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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 423-425, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women, so as to provide the evidence for the developmentofpreventivemeasuresforspontaneousabortion. METHODS: A total of 228 serum samples collected from women with spontaneous abortion for the first time from January 2018 to December 2019 were selected as the case group, while 228 serum samples collected from pregnant women with a normal delivery and without a history of abortion during the same period were selected as the control group. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were detected and compared in both groups, and the correlation between T. gondii infection and spontaneous abortion was evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the case and control groups in terms of age, education levels, occupation, residency and proportion of keeping cats (all P values > 0.05). The positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (adjusted χ2 = 4.08, P < 0.05; OR = 8.25), while no significant difference was seen between the case and control groups (χ2 = 0.42, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Acute maternal T. gondii infection may remarkably increase the chance of spontaneous abortion. Progestational health education regarding toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge and detection of T. gondii infection during pregnancy should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e002320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935768

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw/undercooked meat is considering an important route of infection. Consumption of meat from equids is common in European and Asian countries and an increase in Brazil has been observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of anti-T. gondii antibodies and risk factors relating to infection in equids slaughtered for human consumption in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 192 horses and 208 donkeys were collected in the exsanguination area during the slaughter. Serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Association analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test, to evaluate risk factors relating to the prevalence of seroreagents. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 13.5% of the equids, with higher occurrence in horses (18.75%) than in donkeys (8.65%). Associations between seropositivity and the following variables were found (p ≤ 0.05): species, animal origin, purpose of rearing and source of water for animal consumption and contact with cats. Farms need to implement preventive measures to control T. gondii infection in these species and avert transmission of the parasite to the human population that will consume their meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Gatos , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797068

RESUMO

In high malaria transmission settings, the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) has resulted in decreased antibody (Ab) levels to VAR2CSA. However, information of Ab levels in areas of low or intermediate malaria transmission after long-term implementation of IPTp-SP is still lacking. The present study sought to evaluate antibody prevalence and levels in women at delivery in Etoudi, a peri-urban area in the capital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, that is a relatively low-malaria transmission area. Peripheral plasma samples from 130 pregnant women were collected at delivery and tested for IgG to the full-length recombinant VAR2CSA (FV2) and its most immunogenic subdomain, DBL5. The study was conducted between 2013 and 2015, approximately ten years after implementation of IPTp-SP in Cameroon. About 8.6% of the women attending the clinic had placental malaria (PM). One, two or 3 doses of SP did not impact significantly on either the percentage of women with Ab to FV2 and DBL5 or Ab levels in Ab-positive women compared to women not taking SP. The prevalence of Ab to FV2 and DBL5 was only 36.9% and 36.1%, respectively. Surprisingly, among women who had PM at delivery, only 61.5% and 57.7% had Ab to FV2 and DBL5, respectively, with only 52.9% and 47.1% in PM-positive paucigravidae and 77.7% of multigravidae having Ab to both antigens. These results suggest that long-term implementation of IPTp-SP in a low-malaria transmission area results in few women having Ab to VAR2CSA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camarões/epidemiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Malária/sangue , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/imunologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2907-2916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686022

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii secretes a number of dense granule proteins (GRAs) from the dense granule organelle to manipulate the host cell. Two of these effector proteins (GRA17 and GRA23) are involved in the trafficking of molecules between the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the host cell cytoplasm. However, their roles in establishing chronic infection remain obscured. In this study, CRISPR-Cas9 was used to delete gra17 or gra23 gene in T. gondii Pru strain (type II). The growth, the virulence, the ability to establish chronic infection, and the immunogenicity of the constructed mutant strains were investigated in Kunming mice. Pru:Δgra17 and Pru:Δgra23 mutants developed PVs with abnormal morphology and exhibited reduced growth rate, compared with the wild-type Pru strain. Deletion of gra17 abrogated acute infection and blocked cyst formation. Although the deletion of gra23 caused slight attenuation of the parasite virulence in mice, it caused a significant reduction in cyst formation. Immunization with Pru:Δgra17 induced high levels of IgG (IgG1 and IgG2a) antibodies and cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-10, IL-12, and interferon gamma [IFN-γ]), which conferred significant protection in mice challenged with virulent type I (RH), ToxoDB#9 (PYS) strains, or less virulent type II (Pru) strain of T. gondii. These findings show that GRA17 and GRA23 play important roles in T. gondii chronic infection and that irreversible deletion of gra17 in T. gondii type II Pru strain can be a viable option for stimulating protective immunity to T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Toxoplasma , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Virulência/genética
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chagas disease, resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infections, continues to be a health concern mainly in Latin American countries where the parasite is endemic. The laboratory diagnosis of a chronic infection is determined through serological assays for antibodies against T. cruzi and several tests are available that differ in key components, formats and methodologies. To date, no single test meets the criteria of a gold standard. The situation is further complicated by the difficulties associated with performance comparisons between different immunoassays or methodologies executed at different times and geographical areas. OBJECTIVE To improve the diagnosis of Chagas disease, the WHO coordinated the development of two International Biological Reference Standards for antibodies against anti-T. cruzi: NIBSC 09/186 and NIBSC 09/188 that respectively represent geographical regions with the highest prevalence of TcII and TcI lineages of the parasite. METHODS The principle goal of this study was to verify the behavior of these standards when assayed by several commercially available serological tests that employ different methods to capture and detect human anti-T. cruzi antibodies. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the recommendation that these standards be considered for performance evaluations of commercialised immunoassays and should be an integral step in the development of new test components or assay paradigms.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e022719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609246

