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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2009-2019, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, was designated a World Health Organization top 10 threat to global health in 2019. METHODS: We present primary efficacy data from part 1 of an ongoing phase 3 randomized trial of a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TAK-003) in regions of Asia and Latin America in which the disease is endemic. Healthy children and adolescents 4 to 16 years of age were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio (stratified according to age category and region) to receive two doses of vaccine or placebo 3 months apart. Participants presenting with febrile illness were tested for virologically confirmed dengue by serotype-specific reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The primary end point was overall vaccine efficacy in preventing virologically confirmed dengue caused by any dengue virus serotype. RESULTS: Of the 20,071 participants who were given at least one dose of vaccine or placebo (safety population), 19,021 (94.8%) received both injections and were included in the per-protocol analysis. The overall vaccine efficacy in the safety population was 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.2 to 85.3; 78 cases per 13,380 [0.5 per 100 person-years] in the vaccine group vs. 199 cases per 6687 [2.5 per 100 person-years] in the placebo group). In the per-protocol analyses, vaccine efficacy was 80.2% (95% CI, 73.3 to 85.3; 61 cases of virologically confirmed dengue in the vaccine group vs. 149 cases in the placebo group), with 95.4% efficacy against dengue leading to hospitalization (95% CI, 88.4 to 98.2; 5 hospitalizations in the vaccine group vs. 53 hospitalizations in the placebo group). Planned exploratory analyses involving the 27.7% of the per-protocol population that was seronegative at baseline showed vaccine efficacy of 74.9% (95% CI, 57.0 to 85.4; 20 cases of virologically confirmed dengue in the vaccine group vs. 39 cases in the placebo group). Efficacy trends varied according to serotype. The incidence of serious adverse events was similar in the vaccine group and placebo group (3.1% and 3.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TAK-003 was efficacious against symptomatic dengue in countries in which the disease is endemic. (Funded by Takeda Vaccines; TIDES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02747927.).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Américas/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(20): 1897-1908, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries have stockpiled vaccines because of concerns about the reemergence of smallpox. Traditional smallpox vaccines are based on replicating vaccinia viruses; these vaccines have considerable side effects. METHODS: To evaluate the efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a potential smallpox vaccine, we randomly assigned 440 participants to receive two doses of MVA followed by one dose of the established replicating-vaccinia vaccine ACAM2000 (the MVA group) or to receive one dose of ACAM2000 (the ACAM2000-only group). The two primary end points were noninferiority of the MVA vaccine to ACAM2000 with respect to the peak serum neutralizing antibody titers and attenuation of the ACAM2000-associated major cutaneous reaction by previous MVA vaccination, measured according to the maximum lesion area and the derived area attenuation ratio. RESULTS: A total of 220 and 213 participants were randomly assigned and vaccinated in the MVA group and ACAM2000-only group, respectively, and 208 participants received two MVA vaccinations. At peak visits, MVA vaccination induced a geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies of 153.5 at week 6, as compared with 79.3 at week 4 with ACAM2000 (a ratio of 1.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.56 to 2.40]). At day 14, the geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies induced by a single MVA vaccination (16.2) was equal to that induced by ACAM2000 (16.2), and the percentages of participants with seroconversion were similar (90.8% and 91.8%, respectively). The median lesion areas of the major cutaneous reaction were 0 mm2 in the MVA group and 76.0 mm2 in the ACAM2000-only group, resulting in an area attenuation ratio of 97.9% (95% CI, 96.6 to 98.3). There were fewer adverse events or adverse events of grade 3 or higher after both MVA vaccination periods in the MVA group than in the ACAM2000-only group (17 vs. 64 participants with adverse events of grade 3 or higher, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: No safety concerns associated with the MVA vaccine were identified. Immune responses and attenuation of the major cutaneous reaction suggest that this MVA vaccine protected against variola infection. (Funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services and Bavarian Nordic; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01913353.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina Antivariólica/imunologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola/imunologia , Vacina Antivariólica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618373

