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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 427-430, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the serum anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province. METHODS: A total of 1 932 patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract were enrolled in Hainan Province from 2016 to 2019, including 376 esophageal cancer patients, 475 gastric cancer patients, 401 colorectal cancer patients, 427 hepatic cancer patients and 253 pancreatic cancer patients, and 400 healthy people served as controls. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies specific to T. gondii were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the seroprevalence was compared. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was significantly greater in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract than in healthy controls (19.82% vs. 3.75%; χ2 = 60.49, P < 0.01), and no significant difference was seen in the overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract and healthy controls (1.09% vs. 0.50%; χ2 = 1.17, P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was 15.16%, 19.58%, 21.70%, 23.65% and 17.79% in patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer and pancreatic cancer, which was all significantly greater than in healthy controls ( χ2 = 29.97, 50.29, 58.03, 67.85 and 36.59; all P < 0.01); however, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in patients with esophageal cancer (1.06%), gastric cancer (1.47%), colorectal cancer (0.75%), hepatic cancer (1.17%) and pancreatic cancer (0.79%) did not differ from that in healthy controls ( χ2 = 0.80, 2.02, 0.20, 1.11 and 0.21; all P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among various types of malignant tumors of the digestive tract ( χ2 = 10.65, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody ( χ2 = 1.33, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province, and there is a significant difference in the seroprevalence in terms of the cancer type. It is suggested that the screening for T. gondii infections should be intensified in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract to effective prevent and control the damages to patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract caused by T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Neoplasias , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 456-459, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical data of an imported case of visceral leishmaniasis in Henan Province, and explore the method of laboratory diagnosis of kala-azar. METHODS: The epidemiological and clinical data of an imported visceral leishmaniasis patient were analyzed. Leishmania donovani bodies in bone marrow smears were observed microscopically. The antibody was detected by using rK39 dipstick test strips. Two pairs of specific primers, K13A-K13B and LITSR-L5.8S, were used to amplify kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer of rDNA of the parasite, respectively. RESULTS: The patient had been in the epidemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, and had symptoms such as irregular fever, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, and inversed ratio of albumin and globulin. The amastigotes of L. donovani were found in the bone marrow smears, and rK39 test strip was positive, and the PCR products of K13A-K13B and LITSR-L5.8S were 87 bp and 285 bp respectively. The similarities of the two fragment sequences to the corresponding sequences of L. donovani were 94% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The case is diagnosed as visceral leishmaniasis according to the epidemiological data, clinical manifestations and laboratory test results of the patient, and the pathogen is L. donovani.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 395-402, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411314

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. In cetaceans, T. gondii infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the worldwide range and broad cetacean host record of T. gondii infection, there is limited information on toxoplasmosis in cetaceans from the Southern hemisphere. We investigated the occurrence of T. gondii by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in tissue samples of 185 animals comprising 20 different cetacean species from Brazil. Three out of 185 (1.6%) animals presented T. gondii-associated lesions: a captive killer whale Orcinus orca, a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and a free-ranging Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis. The main lesions observed in these animals were necrotizing hepatitis, adrenalitis and lymphadenitis associated with protozoal cysts or extracellular tachyzoites presenting immunolabeling with anti-T. gondii antibodies. This study widens the spectrum of species and the geographic range of this agent in Brazil, and provides the first reports of T. gondii infection in a captive killer whale and in a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin in South America.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cetáceos/classificação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 80-85, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446257

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoir. In South America, presence of this disease is expanding along with increasing dispersion of its principal vector, the sand-fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Feline leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in domestic cats, but epidemiological studies in endemic areas of the Amazon region of Brazil are scarce and the role of cats as reservoirs of L. infantum has been debated. The aim of this study was to investigate L. infantum infection in cats living in the Amazon biome region, using serological and molecular methods. A total of 105 cats were subjected to clinical examination and blood samples were taken for immunofluorescent-antibody (IFAT) serological evaluation, to determine anti-Leishmania antibody titers. Conventional PCR and Sanger's sequencing targeting L. infantum chitinase and Leishmania species ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) encoding genes were performed on conjunctival swabs from these cats. Seropositivity was detected in 32 animals (30.48%), thus confirming that contact between these cats and the parasite was occurring. PCR followed by amplicon sequencing showed that three samples (2.86%) were positive for a chitinase gene and six (5.71%) were positive for the ITS-1 gene. Parasite-positive diagnoses presented a statistically significant association with free access to the streets (p = 0.0111), cohabitation with dogs affected previously by VL (p = 0.0006) and absence of backyard cleaning and garbage collection (p = 0.00003). These results emphasize that cats should be included in epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis, especially in endemic areas, if not as the reservoir host (unproven), at least as a "sentinel host" that is useful for revealing situations of endemic circulation of L. infantum. Moreover, in these areas, feline leishmaniasis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis among domestic cats presenting alopecia, rarefied hair, lacerations and ulcerative dermatitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 38, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391084

