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1.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1059-1073, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471629

RESUMO

Large-vessel vasculitis includes giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). GCA can affect persons from the age of 50 years and is more frequent among women. The disease course generally begins with an acute phase, with patients feeling very unwell and experiencing temporal headaches. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are necessary to reduce the risk of blindness. A suspected diagnosis must be confirmed by imaging, histology is optional. Initial treatment comprises oral prednisone. Recent studies have demonstrated inhibition of interleukin­6 with tocilizumab (TCZ) to be highly effective. Alternatively, methotrexate can be administered in a steroid-sparing approach. In contrast, TA onset is generally during childhood or adolescence, and begins with moderate systemic inflammation. The aorta and its main branches are affected. Treatment comprises steroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor infliximab or TCZ.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Arterite de Takayasu/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Células Gigantes , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16682, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393368

RESUMO

Some patients have poor response to adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) traditional treatment, which easily recurs during the reduction of prednisone. We observed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab combined with methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of refractory AOSD, and to explore the possibility of reducing the dosage of tocilizumab after disease control.A total of 28 refractory AOSD cases who had an inadequate response to corticosteroids combined with at least 1 traditional immunosuppressive agent, and even large-dose prednisone could not relieve their conditions after recurrence, were selected in this study. They were treated with tocilizumab (intravenous 8 mg/kg) combined with MTX (oral 12.5 mg once a week). In detail, tocilizumab was firstly given every 4 weeks and after 6-month remission, it was then given every 8 weeks. Some items including body temperature, skin rash, joint swelling and pain, hepatosplenomegaly, blood routine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and dosage of prednisone were observed before treatment as well as 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after treatment. The adverse reactions occurring during the treatment were recorded.The body temperature was normal, the skin rash as well as joint swelling and pain disappeared, and laboratory indexes including CRP, ESR, white blood cell, neutrophilic granulocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, and ferritin were significantly improved after 8-week treatment (all P < .05). The clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes above mentioned were continuously improved 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after treatment. The mean dosage of prednisone was reduced from 71.4 ±â€Š20.7 mg/day to 55.0 ±â€Š11.1 mg/day after 2-week treatment, and to 3.3 ±â€Š2.1 mg/day after 48-week treatment (all P < .05). Prednisone was discontinued in 5 cases after 36-week treatment and in 7 cases after 48-week treatment. No serious adverse reactions occurred during the treatment.Tocilizumab can rapidly and markedly improve the clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes and contribute to reduction and discontinuation of prednisone in refractory AOSD. The patients' conditions are stable after reduction or discontinuation of prednisone and the tocilizumab possesses good safety.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16417, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335691

RESUMO

We aimed to assess serial F-FDG PET/CT imaging according to morphological (RECIST1.1, iRECIST) and functional (PERCIST, PECRIT) criteria to predict clinical response to therapy in patients with advanced melanoma receiving immune checkpoint blocking agents.Retrospective data collection and analysis was done for 37 patients with unresectable metastatic cutaneous melanoma eligible for immunotherapy (cycles: 4 for ipilimumab and pembrolizumab/ 6 for nivolumab).F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed prior to (F-FDG PET/CT 0) and 14 weeks after ICI onset (F-FDG PET/CT 1). Some cases during the follow-up required imaging (F-FDG PET/CT 2). Assessment of patient response to treatment was done according to RECIST1.1, iRECIST, PERCIST and PECRIT criteria.Among 37 assessed patients, 27 had 1 line of ICI, 8 had 2 lines of ICI and 2 patients had 3 lines of ICI: total of 49 PET/CTs. Mean time between initiation of ICI and F-FDG PET/CT (1 or 2) were respectively 13.82 ±â€Š4.32 and 24.73 ±â€Š9.53 weeks. Time between F-FDG PET/CT 1 and F-FDG PET/CT 2 was at mean +/- SD: 11.19w ±â€Š5.59. Median PFS was 29.62 months (range 22.52-36.71) (P = .001: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .000: PERCIST), (P = .072: PECRIT). Median OS was 36.62 months (30.46-42.78) (P = .005: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .001: PERCIST), (P = .082 PECRIT).F-FDG PET/CT could detect eventual ICI-response in patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ICI using iRECIST and PERCIST criteria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Ipilimumab , Melanoma , Nivolumabe , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
5.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(9): 769-776, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303060

RESUMO

Introduction: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are rare non-Hodgkin lymphomas of skin-homing T-cells that initially or mainly manifest cutaneously. Treatment of CTCL is challenging given the disease states' varying presentation and prognosis. Systemic treatment options often lack comparative evidence and have relatively low response rates and short duration of response. The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of mogamulizumab in adult patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) CTCL after at least one prior line of therapy provided a new treatment option to patients with advanced disease. Areas covered: The authors discuss basic information about CTCL and mogamulizumab's mechanism of action. Then, the authors discuss the agent's efficacy. Finally, the authors evaluate the safety of mogamulizumab in comparison to other agents available in CTCL. Expert opinion: Mogamulizumab has been shown to be an effective and well tolerated therapy for patients with relapsed and refractory MF/SS with excellent activity in the circulating component of the disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16164, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277120