RESUMO

Santa Catarina is a Brazilian State that has reported the lowest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors (0.04%). Although it presents ports, airports and roads that facilitate the entrance and dissemination of new infectious agents, no information exists concerning the HTLV-1/2 infections in HIV/AIDS patients. This study searched for HTLV-1/2 antibodies in plasma samples of 625 HIV/AIDS patients from the municipality of Tubarao (Southern Santa Catarina), and disclosed 1.1% of positivity (0.48% HTLV-1, 0.48% HTLV-2 and 0.16% untypeable HTLV), and a positive correlation with the male sex (OR 4.16) and intravenous drug use (OR 35.18). Although the percentage of 1.1% appears to be low, it is 27.5 times higher than the percentage detected in blood donors. Since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are circulating in HIV-infected individuals in Southern Santa Catarina, and these retroviruses could cause a differently impact on the HIV/AIDS outcomes, the surveillance of HTLV-1/2 is necessary, and it could support public health policies in preventing the transmission and dissemination of these viruses in this State.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-II/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1765-1768, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is localized disease characterized by unilateral radicular pain and a vesicular rash limited to the area of skin innervated by a single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Whereas varicella, or chickenpox, results from primary exogenous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, HZ is caused by reactivation of endogenous VZV that has persisted in latent form within sensory ganglia following an earlier episode of chickenpox. The aim: To explore the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of CNS injury caused by VZV infection in a prospective single center study from January 2014 to January 2018. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 117 adult patients, among which young women predominated with confirmed VZV infection were analyzed in the study. CSF and blood contents, antibody for herpes zoster M and G classes, and MRI scans have been studied, but the crucial diagnostic sign was the presence of specific viral DNA in the CSF or blood. The main clinical manifestations of the disease were ganglionitis and ganglioradiculoneuritis. Another brain lesion like uveitis, encephalitis and vasculitis were observed also. A clinical case of an unusual course of VZV-infection is given. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: The most common clinical variants of HZ were ganglionitis (69.7%). Cranial localization was observed in 31% of patients, spinal one - in 38.7%, injury to the meninges was found in 16.3% of patients.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Herpes Zoster/patologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ucrânia
5.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3007-3017, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598846

RESUMO

Classical swine fever (CSF) is an important viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar. The structural proteins E2 and Erns of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which participate in the attachment of the virion to the host cell surface and its subsequent entry, are immunogenic. The E2 and Erns proteins are used for diagnosis and the development of vaccines against CSFV infection in swine. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been successfully used as a viral vector to express heterologous proteins. In the present study, the E2 and Erns proteins of CSFV were expressed in cell culture as well as embryonated chicken eggs, using recombinant NDV (rNDV). Rescued rNDV expressing the E2 and Erns proteins induced the production of CSFV-neutralizing antibodies upon intranasal vaccination of pigs. Serum samples from vaccinated animals were found to neutralize both homologous and heterologous CSFV strains. Furthermore, rNDV expressing the E2 and Erns proteins of CSFV was used to develop an indirect ELISA, which was used to measure the the antibody titers of randomly collected serum samples. The results suggested that the ELISA based on rNDV-expressed E2 and Erns proteins could be used to screen for CSFV infections. This study shows that rNDV-based expression of CSFV antigens is potentially applicable for development of vaccines and diagnostic tests for CSFV infection. This approach could be an economically favorable alternative to the existing vaccine and diagnostics for CSFV in pigs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/imunologia , Peste Suína Clássica/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Peste Suína Clássica/sangue , Peste Suína Clássica/imunologia , Peste Suína Clássica/virologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Recombinação Genética , Suínos
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1341-1348, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607722

RESUMO

Background: To reduce the number of new HIV infections among children, retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices (MOP) has a huge role to play. Aims and Objectives: This study evaluated the HIV sero-positivity in labor among pregnant women who earlier tested negative in antenatal clinic, associated risk factors and the corresponding rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where pregnant women in labor who had earlier tested HIV negative in the antenatal clinic at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria, were retested. The infants of the women who seroconverted were tested for HIV infection at 6 weeks using Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) by collecting Dried Blood Sample. This study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016. Result: Out of the 163 patients studied, 6 demonstrated HIV seroconversion giving a seroconversion rate of 3.7%. Deliveries from the seroconverted patients were 5 live births and 1 intrauterine fetal death. All the 5 live babies tested HIV negative at 6 weeks of age. Predictors of seroconversion in late pregnancy include spouse's HIV status and number of other sexual partners. Conclusion: Retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices has a huge role to play in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(9): 530-535, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610104

