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1.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 115-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread introduction of immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to durable responses but still many patients fail and are treated beyond progression. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether readily available blood-based tumor biomarkers allow accurate detection of early non-responsiveness, allowing a timely switch of therapy and cost reduction. METHODS: In a prospective, observational study in patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab, five serum tumor markers were measured at baseline and every other week. Six months disease control as determined by RECIST was used as a measure of clinical response. Patients with a disease control <  6 months were deemed non-responsive. For every separate tumor marker a criterion for predicting of non-response was developed. Each marker test was defined as positive (predictive of non-response) if the value of that tumor marker increased at least 50% from the value at baseline and above a marker dependent minimum value to be determined. Also, tests based on combination of multiple markers were designed. Specificity and sensitivity for predicting non-response was calculated and results were validated in an independent cohort. The target specificity of the test for detecting non-response was set at >  95%, in order to allow its safe use for treatment decisions. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients (training cohort: 180, validation cohort: 196) were included in our analysis. Results for the specificity of the single marker tests in the validation set were CEA: 98·3% (95% CI: 90·9-100%), NSE: 96·5% (95% CI: 87·9-99·6%), SCC: 96·5% (95% CI: 88·1-99·6%), Cyfra21·1 : 91.8% (95% CI: 81·9-97·3%), and CA125 : 86·0% (95% CI: 74·2-93·7%). A test based on the combination of Cyfra21.1, CEA and NSE accurately predicted non-response in 32.3% (95% CI 22.6-43.1%) of patients 6 weeks after start of immunotherapy. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between predicted responders (Median PFS: 237 days (95% CI 184-289 days)) and non-responders (Median PFS: 58 days (95% CI 46-70 days)) (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum tumor marker based tests can be used for accurate detection of non-response in NSCLC, thereby allowing early and safe discontinuation of immunotherapy in a significant subset of patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26190, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adalimumab is used as a first-line biologic agent in the management of moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe HS. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Pooled estimates, namely standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR), were calculated using random-effect model with trial sequential analysis. Small study effects were examined using the Doi plot. Certainty of evidence (CoE) was assessed using "The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation" approach, and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) was calculated. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials, involving 1014 patients, were included. We performed subgroup analysis of adalimumab administered subcutaneously both weekly and every other week. Adalimumab administered weekly was associated with better clinical response achievement (RR 1.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.35-2.29; trial sequential analysis TSA-adjusted CI 1.01-3.08; CoE: low; NNT = 5) and a significant improvement in modified Sartorius score (SMD = -0.45, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; CoE: very low; NNT = 10) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) (SMD -0.47, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.32; CoE: low; NNT = 10). Nevertheless, adalimumab administered every other week showed an improvement only in modified Sartorius score. The pooled RRs of adverse events in both groups revealed no statistical significance when compared with the placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab administered weekly resulted in not only better clinical responses than placebo but also significantly improved disease severity and quality of life of patients with moderate-to-severe HS. Our study provides supporting evidence to the current guidelines and aids decision-making in the application of adalimumab in HS management.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Hidradenite Supurativa/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hidradenite Supurativa/psicologia , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3355, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099659