RESUMO

We evaluated the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the serum samples collected from domestic cats in Belém, Pará, Brazil. We also correlated the presence of T. gondii antibodies with environmental variables and cat-owner habits. Four-hundred and forty-seven serum samples from domestic cats were analyzed. The sera were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Among the animals analyzed, 21.92% (98/447) were seropositive. A statistically significant association was found in relation to age and serology among the animals over 1 year old (p<0.01): in the group up to 1 year old, 12.82% (20/156) of the animals were positive, and in the group over 1 year old, 26.80% (78/291) were positive. Our results show that the cats in Belém, Pará region have anti-T. gondii antibodies, and their owners are not aware of toxoplasmosis or how to prevent its transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667393

RESUMO

Infection by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy demands greater attention from the health authorities due to the risk of placental transmission, which can have devastating consequences to the foetus and newborn. This study was conducted in a high-risk prenatal care outpatient clinic of a university teaching hospital. Pregnant women screened for specific IgM and IgG anti -T. gondii, attended from January 2009 to August 2018 were included. From 530 suspected patients, 218 were followed up and they presented positive IgM and IgG anti- T. gondii. From these patients, 83 (38.0%) had low IgG avidity, 39 (18%) seroconverted in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, 19 (8.7%) had no avidity test, 69 (31.6%) had high IgG avidity after 16 weeks of gestation, five had recurrent chorioretinitis (2.2%) and three (1.3%) were seropositive to HIV. Complementary diagnoses were made in 30/48 (62.5%) of the patients revealing the presence of specific IgA antibodies raised to T. gondii; 3/63 (4.8%) peripheral blood samples and 1/57 (1.8%) amniotic fluid sample. There were eight foetal deaths, one case of neonatal hepatomegaly and one case of T. gondii DNA detected in a peripheral blood sample. Of the 139 newborn deliveries at the teaching hospital, there was a 38% loss of follow-up. The prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis was 1.2 cases/1,000 live births in this study area, according to the retrospective survey of cases. Prenatal treatment may have helped to reduce the risk of vertical transmission.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(10): 2689-2695, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725599

RESUMO

Depression disorder is one of the most common psychological recognitions that characterized by sadness, low self-confidence, and disinterest in every activity. Considering evidence showing the effects of toxoplasmosis on the psychological disease, this study conducted to investigate the serological and molecular aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with depression. In this study, after selecting the patients with depression and control groups under the supervision of a psychologist, the blood samples were collected and the serum samples and buffy coat were separated. The specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in serum samples were evaluated using the commercial ELISA kit. Then the desired region of the Toxoplasma B1 gene was amplified using the specific primers. To confirm the specificity of primers to amplify the B1 gene of Toxoplasma, the extracted PCR product was sequenced. The overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with depression was 59.8 and 60.19% by ELISA and PCR, respectively. In the control group, the prevalence of Toxoplasma was 56.3 and 40.2% by serology and PCR. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and depression. Moreover, a significant difference was found between the variables of age, sex, kind of nutrition, level of education and toxoplasmosis among the two cases and control groups. The higher prevalence of Toxoplasma infection among patients with depression compared with the control group indicates the probable impact of this parasite on depression and exacerbates its symptoms, which requires special attention of specialist physicians and patient's relatives.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 143-156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531102