RESUMO

HHV-7 (Human Herpes virus type 7) is a relatively recently discovered, ubiquitous beta herpes virus. In Russia, the diagnosis of HHV-7 infection is carried out by PCR, which determines the DNA in serum or plasma, if there are clinical indications. Laboratory serological tests for HHV-7 are not performed. Currently, in the scientific literature, information on clinical studies of HHV-7 infection, its epidemiology, and its role in the etiopathogenesis of various diseases is insufficient. This article presents the results of the development of a test kit "ELISA-HHV-7-IgG", designed to detect specific IgG to HHV-7 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Studies of the sensitivity and specificity of the developed test kit, including potential cross-reactive samples positive for other herpesvirus infections, were carried out. In the context of serological diagnostics, we studied samples of the sera of children (n = 167) and old people (n = 238) for the presence of IgG to HHV-7 with confirmation of the results in the indirect immunofluorescence reaction and the immune blotting reaction. The research results are evidence of the possibility of using the developed test kit for serological diagnosis of HHV-7 infection.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Herpesvirus Humano 7 , Infecções por Roseolovirus/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Federação Russa
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17507, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651854

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate measles antibody level and its associated factors in a healthy Chinese population, so as to provide evidence to measles prevention and control measures in the future.We conducted a cross-sectional survey by using probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS) among a healthy population aged 8 months to 45 years. Information on measles vaccination status was obtained from the vaccination certificates. Serum measles IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to analysis the associated factors of measles antibody.Of the 663 study subjects, the positive rate, protective rate, and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of measles antibodies were 92.76%, 77.53%, 1612.55 mIU/ml, respectively. The antibody concentration was higher in Han ethnical majority than in Hui minority. The positive rate, protective rate and concentration of antibodies in different age groups and regions were clearly disparate. Age, area, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) immunization history were the prominent influencing factors of antibody positive rate and protective rate. Ethnicity, age, area, and MVC immunization history were the influencing factors of antibody concentration.Our major findings suggest that, children in rural China, especially in impoverished mountainous regions, were more likely to suffer from delays in measles vaccination. Various measures in optimizing vaccination practices should be implemented in order to prevent possible measles epidemic, even outbreak in these regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/imunologia , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180860, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553367

RESUMO

The first cases of Zika virus infection in Colombia were reported and confirmed in October 2015. The objective of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of ZIKV infection during the pre-epidemic phase in Barranquilla, Colombia, and demonstrate the presence of virus before the Colombian Ministry of Health confirmed the first case. We conducted a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Zika virus in 390 samples obtained from a blood bank located in Barranquilla, Colombia - a city endemic for dengue, and with a recent history of a Chikungunya disease epidemic. The serum pools were tested using Euroimmun ZIKV ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of Zika virus IgG were: May 2015: 0%, June and July 2015: 2.62% (95% CI = 0.28-12.13) and August 2015: 5.35% (95% CI = 1.74-16.74). This brings to our attention the need for extending the surveillance period of this virus in order to adequately assess its teratogenic effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Zika virus/imunologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507196