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a vector-borne parasite. Due to the zoonotic potential of canine leishmaniosis, infected dogs must be identified. Serological assays are the most common methods for the detection of L. infantum infection in dogs used in veterinary practice. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test (FASTest LEISH®, MEGACOR Diagnostik) for the detection of specific antibodies to that of the L. infantum in dog sera. The results were simultaneously compared using a commercial brand of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as references. Between the two reference tests, 232 serum samples out of 244, produced concordant results while 12 exhibited discordant results. Of the 232 concordant samples, 121 were classified as L. infantum seropositive, and 111 samples were previously classified as L. infantum seronegative by a combination of the reference assays. All samples that were seropositive by the reference tests were also positive according to the rapid test, and only one sample that was seronegative according to the two reference assays was positive according to the rapid test. Compared with the reference tests, the rapid test sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 99.1%, accuracy was 99.6%, Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.99, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.995. The FASTest LEISH® is a rapid, qualitative in-clinic test with high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e42, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432991

RESUMO

American Tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by several species of Leishmania . Even though the direct detection of parasites has low sensitivity, it is still the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of ATL. Recent studies have shown promising results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays ( ELISAs) using recombinant antigens. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens with the standard ELISA based on soluble antigens of Leishmania (SLA) to diagnose ATL. Studies that analyzed patients with ATL and studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens and SLA were included. The Fourteen studies from PubMed, Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library (BVS), Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Virtual Health Library (IBECS), Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Elsevier Embase, Cochrane Library, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were included. The novel ELISA antigens showed a high sensitivity (93.8%-100%) and specificity (82.5-100%), a better diagnostic performance than SLA-based ELISAs (1-97.4% and 57.5-100%, respectively). Only 10 studies analyzed cross-reactions in serum samples from patients with Chagas disease, and only two studies reported a percentage of cross-reactivity. In this systematic review, the novel ELISA antigens showed better sensitivity and specificity with respect to SLA-based ELISAs. However, a meta-analysis should be performed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190154, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease that affects humans, wildlife, and domestic species. Since dogs play a key role in urban Leishmania spp. transmission, the Brazilian government maintains the Monitoring and Control Program of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VLMCP) in endemic regions, which promotes awareness campaigns aiming to enhance the control of the infection. The VLMCP recommends the Dual Path Platform (DPP®) canine visceral leishmaniasis test (Bio-Manguinhos, Brazil) for screening and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm the infection. The DPP® test is produced and distributed by the Health Ministry to the Municipal Health Centers responsible for the local VLMCP. The test is not available to all the clinics, forcing some veterinarians to use other rapid tests for screening and diagnosis of this disease in their daily routine. METHODS: The present study was conducted to compare the performance of the DPP® and SNAP® tests using sera from the dogs with confirmed infections of L. infantum and from the dogs with no previous testing, residing in areas with a low Leishmania infection. RESULTS: There was 97.0% agreement between the two tests. Sensitivity and specificity of the SNAP® test were 96.3% and 100%, respectively. Agreement between both the antibody tests and the parasitological detection methods was 96.8%. The DPP® test had 95.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The SNAP® and the DPP® tests were virtually equivalent in terms of detection of canine antibodies against L. infantum, and both the tests demonstrated high and similar levels of sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cães , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279928

RESUMO

In the present study, we attempted to identify antigens with high sensitivity and specificity for the serological diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. We investigated soluble proteins from the tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and excreted/secreted antigens (ESAs) from the peritoneal protein of T. gondii-infected mice. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis revealed that in both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs, the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa had high diagnostic sensitivity. Further analysis of antigenic specificity revealed that the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa were specifically recognized by the sera of toxoplasmosis patients, but other parasitic diseases were not. The protein spots between 25 and 35 kDa were selected after two-dimensional electrophoresis of both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs. GRA2, GRA7, and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) were successfully characterized from the protein spots using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy analysis. We expressed, purified, and evaluated proteins GRA2, GRA7, and TPI. TPI is a novel antigen with potential for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and composite recombinant proteins (TPI, GRA2, and GRA7) have great sera diagnostic value for the detection of the disorder.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , Western Blotting , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107714, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279927

