was to determine the tularemia seroprevalence in the human population living in Ilam Province. METHODS: In 2015, 360 serum samples were collected from five groups of people: ranchers (n = 112), farmers (n = 79), butchers and slaughterhouse workers (n = 61), Nature Conservation Officers (n = 34), and referents of medical diagnostic laboratories (n = 74). These samples were tested for the presence of anti- F. tularensis IgG antibodies using the ELISA method. RESULTS: According to the ELISA manufacturer cutoffs, we found that 10 (2.78%) and 9 (2.5%) sera, respectively, were positive or borderline for F. tularensis IgG antibodies. The highest tularemia seroprevalence was observed among farmers (7.59%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly support the circulation of tularemia in Ilam Province. Because no human tularemia case has been reported so far in this province, we recommend specific education programs to increase knowledge of local health care professionals about this important zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Francisella tularensis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 1-8, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213246

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a serious problem in dairy production and effective immunoprophylaxis is an unmet goal so far. The objective of this work was to assess the humoral immune response of heifer calves against two recombinant S. aureus antigens: Clumping factor A (ClfA) and Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA), formulated with a novel adjuvant based on cationic liposomes (Lip) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). Six groups of 6-8 months old heifer calves received three doses biweekly of antigens, formulated with Al(OH)3, liposomes, CpG-ODN or Lip + CpG-ODN. Animals also received a fourth dose after a year (day 410) and a booster before calving. The administration of Al(OH)3+FnBPA/ClfA and Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN induced the highest specific IgG levels, after the first 3 doses and induced a fast increase of antibodies after the fourth dose. All the formulations stimulated the production of specific IgG1, after the third and fourth dose. Specific IgG2 for both proteins was only stimulated after the fourth dose by Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN. Pre-calving immunisation with Lip + FnBPA/ClfA + CpG-ODN led to the highest IgG levels during the calving period and to the production of the IgG2 subclass. The formulation was also able to stimulate the highest antibody levels in milk, 30 and 45 days after pre-calving booster. The combination of liposomes and CpG-ODN as adjuvant for a subunit vaccine, together with the immunisation schedule described, induced a strong humoral immune response with production of specific IgG2. The formulation demonstrated to induce immune memory allowing the application of a single pre-calving booster to maintain high antibody levels throughout the period of increased susceptibility to intramammary infections.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Vacinação , Soro do Leite/imunologia
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 110-118, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213266

RESUMO

Control of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) associated disease is currently hindered by limited knowledge of the epidemiology and ecology of this organism. A prospective longitudinal investigation was conducted to determine the dynamics of M. hyorhinis colonization in two swine production systems. In each system (A, B), 51 young sows (parities 1, 2) and 56 older sows (>parity 2) were selected at farrowing and tested by qPCR of nasal swabs and for antibodies by serum ELISA. From each sow, a piglet was randomly selected, and nasal and serum samples were collected at birth, weaning, and 10 days post-weaning. Two further samplings were performed in the nursery and finishing stages during the high-risk periods for M. hyorhinis-associated disease, and 12 pigs were euthanized and necropsied at these later sampling events. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis colonization in sows was low (<5%). No associations were found between sow parity or sow serum titer and piglet nasal colonization at either birth or weaning. In contrast to the low prevalence (0.95-2.70%) observed in piglets pre-weaning, most pigs became colonized during the first four weeks after weaning and remained positive throughout the nursery and finishing stages. The detection of M. hyorhinis in oral fluids followed similar patterns as those observed using nasal swabs. ELISA results showed decreased detection of maternal antibodies at around 3 weeks of age and a subsequent increase after natural exposure. The role of M. hyorhinis in polyserositis and arthritis was demonstrated in these two herds. Establishing the temporal dynamics of exposure and infection with M. hyorhinis in pigs will enable more strategic implementation of intervention strategies in affected herds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Nariz/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Desmame
18.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e24, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161742

RESUMO

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (106.9 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/prevenção & controle , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/mortalidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Salmonella/mortalidade , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
19.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(1): 51-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050253