RESUMO

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes great economic loss to swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is an important method to control the TGEV infection. In this study, a TGEV oral vaccine was generated by transferring a eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid carrying the SAD (A and D antigenic sites of the S protein) epitope of TGEV into a swine-origin Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus). In orally immunized BALB/c mice, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced significantly higher level of SIgA antibodies specific to TGEV compared with the mice immunized with a commercial inactivated TGEV vaccine and similar levels of IgG specific to TGEV as the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, which suggested that the vaccine was able to induce immune response. In brief, this novel TGEV L. acidophilus oral vaccine could induce high levels of both mucosal and humoral immune responses, which has a potential to be used in the pig industries in the future. Keywords: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); live L. acidophilus oral vaccine; SIgA antibody; IgG antibody; IFN-γ; IL-4.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Vacinas Virais , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/patologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Lactobacillus acidophilus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 274, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Poland, the leader in goose production in Europe, goose parovirus infection, or Derzsy's disease (DD), must be reported to the veterinary administration due to the serious economic and epizootic threat to waterfowl production. Prophylactic treatment for DD includes attenuated live or inactivated vaccines. Moreover, the control of DD includes the monitoring of maternal derived antibody (MDA) levels in the offspring and antibody titers in the parent flock after vaccination. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA for the detection of goose parvovirus (GPV) antibodies. RESULTS: Two recombinant protein fragments derived from VP3 (viral protein 3) GPV, namely VP3ep6 and VP3ep4-6 with a mass of 20.9 and 32.3 kDa, respectively, were produced using an Escherichia coli expression system. These proteins were purified by one-step nickel-affinity chromatography, which yielded protein preparations with a purity above 95%. These recombinant proteins were useful in the detection of serum anti-GPV antibodies, and this was confirmed by Western blotting. However, recombinant VP3ep4-6 protein showed a greater ability to correctly identify sera from infected geese. In the next stage of the project, a pool of 166 goose sera samples, previously examined by a virus neutralization test (VN), was tested. For further studies, one recombinant protein (VP3ep4-6) was selected for optimization of the test conditions. After optimization, the newly developed ELISA was compared to other serological tests, and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the VP3ep4-6 ELISA method described here can be used for the detection of antibodies to GPV in serum.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Infecções por Parvoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 41, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recommended for the initial vaccination of commercially reared turkey poults. However, the vaccine-induced antibody responses have not been studied in this species. The level of systemic humoral immune responses against the NDV was investigated in commercial turkey poults vaccinated with the VG/GA vaccine. One hundred eighty-two hybrid strain of turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) were divided randomly into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The vaccinated group was given the VG/GA vaccine at 10 and 20 days of age. To investigate the vaccine immunity, the level of specific IgY and IgA in serum samples were determined using ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assays (HI). The biological half-life of maternal antibodies was also determined before the immunization. RESULTS: VG/GA-specific antibodies were detected in the vaccinated turkey poults and were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group. IgY and IgA antibodies showed a significant increase in titers 14 days after the second vaccination and reached a peak on day 35 of age. The correlation coefficient and intra-rater reliability showed a significant correlation between the HI titers and IgY/IgA ELISA values. Maternal IgY and IgA levels were found to decline in the serum with half-lifes of 7.68 ± 2.35 and 2.18 ± 0.82 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Enterotropic lentogenic VG/GA vaccine induced a marked humoral immune response against the NDV in turkey poults. The positive correlation between IgY and IgA highlights the role of these two antibody classes in controlling the Newcastle disease in turkey poults.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Perus , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 255, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease, and bluetongue virus (BTV) outbreaks can cause substantial economic losses. Even subclinical infection may carry significant associated costs, including a loss of condition, reduced milk yield, and infertility and abortion, and indirect costs, largely due to the export restrictions and surveillance requirements imposed to limit the spread of the virus. However, the BTV epidemiology in the Far East remains incompletely understood, especially in the cattle population in South Korea. In this study, the seroprevalence of BTV antibodies and distribution of BTV serotypes in dairy cattle in South Korea were evaluated to improve the understanding of the BTV epidemiological situation in the Asia-Pacific region. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 37 out of 171 dairy cattle herds (21.6%) and 85 out of 466 dairy cattle heads (18.2%) showed antibodies against BTV. Neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 7, - 15, and - 16 serotypes were identified, and the RNAs of the BTV-1, - 2, - 3, - 15, and - 16 serotypes were detected, indicating that BTV was circulating in the dairy cattle population in South Korea. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that BTV is widespread and has circulated in dairy cattle in South Korea. This is the first report presenting evidence of circulating antibodies against BTV and the serotype distribution in bovine populations in South Korea.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo
15.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(4): e12801, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269273

RESUMO

Influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen, and vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis. In 2012, the trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in Europe for use in children. Vaccine-induced antibodies directed against the main viral surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) play important roles in limiting virus infection. The objective of this study was to dissect the influenza-specific antibody responses in children and adults, and T cell responses in children induced after LAIV immunization to the A/H1N1 virus. Blood samples were collected pre- and at 28 and 56 days post-vaccination from 20 children and 20 adults. No increase in micro-neutralization (MN) antibodies against A/H1N1 was observed after vaccination. A/H1N1 stalk-specific neutralizing and NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies were boosted in children after LAIV. Interferon γ-producing T cells increased significantly in children, and antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxic (ADCC) cell activity increased slightly in children after vaccination, although this change was not significant. The results indicate that the NI assay is more sensitive to qualitative changes in serum antibodies after LAIV. There was a considerable difference in the immune response in children and adults after vaccination, which may be related to priming and previous influenza history. Our findings warrant further studies for evaluating LAIV vaccination immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Vacinação
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 337-341, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260198

