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1.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(2): 207-214, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490274

RESUMO

Utilizing subunit vaccines is one of the strategies to address influenza infection. Recent innovations have focused on high doses of vaccine antigens and immune enhancers or adjuvant to induce more robust and long-lasting immune responses. Here, an effect of the B cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R) to increase the magnitude and durability of immune responses of the recombinant HA1 (rHA1) protein against the H1N1 influenza virus was studied. The HA1 protein and the effector domain of BAFF-R were expressed in the pET-28a (+) vector. Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were equally grouped into five groups (n=20). The 15 and 25 µg/µL of rHA1 were mixed with 2 µg/µL of rBAFF-R and injected three times for vaccinated groups. Three control groups were received normal saline and two concentrations of rHA1. The ability of rBAFF-R in eliciting HA-specific antibody response and stimulating T lymphocyte proliferation to induce the cell-mediated immunity was assayed. Induction of protection was evaluated following the challenge with PR8 strain. Analysis of immune responses showed that the co-administration of rBAFF-R with rHA1 boosted HI responses to the antigen in mice, whilst it was not able to promote the T cell proliferation responses against influenza. Compared to rHA1alone, the rBAFF-R/rHA1 generated efficient protection for the animals. There were no significant differences in eliciting the immune responses in mice immunized with the lower dose of rHA1 than that with the higher dose. The data indicate the rBAFF-R can enhance the primary and memory immune responses to protect against influenza infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos B , Citocinas , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(4): 247-253, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491212

RESUMO

This is a prospective study conducted to determine the level of anti-spike IgG to SARS-CoV-2 2-6 weeks following the BNT162b2 vaccination in 125 patients with hematological disorders. Compared with healthy controls, patients with malignant lymphoma had lower rates of seropositivity and lower levels of antibody titer. Furthermore, patients who received rituximab (R)-containing chemotherapy had lower antibody titers than those who were not treated with R or who had completed R-containing chemotherapy more than 9 months earlier. Despite having 71% IgG-seropositivity, patients with multiple myeloma had lower antibody titers than the control group. Furthermore, patients receiving daratumumab-containing chemotherapy had lower antibody titers than those not receiving treatment. Moreover, patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome had lower antibody titers than the control group. Overall, the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly correlated with IgG titers, with seropositive patients having more peripheral blood lymphocytes than seronegative patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression, such as those with hematological disorders, often have impaired seroconversion with COVID-19 vaccination that should be taken into consideration by clinicians.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 857481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493467

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa was unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and sporadic outbreaks continue to arise. Antibodies to the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are strongly associated with survival and their use in immunotherapy is often initially based on their performance in neutralisation assays. Other immune effector functions also contribute to EBOV protection but are more complex to measure. Their interactions with the complement system in particular are comparatively under-researched and commonly excluded from cellular immunoassays. Using EBOV convalescent plasma samples from the 2013-2016 epidemic, we investigated antibody and complement-mediated neutralisation and how these interactions can influence immunity in response to EBOV-GP and its secreted form (EBOV-sGP). We defined two cohorts: one with low-neutralising titres in relation to EBOV-GP IgG titres (LN cohort) and the other with a direct linear relationship between neutralisation and EBOV-GP IgG titres (N cohort). Using flow cytometry antibody-dependent complement deposition (ADCD) assays, we found that the LN cohort was equally efficient at mediating ADCD in response to the EBOV-GP but was significantly lower in response to the EBOV-sGP, compared to the N cohort. Using wild-type EBOV neutralisation assays with a cohort of the LN plasma, we observed a significant increase in neutralisation associated with the addition of pooled human plasma as a source of complement. Flow cytometry ADCD was also applied using the GP of the highly virulent Sudan virus (SUDV) of the Sudan ebolavirus species. There are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics against SUDV and it overlaps in endemicity with EBOV. We found that the LN plasma was significantly less efficient at cross-reacting and mediating ADCD. Overall, we found a differential response in ADCD between LN and N plasma in response to various Ebolavirus glycoproteins, and that these interactions could significantly improve EBOV neutralisation for selected LN plasma samples. Preservation of the complement system in immunoassays could augment our understanding of neutralisation and thus protection against infection.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Anticorpos Antivirais , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Sobreviventes
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817345, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493473