RESUMO

Recently, Leishmania infantum has increasingly been detected in stray cats in endemic regions of the world. Cats have been considered playing a role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniosis, an endemic zoonosis in Iran. The studies concerning feline leishmaniosis (FeL) allow the hypothesis that cats can be considered as potential reservoirs. The investigations on Leishmania infection in cats are very few in Iran and therefore we aimed to assess the L. infantum infection in stray cats and its possible role in transmission of the disease to human by direct agglutination test (DAT), ELISA, nested-PCR and confirmation via sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in Fars province, Iran. Whole blood samples were obtained from 174 stray cats. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in the sera using DAT and ELISA. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat of each subject and PCR amplified, targeting Leishmania kDNA gene. PCR results were confirmed by sequence analysis. Prevalence of clinical signs in positive cats was 19.0%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies with different titers were detected in 48 (27.59%) and leishmanial DNA in 36 (20.69%) of the cats. The sequencing of PCR-positive cats revealed the parasite as L. infantum. A high seroprevalence of L. infantum was revealed, with higher levels in males, adult cats, and those living in rural districts and southern zones. Despite the reservoir task of cats in nature is still ambiguous, the high serological and molecular detection of L. infantum in stray cats indicates that cats are regularly bitten by infected sand flies in Fars province, southern Iran, and may have a potential reservoir role in the maintenance of L. infantum in the endemic areas of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis in Iran. Anyway, Leishmania infection must be appraised in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous or systemic clinical signs in cats.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008272, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Presence of asymptomatic individuals in endemic areas is common. The possible biomarkers in asymptomatic individuals once they get exposed to infection as well as following conversion to symptomatic disease are yet to be identified.We identified asymptomatic Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection amongst rK39+sorted direct agglutination test positive (DAT+) endemic healthy population and confirmed it by quantitative PCR(qPCR).The immunological determinants such as Adenosine deaminase (ADA), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10)were examined to predict probable biomarkers for conversion to symptomatic VL. METHODS: Sample size was 5794 healthy individuals from VL endemic region. Antibody tests(DAT &rK39) were performed and later a qPCR assay was employed using kDNA specific primers and probes. Immunological biomarkers examined were ADA level by ADA-MTP kit and quantitative cytokines(IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α) by ELISA. RESULTS: 120 asymptomatic individuals of 308 rK39 sero-positives were DAT positive comprising of 56 with previous history and 64 with no history of VL. RT-PCR confirmed asymptomatic VL in 42 sero-positives. These were followed up through repeated qPCR and evaluation of immunological determinants. We observed10 symptomatic cases converted from a total of 42 asymptomatic individuals identified at base-line. The level of ADA, IL-10 and IFN-γ remained consistently high in asymptomatic cases and amongst these, ADA and IL-10 but not IFN-γ remained higher at the development of clinical symptoms into active VL. On the contrary, there was no significant change in the mean concentration of TNF-α at both stages of the disease. DISCUSSION: We surmise from our data that considerable proportion of asymptomatic cases can be a reservoir and may play a crucial role in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas. The data also suggests that ADA and IL-10 can serve as a potential biomarker during the conversion of asymptomatic into symptomatic VL.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Testes de Aglutinação , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Doenças Endêmicas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598889

RESUMO

The intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is incriminated to induce drastic economic losses in both livestock and pet animal industries. Neosporosis is primarily characterized by abortion in cattle and paralytic symptoms in dogs. Because there are no effective treatments or vaccines, diagnosis is critical for Neospora control. Thus, diversification of laboratory tests and specimens used for diagnosis of N. caninum is an essential scientific endeavor to judge and select the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Herein, we provide the first evidence for the utility of urine samples for demonstration of specific antibodies against N. caninum employing an experimentally infected murine model. Specific antibodies to recombinant N. caninum dense granule 7, surface antigen 1, and lysate antigen were assayed using different antibodies-based ELISAs. Urine based IgG ELISA efficiently discriminated between infected mice (acute or chronic infection), and those of non-infected mice. This effect was also noticed for IgG1 and IgG2a suggesting the utility of urine for assessment of T-helper 2- and T-helper 1-mediated immunities, respectively. In addition, reactivity of specific antibody in urine was also confirmed against parasites when indirect fluorescent antibody test was employed. Usefulness of urine as an additional clinical sample for Neospora diagnosis was confirmed via comparison with the relevant control non-infected and infected mouse sera as reference samples. Because of minimum invasiveness and ease of urine collection, this approach might offer new diagnostic opportunities for N. caninum either for the field or research purposes. However, further studies are required to extrapolate this preliminary study and results in the animal species of interest particularly in dogs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/urina , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Neospora/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/urina , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/urina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 183-192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592457