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination using commercial vaccines has been recommended as a useful preventive tool in zoological collections worldwide for the past 30 yr. Zoological facilities have not conducted studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of the multivalent Recombitek C6 and C8 in nondomestic carnivores. They are the only CDV recombinant vaccines available in Latin America. Seventeen clinically healthy red foxes born in Buin Zoo were divided into three groups and administered 1 ml of Recombitek C6 vaccine. Group A consisted of three animals of 9 mo of age without previous vaccination (WPV) that received a single dose. Group B consisted of four animals of 10 mo of age WPV; they received a series of three doses with a 21-day interval between doses. Group C consisted of eight animals > 1 yr of age that had received a previous vaccination > 1 yr ago; they received a single-dose booster vaccination. Titers for antibodies against CDV were measured by a serum neutralization test. All animals remained clinically healthy throughout the study period and without clinical signs of disease. Only two foxes (group C) did not show any increase in the antibody titer to the vaccine. All animals of groups A and B seroconverted at 21 days after the first vaccination. Only two animals (both from group B) showed an adequate antibody protective response (titers >100) after 180 days. Absence of adverse reactions in red foxes included in this study supports the safety and apparently nondeleterious effect of CDV recombinant vaccine reported in other nondomestic carnivores. Low antibody response and lack of persistence in the serological response 6 mo after vaccination with a single dose suggested limited protective benefits in this species. Additional research is needed to confirm the antibody titer response to multiple vaccinations in this species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Raposas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Raposas/sangue , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 478-481, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260219

RESUMO

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are susceptible to canine distemper, with a number of reported vaccine-induced canine distemper cases. Canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper vaccines (PureVax Ferret Distemper [PFD] and Recombitek CDV [rCDV]) provide protection without inoculating a live distemper virus, but there are currently no published data regarding these vaccines' safety and efficacy in red pandas. One hundred twenty-two serum samples were collected from 50 captive red pandas and analyzed for antibodies to canine distemper. All naïve red pandas (n = 20) had negative titers. Naïve pandas receiving two PFD vaccinations had either negative or intermediate titers (n = 4). In contrast, naïve pandas receiving a series of two or three rCDV vaccinations (n = 14) had greater antibody responses. Red pandas vaccinated with PFD >12 mo since their last vaccination and a rCDV booster vaccination showed the highest titers observed. We recommend red pandas be administered a series of at least three recombinant vaccine (PDF or rDCV) vaccinations, followed by annual booster vaccinations.