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical signs, electrocardiographic signs and evolution of histopathological lesions in the heart of sheep experimentally infected by Trypanosoma vivax during the acute and chronic phases of infection as well as to investigate the presence of parasitic DNA in the heart using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-two male sheep were divided into the following four groups: G1, which consisted of six sheep infected by T. vivax that were evaluated until 20 days post-infection (dpi; acute phase); G2, which consisted of six sheep infected by T. vivax that were evaluated until 90 dpi (chronic phase); and G3 and G4 groups, which each consisted of five uninfected sheep. At the end of the experimental period, electrocardiographic evaluations and necroscopic examinations were performed. Fragments of the heart were collected and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson's trichrome, and the fragments were also evaluated by PCR for T. vivax. G2 animals presented clinical signs suggestive of heart failure and electrocardiogram alterations characterized by prolonged P, T and QRS complex durations as well as by a cardiac electrical axis shift to the left and increased heart rate. In these animals, mononuclear multifocal myocarditis and interstitial fibrosis were also observed. PCR revealed positivity for T. vivax in two G1 animals and in all G2 animals. Thus, these findings suggested that T. vivax is responsible for the occurrence of cardiac lesions, which are related to heart failure, electrocardiographic alterations and mortality of the infected animals.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Coração/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma vivax/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Pericardite/parasitologia , Pericardite/patologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Trypanosoma vivax/genética , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Trypanosoma vivax/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/mortalidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/patologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 581, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting one-third of the world population. Psychiatric patients have a higher risk of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection due to lack of good personal hygiene. The burden of toxoplasmosis among psychiatric patients in Ethiopia has not been studied extensively. Thus, the study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among psychiatric outpatients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital Psychiatric clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital from February to May 2018. Venous blood was collected from 304 study participants (152 psychiatric outpatients and 152 control groups). Anti-toxoplasma antibodies were determined using Onsite Toxo immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) Rapid Test. A Chi-square test was carried out to compare the two groups and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to check the association between variables. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: The seroprevalence rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was 33.6, and 16.4% in the psychiatric outpatients and the control samples, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM sero-prevalence was 1.3% in the former patients and 3.9% in the latter group. Owing cat (AOR = 2.862 95% CI = 1.445-5.666 P = 0.003), cleaning cat excreta (AOR = 2.966 95% CI = 1.317-2.652 P = 0.007), and farming (AOR = 2.058 95% CI = 1.018-4.163 P = 0.045) were found to be significantly associated with the sero-prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was significantly higher in psychiatric outpatients than the control group (p = 0.001). Cat ownership, cleaning of cat excreta, and farming were found to be statistically significantly associated with the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271639

RESUMO

Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
16.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 495-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317821

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by T. gondii, is an important zoonosis worldwide. In Ghana, information on the disease in humans abounds but scanty in animals. This study was therefore conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection sheep and goats sampled from the Kumasi Abattoir in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A total of 347 serum samples collected from 170 sheep and 177 goats were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results of this study estimated the seroprevalence of 23.7% in goats an, 35.9% in sheep. In sheep, 24 (35.82%) out of a total of 67 male samples were positive and 37 (35.92%) out of a total of 104 female samples were positive while in goats, 6 (8.2%) bucks out of a total of 73 were positive while 36 (34.6%) does out of a total of 104 were positive. There was a significant difference in the rate of seropositivity of female goats (p-value 0.01). This study confirms the existence of T. gondii infection in small ruminants in Ghana and it showed that sheep and dogs are more at risk to T. gondii infection hence meat from such animals could be a potential risk to public health if consumed raw or undercooked.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 51-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303203

RESUMO

The consumption of undercooked infected chicken can be a source of infection for humans and carnivores regarding the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, free-range chickens are sentinels for the presence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because they feed from the ground. By using the modified agglutination test (MAT), we investigated the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in 178 free-range and 170 broiler chickens raised indoors and slaughtered in Portugal. Prevalence of specific antibodies was 5.6% in free-range and 0.0% in broiler chickens raised indoors (p =  0.002).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Galinhas , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 68-75, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303207