RESUMO

Activation of systemic immune responses using PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors is an essential approach to cancer therapy. Yet, the extent of benefit relative to risk of immune related adverse events (irAE) varies widely among patients. Here, we study endocrine irAE from 7 clinical trials across 6 cancers where atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) was combined with chemotherapies and compared to standard of care. We show that atezolizumab-induced thyroid dysfunction is associated with longer survival. We construct a polygenic risk score (PRS) for lifetime risk of hypothyroidism using a GWAS from the UK Biobank and apply this PRS to genetic data collected from 2,616 patients of European ancestry from these trials. Patients with high PRS are at increased risk of atezolizumab-induced thyroid dysfunction and lower risk of death in triple negative breast cancer. Our results indicate that genetic variation associated with thyroid autoimmunity interacts with biological pathways driving the systemic immune response to PD-1 blockade.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia
5.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1123): 20201396, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Better markers of early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with breast cancer are required to enable the timely identification of non-responders and reduce unnecessary treatment side-effects. Early functional imaging may better predict response to treatment than conventional measures of tumour size. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the change in tumour blood flow after one cycle of NACT would predict pathological response. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 35 females with breast cancer before and after one cycle of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide-based NACT (EC90). Estimates of tumour blood flow and tumour volume were compared with pathological response obtained at surgery following completion of NACT. RESULTS: Tumour blood flow at baseline (mean ± SD; 0.32 ± 0.17 ml/min/ml) reduced slightly after one cycle of NACT (0.28 ± 0.18 ml/min/ml). Following treatment 15 patients were identified as pathological responders and 20 as non-responders. There were no relationships found between tumour blood flow and pathological response. Conversely, tumour volume was found to be a good predictor of pathological response (smaller tumours did better) at both baseline (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.80) and after one cycle of NACT (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81). CONCLUSION & ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The change in breast tumour blood flow following one cycle of EC90 did not predict pathological response. Tumour volume may be a better early marker of response with such agents.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Meios de Contraste , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Meglumina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Compostos Organometálicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Trastuzumab , Carga Tumoral
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 3091-3097, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The efficacy of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus ramucirumab (F-RAM) or aflibercept (F-AFL) as a second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is established. In this study, the risks and benefits of F-RAM/AFL as a third-line treatment after first- and second-line bevacizumab for mCRC were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AEs) were compared between groups treated with F-RAM/AFL (n=17) and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet (TAS-102) (n=26). RESULTS: Median OS was longer in the third-line F-RAM/AFL group (379 days; 95%CI=157-458 days) than in the TAS-102 group (183 days; 95%CI=80-204 days) (log-rank test, p=0.015). Discontinuation due to AEs was only observed in the F-RAM/AFL group (3 cases). CONCLUSION: As a third-line treatment for mCRC, F-RAM/AFL should be prioritized over TAS-102 in terms of efficacy; however, the risk of AEs should be considered.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos
8.
JAMA ; 325(23): 2348-2356, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128999

RESUMO

Importance: Intravenous eptinezumab, an anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody, is approved for migraine prevention in adults. It has established onset of preventive efficacy on day 1 after infusion. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of and adverse events related to eptinezumab when initiated during a migraine attack. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted from November 4, 2019, to July 8, 2020, at 47 sites in the United States and the country of Georgia. Participants (aged 18-75 years) with a greater than 1-year history of migraine and migraine on 4 to 15 days per month in the 3 months prior to screening were treated during a moderate to severe migraine attack. Interventions: Eptinezumab, 100 mg (n = 238), or placebo (n = 242), administered intravenously within 1 to 6 hours of onset of a qualifying moderate to severe migraine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Co-primary efficacy end points were time to headache pain freedom and time to absence of most bothersome symptom (nausea, photophobia, or phonophobia). Key secondary end points were headache pain freedom and absence of most bothersome symptom at 2 hours after start of infusion. Additional secondary end points were headache pain freedom and absence of most bothersome symptom at 4 hours and use of rescue medication within 24 hours. Results: Of 480 randomized and treated patients (mean age, 44 years; 84% female), 476 completed the study. Patients treated with eptinezumab vs placebo, respectively, achieved statistically significantly faster headache pain freedom (median, 4 hours vs 9 hours; hazard ratio, 1.54 [P < .001]) and absence of most bothersome symptom (median, 2 hours vs 3 hours; hazard ratio, 1.75 [P < .001]). At 2 hours after infusion, in the respective eptinezumab and placebo groups, headache pain freedom was achieved by 23.5% and 12.0% (between-group difference, 11.6% [95% CI, 4.78%-18.31%]; odds ratio, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.39-3.72]; P < .001) and absence of most bothersome symptom by 55.5% and 35.8% (between-group difference, 19.6% [95% CI, 10.87%-28.39%]; odds ratio, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.55-3.25]; P < .001). Results remained statistically significant at 4 hours after infusion. Statistically significantly fewer eptinezumab-treated patients used rescue medication within 24 hours than did placebo patients (31.5% vs 59.9%, respectively; between-group difference, -28.4% [95% CI, -36.95% to -19.86%]; odds ratio, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.21-0.45]; P < .001). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 10.9% of the eptinezumab group and 10.3% of the placebo group; the most common was hypersensitivity (eptinezumab, 2.1%; placebo, 0%). No treatment-emergent serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients eligible for preventive migraine therapy experiencing a moderate to severe migraine attack, treatment with intravenous eptinezumab vs placebo shortened time to headache and symptom resolution. Feasibility of administering eptinezumab treatment during a migraine attack and comparison with alternative treatments remain to be established. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04152083.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Hematol ; 100(7): 1733-1742, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018029