RESUMO

Recent studies provide conflicting evidence on the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 immunity induced by mRNA vaccines. Here, we aim to quantify the persistence of humoral immunity following vaccination using a coronavirus antigen microarray that includes 10 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. In a prospective longitudinal cohort of 240 healthcare workers, composite SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels did not wane significantly over a 6-month study period. In the subset of the study population previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 based on seropositivity for nucleocapsid antibodies, higher composite anti-spike IgG levels were measured before the vaccine but no significant difference from unexposed individuals was observed at 6 months. Age, vaccine type, or worker role did not significantly impact composite IgG levels, although non-significant trends towards lower antibody levels in older participants and higher antibody levels with Moderna vaccine were observed at 6 months. A small subset of our cohort were classified as having waning antibody titers at 6 months, and these individuals were less likely to work in patient care roles and more likely to have prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 836492, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493482

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 can be associated with a prothrombotic state, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is purported to directly promote platelet activation via the S1 subunit and is cleaved from host cells during infection. High plasma concentrations of S1 subunit are associated with disease progression and respiratory failure during severe COVID-19. There is limited evidence on whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced spike protein is similarly cleaved and on the immediate effects of vaccination on host immune responses or hematology parameters. We investigated vaccine-induced S1 subunit cleavage and effects on hematology parameters using AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a simian, replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine. We observed S1 subunit cleavage in vitro following AZD1222 transduction of HEK293x cells. S1 subunit cleavage also occurred in vivo and was detectable in sera 12 hours post intramuscular immunization (1x1010 viral particles) in CD-1 mice. Soluble S1 protein levels decreased within 3 days and were no longer detectable 7-14 days post immunization. Intravenous immunization (1x109 viral particles) produced higher soluble S1 protein levels with similar expression kinetics. Spike protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry 14 days post intramuscular immunization. Intramuscular immunization resulted in transiently lower platelet (12 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts relative to vehicle. Similarly, intravenous immunization resulted in lower platelet (24-72 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts, and increased neutrophil (2 hours) counts. The responses observed with either route of immunization represent transient hematologic changes and correspond to expected innate immune responses to adenoviral infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hematologia , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 822599, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493733

RESUMO

For the clinical application of semi-quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests, the analytical performance and titer correlation of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) need to be investigated. We evaluated the analytical performance and PRNT titer-correlation of one surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) kit and three chemiluminescent assays. We measured the total antibodies for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, total antibodies for the nucleocapsid protein (NP), and IgG antibodies for the RBD. All three chemiluminescent assays showed high analytical performance for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a sensitivity ≥ 98% and specificity ≥ 99%; those of the sVNT were slightly lower. The representativeness of the neutralizing activity of PRNT ND50 ≥ 20 was comparable among the four immunoassays (Cohen's kappa ≈ 0.80). Quantitative titer correlation for high PRNT titers of ND50 ≥ 50, 200, and 1,000 was investigated with new cut-off values; the anti-RBD IgG antibody kit showed the best performance. It also showed the best linear correlation with PRNT titer in both the acute and convalescent phases (Pearson's R 0.81 and 0.72, respectively). Due to the slowly waning titer of anti-NP antibodies, the correlation with PRNT titer at the convalescent phase was poor. In conclusion, semi-quantitative immunoassay kits targeting the RBD showed neutralizing activity that was correlated by titer; measurement of anti-NP antibodies would be useful for determining past infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Testes de Neutralização , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 47-54, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507924