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies have found a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in psychiatric patients. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. A case-control study was conducted in Assiut University Hospitals on 53 patients with schizophrenia, 57 patients with bipolar disorder, and 50 healthy volunteers. The psychiatric patients were recruited from the psychiatry department and the controls from their relatives. Both groups were subjected to socio-demographic assessment. Neither of them was immunodeficient nor with any other psychiatric disorders. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected by indirect-ELISA to find the relationship between T. gondii infection and psychiatric disorders. Data were analysed using Chi-square test. The seropositivity rate, among patients with schizophrenia (50.9%) and patients with bipolar disorders (52.6%), was significantly higher than control group (30%) (P = 0.031 and 0.018 respectively). We found no statistically significant difference among all groups regarding environmental risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, except cat contact which was higher in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients (P = 0.011 and 0.007 respectively). The results of our study confirm that T. gondii infection is significantly correlated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and significantly associated with cat contact rather than beef consumption.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Grupos Controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
13.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 193-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592458

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infection with T. gondii is one of the most common parasitic diseases in humans and other warm-blooded animals with global distribution and generally, one-third of human populations are estimated to be contaminated with this parasite. The prevalence of infection varies according to age, geographical location and dietary habits. The socioeconomic losses caused by the disease can be costly for the community. Acquired toxoplasmosis is potentially associated with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, driving accidents, self-injury and suicide. Also, unusual strains of parasite that are genetically different from the rest (atypical strains) are responsible for several cases of lethal acquired parasites in people with safe immunity, which highlights the potential danger of this parasite in public health. As there is no comprehensive study on the association between toxoplasmosis and cardiovascular diseases in Iran, therefore, current study aimed at assessing the relationship between cardiovascular disease and toxoplasmosis among cardiac patients at the Seyyed al-Shohada specialist Cardiology Centre, Urmia, Iran. This study investigated the seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies by ELISA in patients with cardiovascular diseases. So, 375 patients with cardiovascular diseases and 336 healthy volunteers were selected for this investigation. The seropositivity rate of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was significantly higher in cardiovascular patients (63.73%) than in healthy volunteers (37.64%) (P<0.001). Also, a positive association was observed between anti-T. gondii IgG antibody seropositivity and cat contact (P≤0.001, OR: 5.178; 95% CI: 1.97-13.57), consumption of raw or undercooked meat (P≤0.001, OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.15-0.61), and consumption of not boiled milk (P≤0.001, OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12-0.54). Our results indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. Risk factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in the present study may help design future prevention strategies against T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 415, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggested a complex correlation between host lipid metabolism and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. However, the inherent association between T. gondii infection and host lipid state remains elusive either in mice or in human hosts. METHODS: Through a study in a sample of 1045 healthy participants from eastern China, we determined the association of T. gondii infection and host lipid levels using serological methods. We then examined the host lipid levels in C57BL/6 J mice at both acute and chronic T. gondii infection stages (for a period up to 36 weeks post infection). RESULTS: In our case-control study, T. gondii seropositive individuals had higher low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (P = 0.0043) and total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.0134) levels compared to seronegative individuals. Furthermore, individuals with LDL (OR = 3.25; 95% CI:1.60-6.61) and TC (OR = 2.10; 95% CI:1.22-3.63) levels above the upper limit of normal range had higher odds ratio to be T. gondii IgG positive. Consistently, in vivo data revealed that a significantly increased LDL level was first observed at early acute stage but plateaued to later time (chronic infection with T. gondii). CONCLUSIONS: In both healthy population and T. gondii-infected mice, seropositive individuals had higher LDL level. Individuals with positive T. gondii IgG had more odds of being with LDL and TC abnormality. Latent T. gondii infection is common worldwide, potential medical interventions to host lipid metabolism may be a breakthrough point to the prevention and control of this parasite infection.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/sangue
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008400, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530918