RESUMO

Non-specific and often misleading clinical presentation of active brucellosis has made it a diagnostic puzzle for treating physicians. Clinicians rely greatly on the detection of IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies by ELISA. Different patterns of positivity have been observed for IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies in different cases, which further increases the risk of an erroneous diagnosis. Detailed herein is our two-years data with varied Brucella serology patterns and their clinical interpretation. Between January 2015 to December 2017, 1102 samples were processed in the Immunology Laboratory of KFHU for Brucella serology. 68 samples were positive for both IgG and IgM, 28 samples were positive for IgG and negative for IgM while 15 samples were positive for IgM and negative for IgG antibodies against Brucella. Electronic medical records, history of exposure, signs, symptoms, laboratory data, and the final diagnosis were recorded for all these patients. None of the patients with only positive IgM antibodies was finally diagnosed with brucellosis, while a diagnosis of brucellosis was established for only one patient with IgG antibodies positive in his serum. All the double-positive (IgG- and IgM-positive) serology patterns were diagnosed as having brucellosis. We concluded that determination of single IgM or IgG anti-Brucella-antibodies by ELISA could both be considered as definite and should ideally be interpreted in the context of appropriate clinical scenario and confirmation by other laboratory assays.Non-specific and often misleading clinical presentation of active brucellosis has made it a diagnostic puzzle for treating physicians. Clinicians rely greatly on the detection of IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies by ELISA. Different patterns of positivity have been observed for IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies in different cases, which further increases the risk of an erroneous diagnosis. Detailed herein is our two-years data with varied Brucella serology patterns and their clinical interpretation. Between January 2015 to December 2017, 1102 samples were processed in the Immunology Laboratory of KFHU for Brucella serology. 68 samples were positive for both IgG and IgM, 28 samples were positive for IgG and negative for IgM while 15 samples were positive for IgM and negative for IgG antibodies against Brucella. Electronic medical records, history of exposure, signs, symptoms, laboratory data, and the final diagnosis were recorded for all these patients. None of the patients with only positive IgM antibodies was finally diagnosed with brucellosis, while a diagnosis of brucellosis was established for only one patient with IgG antibodies positive in his serum. All the double-positive (IgG- and IgM-positive) serology patterns were diagnosed as having brucellosis. We concluded that determination of single IgM or IgG anti-Brucella-antibodies by ELISA could both be considered as definite and should ideally be interpreted in the context of appropriate clinical scenario and confirmation by other laboratory assays.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 168: 90-94, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella canis, is a zoonotic and largely reproductive disease of dogs. The disease is a recognized problem in canine breeding populations, and the risk to individuals assisting with birthing is well described. Prior to 2015, all cases of canine brucellosis reported to the Minnesota Board of Animal Health were in dogs used for breeding. In 2015, canine brucellosis was identified in eight Minnesota rescue dogs, all originating from specific geographic areas in South Dakota. Our objective was to measure the seroprevalence of B. canis in stray and previously owned dogs entering a large Minnesota animal rescue organization to determine if our observations represented a localized or generalized disease issue among rescue dogs. METHODS: A stratified random sample of stray and previously owned dogs entering the largest Minnesota animal rescue organization between November 1, 2016 and November 7, 2017, was tested for B. canis antibodies by the 2-Mercaptoethanol Rapid Slide Agglutination Test (2ME-RSAT) (Zoetis d-TEC® CB kit). Sample sizes for each strata were calculated using previously published seroprevalence estimates. Blood from selected dogs was collected, serum harvested, and transported to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for testing. Positive samples in the 2ME-RSAT were shipped to Cornell University for confirmation by Agarose Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) testing. Demographics, state and setting of origin, and health status were collected on study-dogs. RESULTS: Of the 10,654 dogs accepted by AHS during the study period, 943 (8.9%) were selected for testing. Most study dogs arrived from Oklahoma (28%), Alabama (18%), and Minnesota (12%). The median age of study dogs was 1.5 years; 303 (32%) were intact males and 294 (31%) were intact females. Most study dogs were strays (n = 716, 76%). Of the total, 22 (3.1%) stray and eight (3.5%) owner-surrendered dogs were presumptively positive by RSAT; one (0.11%) of the stray dogs was positive by 2ME-RSAT and confirmed by AGID. The positive dog was a healthy-appearing 1 year-old neutered male beagle from Texas. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of canine brucellosis in dogs entering Minnesota for adoption from multiple states was low. Never-the-less, care must to be taken to consider all potential risks and outcomes of interstate and international dog trade, including the spread of infectious diseases such as canine brucellosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucella canis , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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