RESUMO

Anti-CD20 antibody treatments, such as obinutuzumab, have been associated with infusion-related reactions (IRRs). In the phase 3 iLLUMINATE study of ibrutinib-obinutuzumab versus chlorambucil-obinutuzumab in first-line chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, IRRs were substantially reduced with ibrutinib-obinutuzumab versus chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. We prospectively analyzed inflammatory cytokines to evaluate the impact of ibrutinib on circulating cytokine levels following obinutuzumab infusion. In iLLUMINATE, ibrutinib or chlorambucil was given approximately 30-120 min before the first obinutuzumab infusion. Cytokines evaluated were IFNγ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, and TNFα. Changes in peak cytokine levels from baseline (immediately before obinutuzumab) to post-obinutuzumab infusion were compared between arms and between patients with versus without IRRs using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Of 228 treated patients, 95 on ibrutinib-obinutuzumab (15 with IRRs, 80 without) and 88 on chlorambucil-obinutuzumab (45 with IRRs, 43 without) with cytokine data were included. Irrespective of IRR occurrence, median increase in cytokines was lower with ibrutinib-obinutuzumab versus chlorambucil-obinutuzumab for all cytokines (P < 0.01) except MIP-1ß. Across treatment arms, post-obinutuzumab median increase in all cytokines except MIP-1ß was greater in patients with versus without IRRs (P < 0.001). IL-6 and IL-8 elevations were associated with IRRs in both treatment arms. Among patients with IRRs, those receiving ibrutinib-obinutuzumab had lower post-obinutuzumab increases in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and MCP-1 (P < 0.04) than patients receiving chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. For patients in the ibrutinib-treatment arm, we observed a reduction in both the rate of clinically apparent IRRs and the levels of IRR-related cytokines and chemokines. This observation supports an immunomodulatory mechanism of action for ibrutinib. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02264574.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Medicação , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 194, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232064

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that CD147 serves as a novel receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Blocking CD147 via anti-CD147 antibody could suppress the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication. Meplazumab is a humanized anti-CD147 IgG2 monoclonal antibody, which may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of meplazumab in healthy subjects, and an open-labeled, concurrent controlled add-on exploratory phase 2 study to determine the efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In phase 1 study, 59 subjects were enrolled and assigned to eight cohorts, and no serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) or TEAE grade ≥3 was observed. The serum and peripheral blood Cmax and area under the curve showed non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. No obvious relation between the incidence or titer of positive anti-drug antibody and dosage was observed in each cohort. The biodistribution study indicated that meplazumab reached lung tissue and maintained >14 days stable with the lung tissue/cardiac blood-pool ratio ranging from 0.41 to 0.32. In the exploratory phase 2 study, 17 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and 11 hospitalized patients were involved as concurrent control. The meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (P = 0.005) and case severity (P = 0.021), and reduced the time to virus negative (P = 0.045) in comparison to the control group. These results show a sound safety and tolerance of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and suggest that meplazumab could accelerate the recovery of patients from COVID-19 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , COVID-19/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231339

RESUMO

Background: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established. Objectives: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. Methods: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation. Results: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
J Med Invest ; 68(1.2): 192-195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231288

RESUMO

This report presents a case of a 74-year-old man who showed dramatic therapeutic response to treatment of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. He reported four-day history of sustained fever and acute progressive dyspnea. He developed severe respiratory failure, underwent urgent endotracheal intubation and showed marked elevation of inflammatory and coagulation markers such as c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diffuse consolidation and ground glass opacity (GGO). We diagnosed critical COVID-19 pneumonia with detailed sick contact history and naso-pharyngeal swab of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay testing. He received anti-viral drug, anti-interleukin (IL-6) receptor antagonist and intravenous methylprednisolone. After commencing combined intensive therapy, he showed dramatic improvement of clinical condition, serum biomarkers and radiological findings. Early diagnosis and rapid critical care management may provide meaningful clinical benefit even if severe case. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 192-195, February, 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Terminal , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 97: 102172, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989949