RESUMO

Thrombosis are severe complications of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), effectively reduced by eculizumab. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play a central role. The objective of this study was to assess the procoagulant activity of plasma isolated from PNH patients (treated or not by eculizumab) and to quantify their circulating EVs.We iteratively collected the platelet-free-plasma of 17 PNH patients and 16 matched healthy volunteers, quantified their circulating EVs by flow cytometry and evaluated their procoagulant activity by thrombin generation and STA-Procoag-procoagulant phospholipid (PPL) assays.A significant decrease of EVs from platelets (P = .024) and an increase of the STA-Procoag-PPL clotting time (P = .049) was observed after initiation of eculizumab and up to 11 weeks after. This reduction of prothrombotic biomarkers was not observed with the thrombin generation test due to a lack of sensitivity of this assay. Active hemolysis was observed in 90% of patients and elevated D-dimers in 41% of them. However, no significant difference was observed between patients and control subjects regarding the procoagulant activity, the EVs quantity, or the cellular origin. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were lower in eculizumab-treated patients compared to nontreated patients (441 vs 2448 IU/L). D-dimers and LDH decreased after administration of eculizumab (mean decrease of 1307 ng/mL and 4159 IU/L, respectively).These observations suggest a decrease of the phospholipid-dependent procoagulant potential of EVs after eculizumab therapy in PNH patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:: NUB: B039201214365.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citometria de Fluxo , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/sangue , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Trombose/etiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16285, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277158

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It is known that 5% to 34% of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) cases are complicated by neuropathy in the form of myelitis. Although SS myelopathy (SSM) is often treated with glucocorticoid (GC) and immunosuppressants such as cyclophosphamide (CY), a therapeutic strategy for SSM has not been established. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old female was admitted with weakness and thermal hypoalgesia in the lower limbs. Four months before this admission, she showed weakness in her lower limbs and thermal hypoalgesia of bilateral upper and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the cause of her neurological symptoms was cervical myelitis. She was diagnosed with SS because she tested positive for the ophthalmic test (Schirmer's test and fluorescent test) and for the anti-SS-A antibodies. Therefore, myelitis was thought to be a complication of SS. She was treated with GC and CY. Both neurological symptoms and MRI findings temporarily improved, and the GC dose was gradually decreased. One month before this admission, her neurological symptoms and MRI findings were exacerbated. Upon relapse of SSM, serum amyloid A protein (SAA) level was markedly elevated. DIAGNOSES: Based on MRI findings, the diagnosis was SSM relapse. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment by subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ) 162 mg every two weeks was introduced. OUTCOMES: After introducing TCZ, her neurological symptoms and MRI findings gradually improved. SAA levels remained low. At eight months after the introduction of TCZ, the GC dose has been decreased and so far, the myelitis has not relapsed. LESSONS: This case report is the first report suggesting the effectiveness of TCZ for refractory SSM. Subcutaneous TCZ might be an effective therapeutic option for treating refractory SSM when SAA levels are elevated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Mielite/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Idoso , Vértebras Cervicais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mielite/diagnóstico , Mielite/etiologia
8.
JAMA ; 322(1): 37-48, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265100

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) may remain symptomatic with traditional OA treatments. Objective: To assess 2 subcutaneous tanezumab dosing regimens for OA. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial from January 2016 to May 14, 2018 (last patient visit). Patients enrolled were 18 years or older with hip or knee OA, inadequate response to OA analgesics, and no radiographic evidence of prespecified joint safety conditions. Interventions: Patients received by subcutaneous administration either tanezumab, 2.5 mg, at day 1 and week 8 (n = 231); tanezumab, 2.5 mg at day 1 and 5 mg at week 8 (ie, tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg; n = 233); or placebo at day 1 and week 8 (n = 232). Main Outcomes and Measures: Co-primary end points were change from baseline to week 16 in Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain (0-10, no to extreme pain), WOMAC Physical Function (0-10, no to extreme difficulty), and patient global assessment of osteoarthritis (PGA-OA) (1-5, very good to very poor) scores. Results: Among 698 patients randomized, 696 received 1 or more treatment doses (mean [SD] age, 60.8 [9.6] years; 65.1% women), and 582 (83.6%) completed the trial. From baseline to 16 weeks, mean WOMAC Pain scores decreased from 7.1 to 3.6 in the tanezumab, 2.5 mg, group; 7.3 to 3.6 in the tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg, group; and 7.3 to 4.4 in the placebo group (least squares mean differences [95% CI] vs placebo were -0.60 [-1.07 to -0.13; P = .01] for tanezumab, 2.5 mg, and -0.73 [-1.20 to -0.26; P = .002] for tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg). Mean WOMAC Physical Function scores decreased from 7.2 to 3.7 in the 2.5-mg group, 7.4 to 3.6 in the 2.5/5-mg group, and 7.4 to 4.5 with placebo (differences vs placebo, -0.66 [-1.14 to -0.19; P = .007] for tanezumab, 2.5 mg, and -0.89 [-1.37 to -0.42; P < .001] for tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg). Mean PGA-OA scores decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 in the 2.5-mg group, 3.5 to 2.4 in the 2.5/5-mg group, and 3.5 to 2.7 with placebo (differences vs placebo, -0.22 [-0.39 to -0.05; P = .01] for tanezumab, 2.5 mg, and -0.25 [-0.41 to -0.08; P = .004] for tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg). Rapidly progressive OA occurred only in tanezumab-treated patients (2.5 mg: n = 5, 2.2%; 2.5/5 mg: n = 1, 0.4%). The incidence of total joint replacements was 8 (3.5%), 16 (6.9%), and 4 (1.7%) in the tanezumab, 2.5 mg; tanezumab, 2.5/5 mg; and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe OA of the knee or hip and inadequate response to standard analgesics, tanezumab, compared with placebo, resulted in statistically significant improvements in scores assessing pain and physical function, and in PGA-OA, although the improvements were modest and tanezumab-treated patients had more joint safety events and total joint replacements. Further research is needed to determine the clinical importance of these efficacy and adverse event findings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02697773.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Substituição/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor
9.
Drugs ; 79(12): 1355-1361, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313098