RESUMO

Theileria equi infection, exotic to the United States has reemerged through intravenous (iatrogenic) and tick-borne transmission. Surveillance at the US-Mexico border identified a new species, Theileria haneyi, (T. haneyiEP) (EP = Eagle Pass, Texas) which warranted additional investigation due to inability to detect by PCR targeting of T. equi ema-1 and EMA-1-cELISA validated for T. equi. Infection dynamics of T. haneyiEP were evaluated, including ability to superinfect in the presence of T. equi-Texas (T. equiTX), the isolate responsible for the reemergence of T. equi in the U S. Experimental infection with T. equiTX or T. haneyiEP revealed minimal clinical disease however, T. equiTX infection led to significantly greater neutropenia. Comparison of time to antibody detection following inoculation revealed significantly greater time to detectable anti-T. haneyiEP antibody (26.67 days post-inoculation (DPI)) than T. equiTX (11.67 DPI). Regardless of initial infection with either T. equiTX or T. haneyiEP, superinfection was established. Comparative analysis of antibody responses from a splenectomized horse infected with T. haneyiEP to that of a spleen intact horse infected with T. equiFL revealed a different antibody binding profile to T. haneyiEP, T. equiTX and T. equiFL merozoite antigen and limited shared antigen/cross-reactive antibody(s). Affinity purified T. equi EMA-1 and EMA-2 from T. equiFL were shown as targets for horse antibodies against T. haneyi. Data presented here show (1) T. haneyiEP can superinfect in the presence of T. equiTX infection and co-persists for minimally 25 months, (2) intravenous challenge with T. haneyi is subclinical, and (3) limited cross-reactive antibody between T. haneyiEP and T. equi includes reactivity to EMA-1 and EMA-2.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Theileriose/imunologia , Theileriose/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cavalos , Texas , Theileria
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 508-513, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188949

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis for pregnant women and immunosuppressed people. The pig population also becomes infected by this pathogen, and undercooked or raw meat is an important source of infection for humans. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the rate of exposure of pigs to T. gondii in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte and seek to identify associations with possible risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 412 pigs and were analyzed using the immunofluorescence assay. Among these 412 serum samples, 40.7% were seropositive for T. gondii. The IgG antibody titers were 64 (56 specimens), 128 (32), 256 (37), 512 (23), 1024 (14), 2048 (5) and 4046 (1). Seropositivity for T. gondii was found to be related (p-value < 0.05) to the following factors: female gender, semi-confined rearing system, use of well water, dewormed animals, presence of cats, goats, sheep, mice and vultures on the farm and carcasses left on the ground. In contrast, seropositivity was not related (p-value < 0.05) to the age of the pigs, type of facility or feeding with human food remains. Preventive measures need to be adopted on the farms studied here, with the aim of decreasing the animals' intake of sporulated oocysts.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 194, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence indicates that cytophilic IgG responses to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria. The specific targets mediating immunity remain unclear. Evaluating antibody responses in infants naturally-exposed to malaria will allow to better understand the establishment of anti-malarial immunity and to contribute to a vaccine development by identifying the most appropriate merozoite candidate antigens. METHODS: The study was based on parasitological and clinical active follow-up of infants from birth to 18 months of age conducted in the Tori Bossito area of southern Benin. For 399 infants, plasma levels of cytophilic IgG antibodies with specificity for five asexual stage malaria vaccine candidate antigens were determined by ELISA in infants' peripheral blood at 6, 9, 12 and 15 months of age. Multivariate mixed logistic model was used to investigate the association between antibody levels and anti-malarial protection in the trimester following the IgG quantification. Moreover, the concentrations of merozoite antigen-specific IgG were compared between a group of infants apparently able to control asymptomatic malaria infection (CAIG) and a group of infants with no control of malaria infection (Control group (NCIG)). Protective effect of antibodies was also assessed after 15 months of malaria exposure with a Cox regression model adjusted on environmental risk. RESULTS: Cytophilic IgG responses to AMA1, MSP1, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, MSP3 and GLURP R2 were associated with increasing malarial infection risk in univariate analysis. The multivariate mixed model showed that IgG1 and IgG3 to AMA1 were associated with an increased risk of malarial infection. However infants from CAIG (n = 53) had significantly higher AMA1-, MSP2-FC27-, MSP3-specific IgG1 and AMA1-, MSP1-, MSP2-FC27-, MSP3 and GLURP-R2-specific IgG3 than those from NCIG (n = 183). The latter IgG responses were not associated with protection against clinical malaria in the whole cohort when protective effect is assessed after 15 months of malaria exposition. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, merozoite antigen-specific cytophilic IgG levels represent a marker of malaria exposure in infants from 6 to 18 months of age. However, infants with resolution of asymptomatic infection (CAIG) seem to have acquired naturally immunity against P. falciparum. This observation is encouraging in the context of the development of multitarget P. falciparum vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Benin , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
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