Assuntos
Ailuridae/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/virologia , Vetores Genéticos , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 590, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-Transmitted Zika virus (TT-ZIKV) has become an emerging threat to world blood banks due to the fast spread of ZIKV epidemics and high rate of asymptomatic infections. For the risk assessment of ZIKV infection in blood products, relevant studies in blood donations or blood donors tested for ZIKV were collected and analyzed systematically. The overall prevalence of ZIKV infection were estimated through meta-analysis and potential risk factors were detected. The results will provide important clues for the protocol design of blood screening tests. METHODS: Relevant articles about the rate of ZIKV detected in blood samples were identified from PubMed, Scopus and Web Of Science using key terms search strategy until October 7, 2017. Eligible articles were screened following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis and subgroup analyses were performed by software R3.4.1. Overall postdonation and posttransfusion follow-ups were analyzed. RESULTS: Ten literatures (528,947 blood samples) were included for meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of ZIKV (RNA and antibody) in blood donations was 1.02% (95%CI 0.36-1.99). The pooled prevalence of ZIKV RNA in blood donations was 0.85% (95%CI 0.21-1.88) less than the pooled prevalence of anti-ZIKV antibodies 1.61% (95%CI 0.03-5.21), however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.52). The prevalence varied significantly in different geographical regions (p < 0.001). Blood donations were more than two times likely to be infected by ZIKV in Zika epidemic period (1.37, 95%CI 0.91-1.91) than in non-epidemic period (0.61, 95%CI 0-2.55). The prevalence of anti-ZIKV antibodies (1.61, 95%CI 0.03-5.21) was almost twice as much as ZIKV nucleic acid detected in blood donations (0.85, 95%CI 0.21-1.88). However, statistically significant differences were not observed. A total of 122 ZIKV positive blood donors were followed, of which 48 (39%) reported symptoms postdonation, but none of the 13 followed recipients reported any clinical symptoms related to Zika infection posttransfusion. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of Zika infection in blood donations was 1.02%. The prevalence varied greatly and reached to high-risk level in most of the situations. The results suggest that nucleic acid tests (NAT) for blood screening and pathogen reduction/inactivation technology (PRT) should be implemented in Zika-endemic areas and appropriate strategies should be designed according to different conditions. More studies are needed in the future to provide more evidence.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 582, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious herpesvirus with potential for nosocomial transmission. However, the importance of nosocomial chickenpox outbreak in China has often been ignored. With the increasing immunocompromised population in China, a thorough review of issues related to nosocomial transmission and the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers is necessary. METHODS: Retrospective case finding for nosocomial transmission of chickenpox was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Cases were identified based on clinical features compatible with chickenpox. A cross-sectional study on the seroprevalence rate of VZV among healthcare workers (HCWs) was conducted between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2017. The serum VZV antibodies of 1804 HCWs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence rate of VZV antibodies, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of self-reported history of varicella were analyzed. The economic impact associated with nosocomial transmission of VZV was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 cases of chickenpox were identified in three nosocomial transmissions, including 4 HCWs who were infected nosocomially. The overall seroprevalence rate of VZV was 88.4%, which significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). The seroprevalence rates of HCWs with different genders and occupations showed no statistically significant differences. The positive and negative predictive values of a self-reported history of varicella were 80.8 and 10.6% respectively. An estimation of 163.3 person-days of work were lost in each nosocomial transmission and 86.7 infection control unit person-hours were required for each outbreak investigation. The cost of VZV IgG ELISA screening was estimated to be 83 USD per nosocomial transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Nosocomial transmission of VZV occurred repeatedly in the hospital setting. An alarming 11.6% of HCWs were seronegative for VZV, which might increase the risk of nosocomial infection and outbreak for other susceptible co-workers and patients. This is especially important in the setting of a teaching hospital where many immunocompromised patients were managed. Furthermore, the positive predictive value of self-reported varicella on seroprevalence rate in our study was lower than those reported in other countries, therefore serological testing of VZV antibodies with subsequent vaccination for all non-immune HCWs should be considered.


Assuntos
Varicela/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Varicela/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 587, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years Pakistan has faced frequent measles outbreaks killing hundreds of children despite the availability of vaccine for decades. This study was undertaken to determine the persistence of maternal transferred measles antibody levels in infants before measles vaccination with relation to their feeding practices. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at district Islamabad over 1 year between 1st October 2013 to 30th Sept. 2016. Any infant less than 9 months of age, not suffering from an acute or debilitating illness and not vaccinated was enrolled in the study. After taking written informed consent from parents / guardians, information was collected on a pretested questionnaire. About 3 cc venous blood was taken to quantify any measles IgG antibodies. Data was analyzed by using Epi Info 7.2 version. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-four infants were enrolled and were divided into three age groups, 1-90, 91-180 and 181-270 days age groups. Mean age of infants was 4.4 months ±3.2 SD. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. A level of maternal measles IgG antibodies ≥12 U/ml was taken as protective. Of total 384 infants, 91(24%) had protective measles antibody titters (> 12 U/ml). and 65 (73%) of them were on breast milk. Highest antibody levels were found in 1-90 days age group. Analysis showed that 181-270 days aged infants had 3.1875 more odds of having unprotected/ low levels of antibodies against measles than children aged less than 180 days. Age group < 180 days found to be statistically significant with protective IgG levels (OR: 3.1875, P value: < 0.000063). CONCLUSION: Measles protective antibodies were found in infants < 180 days age group. Breast feeding provides early protection against measles. Levels drop down to low levels immediately after birth and then after 06 months. It is, therefore, recommended that measles vaccination should be considered for administration at 6 months or even earlier if measles immunity is desired.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Sarampo/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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