RESUMO

There are many infectious animal diseases in T urkey and generally, vaccination is the primarly control strategy to combat them. However, it is difficult to apply all vaccines in a definite period in the field due to limitations of the labor and finance. Rapid vaccination and effective use of labor can be possible with the help of simultaneous vaccine administrations. The study aims to show the effects of simultaneous foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), peste des petits ruminants (PPR), sheep pox and goat pox (SGP), and bluetongue (BT) vaccine administration on the antibody response of sheep. For this aim, 30 sheep were divided into one experiment and 5 control groups. Blood samples were collected in each group at 0, 30 and 60 days post-vaccination (DPV). Immune response was measured with virus neutralization test (VNT) and, liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) for FMDV; VNT for BTV and PPR. A live virus challenge study was performed to determine the immune response of SGP vaccine. As a result, antibody titers for each vaccine agent decreased on 60 DPV with the simultaneous vaccination except FMD. The difference between means of antibody titer decrease with single and simultaneous vaccinations is significant especially for BTV and PPR vaccines at 60DPV (p<0.05). Briefly, this decreasing immune response of three live vaccines can be explained with the development of the interference, administration of these vaccines from the same injection site, the effect of cytokines, especially IL-10 effect of SGP vaccine. It was concluded that four vaccines can not be used simultaneously in sheep.


Assuntos
Bluetongue , Febre Aftosa , Doenças das Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001609, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512013

RESUMO

Despite the rapid creation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the precise correlates of immunity against severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still unknown. Neutralizing antibodies represent a robust surrogate of protection in early Phase III studies, but vaccines provide protection prior to the evolution of neutralization, vaccines provide protection against variants that evade neutralization, and vaccines continue to provide protection against disease severity in the setting of waning neutralizing titers. Thus, in this study, using an Ad26.CoV2.S dose-down approach in nonhuman primates (NHPs), the role of neutralization, Fc effector function, and T-cell immunity were collectively probed against infection as well as against viral control. While dosing-down minimally impacted neutralizing and binding antibody titers, Fc receptor binding and functional antibody levels were induced in a highly dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody and Fc receptor binding titers, but minimally T cells, were linked to the prevention of transmission. Conversely, Fc receptor binding/function and T cells were linked to antiviral control, with a minimal role for neutralization. These data point to dichotomous roles of neutralization and T-cell function in protection against transmission and disease severity and a continuous role for Fc effector function as a correlate of immunity key to halting and controlling SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Primatas , Receptores Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2476, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513437

RESUMO

Two COVID-19 mRNA (of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273) and two adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 and Janssen) are licensed in Europe, but optimization of regime and dosing is still ongoing. Here we show in health care workers (n = 328) that two doses of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or a combination of ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector and mRNA vaccines administrated with a long 12-week dose interval induce equally high levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against D614 and Delta variant. By contrast, two doses of BNT162b2 with a short 3-week interval induce 2-3-fold lower titers of neutralizing antibodies than those from the 12-week interval, yet a third BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 booster dose increases the antibody levels 4-fold compared to the levels after the second dose, as well as induces neutralizing antibody against Omicron BA.1 variant. Our data thus indicates that a third COVID-19 mRNA vaccine may induce cross-protective neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Sintéticas
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 800070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514974

RESUMO

The first cases of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported by Chinese authorities at the end of 2019. The disease spread quickly and was declared a global pandemic shortly thereafter. To respond effectively to infection and prevent viral spread, it is important to delineate the factors that affect protective immunity. Herein, a cohort of convalescent healthcare workers was recruited and their immune responses were studied over a period of 3 to 9 months following the onset of symptoms. A cross-reactive T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses, i.e., OC43 and NL63, was demonstrated in the infected, convalescent cohort, as well as a cohort composed of unexposed individuals. The convalescent cohort, however, displayed an increased number of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells relative to the unexposed group. Moreover, unlike humoral immunity and quickly decreasing antibody titers, T cell immunity in convalescent individuals was maintained and stable throughout the study period. This study also suggests that, based on the higher CD4 T cell memory response against nucleocapsid antigen, future vaccine designs may include nucleocapsid as an additional antigen along with the spike protein.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873191, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514992