RESUMO

Recent outbreaks of enterically transmitted infections, including acute hepatitis A and shigellosis, have raised the concerns of increasing Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Taiwan. This study investigated the prevalence of EHI, its temporal trends, and associated factors among newly diagnosed PLWH in Taiwan. Medical records of newly diagnosed PLWH at six medical centers in Taiwan between 2009 and 2018 were reviewed. The annual prevalence of invasive amoebiasis and seroprevalence of E. histolytica were determined and examined by the Cochran-Armitage test. The clinical characteristics associated with invasive amoebiasis and seropositivity for E. histolytica were analyzed in multivariable regression models. Among 5362 patients seeking HIV care at six medical centers in Taiwan during the 10-year study period, 119 (2.2%) had invasive amoebiasis at the time or within six months of their HIV diagnosis. Among 3499 who had indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) determined, 284 (8.1%) had positive IHA (≥1:32) and 205 (5.9%) had high-titre IHA (≥1:128). The prevalence of invasive amoebiasis increased from 1.3% in 2012 to 3.3% in 2018 (p = 0.024). Invasive amoebiasis was independently associated with a greater age, men who have sex with men, rapid plasma reagin titre ≥1:4, and concurrent shigellosis and giardiasis. Increasing prevalence of invasive amoebiasis among newly diagnosed PLWH in Taiwan calls for strategies to prevent ongoing transmission in this population. Routine screening of EHI for early diagnosis and treatment is recommended, especially among men who have sex with men and those who present with other sexually or enterically transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 392-394, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556162

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to identify the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep herds from 3 municipalities from Jalisco, Mexico, as well as estimate the association between seroprevalence and certain factors presents in the farms. In total, 12 sheep farms that maintain only hair breeds were included in the work. From these farms, 336 blood samples were collected, corresponding 324 to ewes and 12 rams. Serum samples were subjected to ELISA test, and the association between the frequency of antibodies and some potential risk factors was estimated. The overall seroprevalence to anti-T. gondii antibodies in the population studied was 17.8% (60/336; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 14-22), all farms had positive animals, and the seroprevalence of antibodies ranged between 7 to 32%. Seroprevalence in specific municipalities was 18.7% in Lagos de Moreno, 17.8% in Encarnación de Díaz, and 16.9% in San Juan de los Lagos. Seroprevalence in ewes was 17.5% (57/324; 95% C.I. 13-22), and seroprevalence in rams was 25% (3/12; 95% C.I. 6-57), while among breeds it was 17.8% in Pelibuey (20/112; 95% C.I. 11-26), 16.6% in Kathadin (14/84; 95% C.I. 9-26), 15.4% in Blackbelly (13/84; 95% C.I. 8-25), and 23.2% in Dorper (13/56; 95% C.I. 13-36); no differences were observed among breeds (p < 0.05). The presence of cats on the farms was associated with seroprevalence (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% C.I. 1.8-7.3, p < 0.001), as was the absence of a rodent-control program (OR 1.5; 95% C.I. 0.8-3.2, p < 0.05). No other factors were identified as associated with seroprevalence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490893

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important protozoa parasites worldwide. Although many seroprevalence studies have been performed in domestic and wild species, data on the cumulative incidence and the spatial distribution of T. gondii in animals are extremely scarce. In the present study, dogs from Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, were followed for one year and their blood samples were collected on three moments: days 1, 180, and 360. The sera were submitted to the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) to detect IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Age and sex were compared with IFAT results through statistical tests. Spatial analysis was used to detect clusters of seropositive dogs. Among the 350 dogs that were seronegative on day 1, 53 became seropositive in subsequent samplings; thus, cumulative incidence was 15.1% exposed dogs/year. Age and sex were not associated with serological results. The spatial analysis revealed that seropositive dogs were distributed in all the studied areas, with a significant cluster in a zone with poor sanitary conditions and low socioeconomic status. T. gondii is frequent and widely distributed in the urban area of Botucatu, and impoverished areas are possibly associated with high levels of environmental contamination by this parasite.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490894

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, factors associated with seropositivity to Leishmania infection in dogs and spatial analysis in six municipalities in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 462 dogs, 77 in each municipality, and used for serological analysis [dual path platform (DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]. Clinical signs of dogs were evaluated and associated factors for Leishmania infection were analyzed using robust Poisson regression model. A seroprevalence of 42.8% (198/462, IC: 95% = 38.6%-47.6%) was detected in dogs that tested positive in both tests, ranging from 29.8% to 55.8%, with higher prevalence in the municipality of Cabrobó (55.8%; P = 0.006). About 67% (132/198) of the seropositive dogs showed one or more clinical signs suggestive of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), such as lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions and conjunctivitis, which were associated with seropositivity. High seroprevalence levels were identified in urban and rural areas in all the municipalities, and the buffer for sand flies around cases covered almost these entire areas. Spatial analysis revealed a significant cluster, showing a relative risk of 1.88 in the urban area of Cabrobó. The higher density of seropositive dogs in urban areas indicates the need effective control measures against CanL to prevent the emergence of canine and human diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520088

RESUMO

Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
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