RESUMO

Treatment outcomes have improved with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors. However, many patients do not respond with single agents. Consequently, ongoing research is focused on the use of combination therapies to increase clinical efficacy by potential synergistic effects. Here, we outline ongoing trials and review the rationale and evidence for the combination of avelumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), with cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) IgG1 mAb. Avelumab is approved as a monotherapy for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma, and in combination with axitinib for renal cell carcinoma; cetuximab is approved in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, and in combination with radiation therapy for SCCHN. Avelumab binds to PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells and immune regulatory cells, thus blocking its interaction with programmed death 1 and reventing T-cell suppression; cetuximab inhibits the EGFR signaling pathway, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Both therapies have complementary mechanisms of action and may also activate the immune system to induce innate effector function through the binding of their Fc regions to natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, cetuximab combined with chemotherapy has been shown to induce immunogenic cell death and leads to an increase in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and NK cells, which should synergize with the immunostimulatory effects of avelumab. Prospective studies will investigate this combination and inform future treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico
14.
J Med Invest ; 68(1.2): 192-195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994470

RESUMO

This report presents a case of a 74-year-old man who showed dramatic therapeutic response to treatment of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. He reported four-day history of sustained fever and acute progressive dyspnea. He developed severe respiratory failure, underwent urgent endotracheal intubation and showed marked elevation of inflammatory and coagulation markers such as c-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diffuse consolidation and ground glass opacity (GGO). We diagnosed critical COVID-19 pneumonia with detailed sick contact history and naso-pharyngeal swab of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay testing. He received anti-viral drug, anti-interleukin (IL-6) receptor antagonist and intravenous methylprednisolone. After commencing combined intensive therapy, he showed dramatic improvement of clinical condition, serum biomarkers and radiological findings. Early diagnosis and rapid critical care management may provide meaningful clinical benefit even if severe case. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 192-195, February, 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Terminal , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 779-789, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2 amplification has been identified in 2-3% of patients with colorectal cancer, although there are currently no approved HER2-targeted therapies for colorectal cancer. We aimed to study the antitumour activity and safety of trastuzumab deruxtecan (an antibody-drug conjugate of humanised anti-HER2 antibody with topoisomerase I inhibitor payloads) in patients with HER2-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: DESTINY-CRC01 is an open-label, phase 2 study that recruited patients from 25 clinics and hospitals in Italy, Japan, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Eligible patients had centrally confirmed HER2-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer that had progressed on two or more previous regimens (HER2-targeted therapies other than trastuzumab deruxtecan permitted), were aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan), had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0 or 1, and had RAS and BRAFV600E wild-type tumours. Patients were enrolled into one of three cohorts by HER2 expression level: cohort A (HER2-positive, immunohistochemistry [IHC] 3+ or IHC2+ and in-situ hybridisation [ISH]-positive), cohort B (IHC2+ and ISH-negative), or cohort C (IHC1+). Patients received 6·4 mg/kg trastuzumab deruxtecan intravenously every 3 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, withdrawal of consent, or death. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate in cohort A by independent central review which was assessed in the full analysis set and safety was assessed in the safety analysis set. Both the full analysis set and the safety analysis set included all patients who received one or more doses of trastuzumab deruxtecan. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03384940. FINDINGS: Between Feb 23, 2018, and July 3, 2019, 78 patients were enrolled in the study (53 in cohort A, seven in cohort B, and 18 in cohort C), all of whom received at least one dose of study drug. For the 53 (68%) patients with HER2-positive tumours (cohort A), a confirmed objective response was reported in 24 (45·3%, 95% CI 31·6-59·6) patients after a median follow-up of 27·1 weeks (IQR 19·3-40·1). Grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 10% of all participants were decreased neutrophil count (17 [22%] of 78) and anaemia (11 [14%]). Five patients (6%) had adjudicated interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis (two grade 2; one grade 3; two grade 5, the only treatment-related deaths). INTERPRETATION: Trastuzumab deruxtecan showed promising and durable activity in HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard treatment, with a safety profile consistent with that reported in previous trastuzumab deruxtecan trials. Interstitial lung disease and pneumonitis are important risks requiring careful monitoring and prompt intervention. FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Itália/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Espanha/epidemiologia , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 836-847, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-PD-1 therapy (hereafter referred to as anti-PD-1) induces long-term disease control in approximately 30% of patients with metastatic melanoma; however, two-thirds of patients are resistant and will require further treatment. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 (pembrolizumab or nivolumab) compared with ipilimumab monotherapy in patients who are resistant to anti-PD-(L)1 therapy (hereafter referred to as anti-PD-[L]1). METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, was done at 15 melanoma centres in Australia, Europe, and the USA. We included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with metastatic melanoma (unresectable stage III and IV), who were resistant to anti-PD-(L)1 (innate or acquired resistance) and who then received either ipilimumab monotherapy or ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 (pembrolizumab or nivolumab), based on availability of therapies or clinical factors determined by the physician, or both. Tumour response was assessed as per standard of care (CT or PET-CT scans every 3 months). The study endpoints were objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety of ipilimumab compared with ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1. FINDINGS: We included 355 patients with metastatic melanoma, resistant to anti-PD-(L)1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab), who had been treated with ipilimumab monotherapy (n=162 [46%]) or ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 (n=193 [54%]) between Feb 1, 2011, and Feb 6, 2020. At a median follow-up of 22·1 months (IQR 9·5-30·9), the objective response rate was higher with ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 (60 [31%] of 193 patients) than with ipilimumab monotherapy (21 [13%] of 162 patients; p<0·0001). Overall survival was longer in the ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 group (median overall survival 20·4 months [95% CI 12·7-34·8]) than with ipilimumab monotherapy (8·8 months [6·1-11·3]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·50, 95% CI 0·38-0·66; p<0·0001). Progression-free survival was also longer with ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 (median 3·0 months [95% CI 2·6-3·6]) than with ipilimumab (2·6 months [2·4-2·9]; HR 0·69, 95% CI 0·55-0·87; p=0·0019). Similar proportions of patients reported grade 3-5 adverse events in both groups (59 [31%] of 193 patients in the ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 group vs 54 [33%] of 162 patients in the ipilimumab group). The most common grade 3-5 adverse events were diarrhoea or colitis (23 [12%] of 193 patients in the ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 group vs 33 [20%] of 162 patients in the ipilimumab group) and increased alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase (24 [12%] vs 15 [9%]). One death occurred with ipilimumab 26 days after the last treatment: a colon perforation due to immune-related pancolitis. INTERPRETATION: In patients who are resistant to anti-PD-(L)1, ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 seemed to yield higher efficacy than ipilimumab with a higher objective response rate, longer progression-free, and longer overall survival, with a similar rate of grade 3-5 toxicity. Ipilimumab plus anti-PD-1 should be favoured over ipilimumab alone as a second-line immunotherapy for these patients with advanced melanoma. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 790-800, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not respond to or who have progressive disease after salvage therapies have a poor prognosis. Loncastuximab tesirine is a CD19-directed antibody-drug conjugate with encouraging phase 1 single-agent antitumour activity and acceptable safety in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity and safety of loncastuximab tesirine in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. METHODS: We did a multicentre (28 hospital sites in the USA, UK, Italy, and Switzerland), open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial (LOTIS-2) in patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed or refractory DLBCL after two or more multiagent systemic treatments, who had measurable disease and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Eligible patients received loncastuximab tesirine intravenously on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, at 150 µg/kg for two cycles, then 75 µg/kg thereafter, for up to 1 year or until disease relapse or progression, unacceptable toxicity, death, major protocol deviation, pregnancy, or patient, investigator, or sponsor decision. The primary endpoint was overall response rate assessed by central review. Primary antitumour activity and safety analyses were done in the as-treated population (patients who received at least one dose of loncastuximab tesirine), when all responding patients had at least 6 months of follow-up after initial documented response. Enrolment is complete. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03589469. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2018, and Sept 24, 2019, 184 patients were assessed for eligibility and 145 (79%) were enrolled and received at least one dose of loncastuximab tesirine, including patients with high-risk characteristics for poor prognosis, such as double-hit, triple-hit, transformed, or primary refractory DLBCL. 