RESUMO

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk-specific antibodies have been shown to potently induce Fc-mediated effector functions which are important in protection from disease. In placebo-controlled maternal influenza (MatFlu) vaccination trials of pregnant women living with or without HIV, reduced risk of influenza illness was associated with high HA stalk antibody titers following trivalent inactivated vaccination (TIV). However, the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the HA stalk antibodies were not well understood. Here, we investigated HA stalk-specific Fc effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent complement deposition (ADCD), and FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa binding in response to seasonal influenza vaccination. These were measured pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in 141 HIV-uninfected women (67 TIV and 74 placebo recipients) and 119 women living with HIV (WLWH; 66 TIV and 53 placebo recipients). In contrast to HIV-uninfected women, where HA stalk-specific ADCP and FcγRIIa binding were significantly boosted, WLWH showed no increase in response to vaccination. HA stalk-specific ADCC potential and FcγRIIIa binding were not boosted regardless of HIV status but were higher in WLWH compared with HIV-uninfected women prior to vaccination. HA stalk-specific ADCD was significantly increased by vaccination in all women, but was significantly lower in the WLWH both pre- and post- vaccination. Co-ordination between HA stalk-specific ADCP and ADCD in WLWH was improved by vaccination. Fc polyfunctionality was enhanced by vaccination in HIV-uninfected women and driven by the HA stalk antibody titers. However, in the WLWH, higher pre-vaccination Fc polyfunctionality was maintained post-vaccination but was decoupled from titer. Overall, we showed differential regulation of Fc effector HA stalk responses, suggesting that HIV infection results in unique humoral immunity in response to influenza vaccination, with relevance for future strategies that aim to target the HA stalk in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Influenza Humana , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Gravidez , Vacinação
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010365, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterising dengue virus (DENV) infection history at the point of care is challenging as it relies on intensive laboratory techniques. We investigated how combining different rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be used to accurately determine the primary and post-primary DENV immune status of reporting patients during diagnosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serum from cross-sectional surveys of acute suspected dengue patients in Indonesia (N:200) and Vietnam (N: 1,217) were assayed using dengue laboratory assays and RDTs. Using logistic regression modelling, we determined the probability of being DENV NS1, IgM and IgG RDT positive according to corresponding laboratory viremia, IgM and IgG ELISA metrics. Laboratory test thresholds for RDT positivity/negativity were calculated using Youden's J index and were utilized to estimate the RDT outcomes in patients from the Philippines, where only data for viremia, IgM and IgG were available (N:28,326). Lastly, the probabilities of being primary or post-primary according to every outcome using all RDTs, by day of fever, were calculated. Combining NS1, IgM and IgG RDTs captured 94.6% (52/55) and 95.4% (104/109) of laboratory-confirmed primary and post-primary DENV cases, respectively, during the first 5 days of fever. Laboratory test predicted, and actual, RDT outcomes had high agreement (79.5% (159/200)). Among patients from the Philippines, different combinations of estimated RDT outcomes were indicative of post-primary and primary immune status. Overall, IgG RDT positive results were confirmatory of post-primary infections. In contrast, IgG RDT negative results were suggestive of both primary and post-primary infections on days 1-2 of fever, yet were confirmatory of primary infections on days 3-5 of fever. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how the primary and post-primary DENV immune status of reporting patients can be estimated at the point of care by combining NS1, IgM and IgG RDTs and considering the days since symptoms onset. This framework has the potential to strengthen surveillance operations and dengue prognosis, particularly in low resource settings.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Febre , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Viremia
14.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 181, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practical guidance is needed regarding the vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals in resource-limited countries. It includes the number of vaccine doses that should be given to unvaccinated patients who experienced COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited COVID-19 convalescent individuals who received one or two doses of an mRNA vaccine within 6 or around 18 months after a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Their samples were assessed for IgG-binding or neutralizing activity and cell-mediated immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern. RESULTS: A total of 43 COVID-19 convalescent individuals were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern, including the Omicron variant, were comparable among patients vaccinated within 6 versus around 18 months. A second dose of vaccine did not significantly increase immune responses. CONCLUSION: One dose of mRNA vaccine should be considered sufficient to elicit a broad immune response even around 18 months after a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 427, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination was introduced in Taiwan in 1978, and the disease was declared eliminated in Taiwan in 2007. However, new cases have been reported unpredictably since then. Hospital medical staff are at particularly high risk for measles. We evaluated the immunity status of hospital medical staff after changes in national and local hospital vaccination policies. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical center from January 2008 to June 2018. Data were retrieved from all healthcare workers receiving employment medical examinations. Those with a full medical record including the geometrical mean titer (GMT) of anti-measles IgG were included. Age and sex differences in the GMT were analyzed by Student's t-tests and Chi-squared tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the odds of immunity. RESULTS: The IgG positive rate increased with age group (p < 0.001). Seropositive rates for the birth before 1977 and after 1978 groups were 94.8% and 70.2% (p < 0.001). The odds ratio was also significantly different between both cohorts (1.000 vs. 0.423, p = 0.002). Staff in the examination department showed the lowest positive percentage of 70.3% (95% CI: 66.9-73.7%), whereas staff in preventive and long-term care services disclosed the highest positive percentage of 83.2% (95% CI: 76.1-90.2%). Subgroups 2015, 2017, and 2018 (p = 0.046, 0.046, 0.049), after the vaccination booster policy was launched, showed significant increases in seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Immunity efficacy is better in birth groups before 1977, which was highly related to natural infection before national policy launched. The policy of vaccination is an effective method, but medical staff attains inadequate protective antibody levels for maintenance of herd immunity. A pre-employment policy of screening a third booster vaccine of measles (or MMR) is recommended to lower the incidence of disease spreading and avoid outbreaks.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Corpo Clínico , Políticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinação
16.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514306

RESUMO

BackgroundOmicron subvariant BA.2 circulation is rapidly increasing globally.AimWe evaluated the neutralising antibody response from vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against symptomatic infection by BA.2 or other variants.MethodsUsing 50% plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT50), we assessed neutralising antibody titres to BA.2, wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and other variants in Comirnaty or CoronaVac vaccinees, with or without prior WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Titres were also measured for non-vaccinees convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralising antibodies in BA.2 and BA.1 breakthrough infections and in BA.2 infections affecting non-vaccinees were additionally studied.ResultsIn vaccinees or prior WT-SARS-CoV-2-infected people, BA.2 and BA.1 PRNT50 titres were comparable but significantly (p < 10 - 5) lower than WT. In each group of 20 vaccinees with (i) three-doses of Comirnaty, (ii) two CoronaVac followed by one Comirnaty dose, or (iii) one dose of either vaccine after a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, ≥ 19 individuals developed detectable (PRNT50 titre ≥ 10) antibodies to BA.2, while only 15 of 20 vaccinated with three doses of CoronaVac did. Comirnaty vaccination elicited higher titres to BA.2 than CoronaVac. In people convalescing from a WT-SARS-CoV-2 infection, a single vaccine dose induced higher BA.2 titres than three Comirnaty (p = 0.02) or CoronaVac (p = 0.00001) doses in infection-naïve individuals. BA.2 infections in previously uninfected and unvaccinated individuals elicited low (PRNT50 titre ≤ 80) responses with little cross-neutralisation of other variants. However, vaccinees with BA.1 or BA.2 breakthrough infections had broad cross-neutralising antibodies to WT viruses, and BA.1, BA.2, Beta and Delta variants.ConclusionsExisting vaccines can be of help against the BA.2 subvariant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinação
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210780, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532938