70 of 145 patients had complete or partial response (overall response rate 48·3% [95% CI 39·9-56·7]); 35 had complete response and 35 had partial response. The most common grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (37 [26%] of 145 patients), thrombocytopenia (26 [18%]), and increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (24 [17%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 57 (39%) of 145 patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events with a fatal outcome occurred in eight (6%) of 145 patients; none were considered related to loncastuximab tesirine. INTERPRETATION: Loncastuximab tesirine has substantial single-agent antitumour activity and produces durable responses with an acceptable safety profile, potentially offering a new therapeutic option for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. FUNDING: ADC Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD19/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos CD19/genética , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Itália/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 883-892, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab (PD-1 inhibitor) and cetuximab (EGFR inhibitor) are active as single agents and in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Given each drug's single agent activity and unique mechanism of action, we aimed to evaluate the anti-tumour activity of PD-1 blockade with EGFR inhibition in recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. METHODS: This study is an open-label, non-randomised, multi-arm, phase 2 trial done at four academic centres in the USA. Participants were required to have platinum-resistant or platinum-ineligible, recurrent or metastatic HNSCC, be at least 18 years old, have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, have measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, and to have received no previous immunotherapy or EGFR inhibition. All participants received pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks, combined with an initial loading dose of cetuximab 400 mg/m2 intravenously followed by 250 mg/m2 intravenously weekly (21 day cycle). The primary endpoint was overall response rate defined as the proportion of participants with a partial or complete responses (per RECIST version 1.1) by 6 months in the intention-to-treat population. The safety population included all participants who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab. Herein, the final analysis of cohort 1 (no previous PD-1, PD-L1, or EGFR inhibition for recurrent or metastatic HNSCC) is reported. Three additional cohorts (two for participants with a previous response to immunotherapy followed by relapse or progression, with or without previous cetuximab exposure, and one for cutaneous HNSCC) will be reported separately once fully accrued. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03082534, and remains open as the three additional cohorts are actively accruing participants. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2017, and July 16, 2019, 33 participants were enrolled to cohort 1. All 33 participants received at least one dose of pembrolizumab. Median follow-up duration was 7·3 months (IQR 3·9-10·9). By 6 months, the overall response rate was 45% (95% CI 28-62), with 15 of 33 participants achieving a partial response. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse event was oral mucositis (three [9%] of 33 participants), and serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in five (15%) participants. No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab combined with cetuximab shows promising clinical activity for recurrent or metastatic HNSCC, and merits further investigation. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 848-857, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before February, 2021, there was no standard treatment regimen for locally advanced basal cell carcinoma after first-line hedgehog inhibitor (HHI) therapy. Cemiplimab, a PD-1 antibody, is approved for treatment of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and has shown clinical activity as monotherapy in first-line non-small-cell lung cancer. Here, we present the primary analysis data of cemiplimab in patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma after HHI therapy. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial across 38 outpatient clinics, primarily at academic medical centres, in Canada, Europe, and the USA. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1) with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (group 1) or locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (group 2) who had progressed on or were intolerant to previous HHI therapy were enrolled. Patients were not candidates for further HHI therapy due to progression of disease on or intolerance to previous HHI therapy or having no better than stable disease after 9 months on HHI therapy. Patients received cemiplimab 350 mg intravenously every 3 weeks for up to 93 weeks or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response by independent central review. Analyses were done as per the intention-to-treat principle. The safety analysis comprised all patients who received at least one dose of cemiplimab. The primary analysis is reported only for group 2; group 1 data have not reached maturity and will be reported when the timepoint, according to the statistical analysis plan, has been reached. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03132636, and is no longer recruiting new participants. FINDINGS: Between Nov 16, 2017, and Jan 7, 2019, 84 patients were enrolled and treated with cemiplimab. At data cutoff on Feb 17, 2020, median duration of follow-up was 15 months (IQR 8-18). An objective response per independent central review was observed in 26 (31%; 95% CI 21-42) of 84 patients, including two partial responses that emerged at tumour assessments before the data cutoff and were confirmed by tumour assessments done subsequent to the data cutoff. The best overall response was five (6%) patients with a complete response and 21 (25%) with a partial response. Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 40 (48%) of 84 patients; the most common were hypertension (four [5%] of 84 patients) and colitis (four [5%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 29 (35%) of 84 patients. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Cemiplimab exhibited clinically meaningful antitumour activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma after HHI therapy. FUNDING: Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Basocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 858-871, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several de-escalation approaches are under investigation in patients with HER2-positive, early-stage breast cancer. We assessed early metabolic responses to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and pertuzumab using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET (18F-FDG-PET) and the possibility of chemotherapy de-escalation using a pathological response-adapted strategy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-comparative, phase 2 trial in 45 hospitals in Spain, France, Belgium, Germany, the UK, Italy, and Portugal. Eligible participants were women aged 18 years or older with centrally confirmed, HER2-positive, stage I-IIIA, invasive, operable breast cancer (≥1·5 cm tumour size) with at least one breast lesion evaluable by 18F-FDG-PET, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and a baseline left ventricular ejection fraction of at least 55%. We randomly assigned participants (1:4), via an interactive response system using central block randomisation with block sizes of five, stratified by hormone receptor status, to either docetaxel (75 mg/m2 intravenous), carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve 6 mg/mL per min intravenous), trastuzumab (subcutaneous 600 mg fixed dose), and pertuzumab (intravenous 840 mg loading dose, 420 mg maintenance doses; group A); or trastuzumab and pertuzumab (group B). Hormone receptor-positive patients allocated to group B were additionally given letrozole if postmenopausal (2·5 mg/day orally) or tamoxifen if premenopausal (20 mg/day orally). Centrally reviewed 18F-FDG-PET scans were done before randomisation and after two treatment cycles. Patients assigned to group A completed six cycles of treatment (every 3 weeks) regardless of 18F-FDG-PET results. All patients assigned to group B initially received two cycles of trastuzumab and pertuzumab. 18F-FDG-PET responders in group B continued this treatment for six further cycles; 18F-FDG-PET non-responders in this group were switched to six cycles of docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab. Surgery was done 2-6 weeks after the last dose of study treatment. Adjuvant treatment was selected according to the neoadjuvant treatment administered, pathological response, hormone receptor status, and clinical stage at diagnosis. The coprimary endpoints were the proportion of 18F-FDG-PET responders in group B with a pathological complete response in the breast and axilla (ypT0/is ypN0) as determined by a local pathologist after surgery after eight cycles of treatment, and 3-year invasive disease-free survival of patients in group B, both assessed by intention to treat. The definitive assessment of pathological complete response was done at this primary analysis; follow-up to assess invasive disease-free survival is continuing, hence these data are not included in this Article. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. Health-related quality-of-life was assessed with EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires at baseline, after two cycles of treatment, and before surgery. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2016-002676-27) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03161353), and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 26, 2017, and April 24, 2019, we randomly assigned 71 patients to group A and 285 to group B. Median follow-up was 5·7 months (IQR 5·3-6·0). 227 (80%) of 285 patients in group B were 18F-FDG-PET responders, of whom 86 (37·9%, 95% CI 31·6-44·5; p<0·0001 compared with the historical rate) of 227 had a pathological complete response. The most common haematological grade 3-4 adverse events were anaemia (six [9%] of 68 patients in group A vs four [1%] of 283 patients in group B), neutropenia (16 [24%] vs ten [4%]), and febrile neutropenia (14 [21%] vs 11 [4%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 20 (29%) of 68 patients in group A versus 13 (5%) of 283 patients in group B. No deaths were reported during neoadjuvant treatment. Global health status declined by at least 10% in 65·0% (95% CI 46·5-72·4) and 35·5% (29·7-41·7) of patients in groups A and B, respectively INTERPRETATION: 18F-FDG-PET identified patients with HER2-positive, early-stage breast cancer who were likely to benefit from chemotherapy-free dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab and pertuzumab, and a reduced impact on global health status. Depending on the forthcoming results for the 3-year invasive disease-free survival endpoint, this strategy might be a valid approach to select patients not requiring chemotherapy. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
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