RESUMO

Importance: Although 2 and 3 doses of vaccine have been implemented against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the level of immunity achieved by these additional vaccinations remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the induction of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant after 2 and 3 doses of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine among recipients of different ages. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort study was conducted from June 1, 2021, to January 12, 2022, among 82 physicians at Kobe University Hospital who had received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of positive test results and the titers of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant after 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine were compared with those against other variants and compared among 3 age groups (≤38 years [younger age group], 39-58 years [intermediate age group], and ≥59 years [older age group]). Results: A total of 82 physicians (71 men [87%]; median age, 44 years [IQR, 33-58 years]) participated; 31 (38%) were in the younger age group, 32 (39%) were in the intermediate age group, and 19 (23%) were in the older age group. At 2 months after 2 doses of the vaccine, 23 participants (28%) had neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant, with a titer of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.4), which was 11.8-fold (95% CI, 9.9-13.9) lower than the titer against the D614G variant and the lowest among the variants tested. Although the titer of the neutralizing antibody against the Delta variant tended to be low among the older age group (2.9 [95% CI, 2.0-4.1]), the titers of the neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant were low among all age groups (younger age group, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]; intermediate age group, 1.3 (95% CI, [95% CI, 1.1-1.5]; and older age group, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.4]). At 7 months after 2 doses of the vaccine, 5 participants (6%) had the neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant, but after the booster (third dose) vaccination, all 72 participants who received the booster had the neutralizing antibody, and the titer was 41 (95% CI, 34-49), much higher than that at 7 months after 2 doses of the vaccine (1.0 [95% CI, 1.0-1.1]). This increase in titers was observed regardless of age groups; the titers were 44 (95% CI, 32-59) among the younger age group, 44 (95% CI, 32-59) among the intermediate age group, and 30 (95% CI, 22-41) among the older age group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 82 Japanese participants, 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine did not induce sufficient neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant. However, booster vaccination was associated with induction of a high level of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant, irrespective of the recipient's age.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro , Vacinas Sintéticas
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 176, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503381

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle worldwide and causes one of the most important economic diseases of the dairy industry. BVDV infection reduces reproductive efficiency, suppresses the immune system, and causes gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. A first cross-sectional study was conducted in the central desert of Iran (Yazd and South Khorasan provinces) to estimate the seroprevalence and identify BVDV-related risk factors in dairy cattle. A total of 800 cows were randomly selected of 76 herds, and their serum samples were tested by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for BVDV antibody detection. Data were analyzed using the logistic regression model. The serum prevalence of BVDV at animal and herd levels was 66.83% and 91.6%, respectively. Traditional housing system (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.20-9.09) and cattle introduction to the herd (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.21-3.70) were the important risk factors for BVDV seropositivity (p < 0.05). Increasing of age per year caused adding in 0.33 log (odds) of BVDV seropositivity (p < 0.05). It is necessary to implement control and eradication programs because of the high seroprevalence at the individual level and at the herd in the central desert of Iran.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2378, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501328

RESUMO

Most structurally characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza A viruses (IAVs) target the conserved conformational epitopes of hemagglutinin (HA). Here, we report a lineage of naturally occurring human antibodies sharing the same germline gene, VH3-48/VK1-12. These antibodies broadly neutralize the major circulating strains of IAV in vitro and in vivo mainly by binding a contiguous epitope of H3N2 HA, but a conformational epitope of H1N1 HA, respectively. Our structural and functional studies of antibody 28-12 revealed that the continuous amino acids in helix A, particularly N49HA2 of H3 HA, are critical to determine the binding feature with 28-12. In contrast, the conformational epitope feature is dependent on the discontinuous segments involving helix A, the fusion peptide, and several HA1 residues within H1N1 HA. We report that this antibody was initially selected by H3 (group 2) viruses and evolved via somatic hypermutation to enhance the reactivity to H3 and acquire cross-neutralization to H1 (group 1) virus. These findings enrich our understanding of different antigenic determinants of heterosubtypic influenza viruses for the recognition of bnAbs and provide a reference for the design of influenza vaccines and more effective antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Epitopos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza A/genética
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