RESUMO

Camrelizumab (AiRuiKa™), a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor being developed by Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd, recently received conditional approval in China for the treatment of relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The drug is also being investigated as a treatment for various other malignancies, including B cell lymphoma, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, nasopharyngeal cancer and non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of camrelizumab leading to this first approval for classical Hodgkin lymphoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , China , Aprovação de Drogas , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Oncology ; 97(4): 228-235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immuno-oncological (IO) therapies such as PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies have been introduced in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) since 2015 based on randomized trials showing unprecedented advantages in overall survival (OS) with hazard ratios (HRs) between 0.5 and 0.7. The impact of these treatments on OS in routine clinical practice and the role of tumor mass have not been studied. METHODS: 557 consecutive patients with inoperable stage III or stage IV NSCLC diagnosed in our certified lung cancer center from 2006 to 2018 were included if they had received at least one line of systemic treatment. OS of immuno-oncologically treated patients (IO patients, n = 144) who received treatment with a PD-1 antibody (nivolumab [n = 77] or pembrolizumab [n = 51]) or a PD-L1 antibody (atezolizumab [n = 4] or durvalumab [n = 12]) was compared to historic controls treated before availability of IO treatment (n = 413) using case-control analysis. IO patients and historic controls were individually matched for stage, performance state, histology, smoking status, gender, age, and initial treatment mode (palliative vs. definitive radio-chemotherapy). RESULTS: Case-control analysis of 91 matched pairs showed significantly longer OS in IO patients compared to historic controls (21.2 vs. 10.9 months, HR 0.526, CI 0.373-0.723). The benefit was more pronounced in patients with lower tumor stage (HR 0.48 [stage III], 0.40 [IVA], 0.63 [IVB]) or smaller tumor size (HR 0.38 [RECIST ≤57 mm], 0.40 [RECIST 58-94 mm], 0.59 [RECIST 95-141 mm], 0.75 [RECIST ≥142 mm]). CONCLUSIONS: IO patients showed significant benefit in OS with HRs comparable to those reported in phase III trials. The benefit tended to be greater in patients with lower tumor mass.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(7): 617-627, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230485

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite improvements in the management of HER2+ breast cancer, metastatic disease is still fatal. Usually, these patients receive several lines of chemotherapy associated with HER2 targeted treatments. Most of the trials using innovative approaches are positioning themselves in disease that is resistant to pertuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1). AREAS COVERED: We describe the recent advances in clinical development of anti-HER2 treatments. To this aim, we used literature search via Pubmed and made an inventory of abstracts published during the last two years in major oncology conferences. EXPERT OPINION: Further changes will probably occur during the next decade in the management of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. This is mainly driven by the fact that the two mainstay drugs (pertuzumab and TDM-1) that confer prolonged survival (56 months) to these patients are currently being used in the treatment of early-stage disease in a subset of patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new, innovative approaches in those patients whose disease has become resistant to these highly potent drugs. Several new antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies or new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs) hold promise and should be assessed and compared with drugs currently used.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Desenho de Drogas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Maitansina/administração & dosagem , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Maitansina/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/farmacologia
12.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 941-946, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171878

RESUMO

Blocking programmed death 1 (PD-1) may enhance the durability of anti-tumor responses that are induced by the combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK1. Here we performed a randomized phase 2 trial ( NCT02130466 ), in which patients with treatment-naive BRAFV600E/K-mutant, advanced melanoma received the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib together with the PD-1-blocking antibody pembrolizumab (triplet; n = 60) or placebo (doublet; n = 60). The primary end point of progression-free survival was numerically improved in the triplet group-16.0 months-compared with 10.3 months in the doublet group (hazard ratio, 0.66; P = 0.043); however, the trial did not reach the planned benefit for a statistically significant improvement. Median duration of response was 18.7 months (95% confidence interval, 10.1-22.1) and 12.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-14.1); 59.8 and 27.8% of responses were estimated to have lasted for more than 18 months for triplet and doublet treatment, respectively. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 58.3 and 26.7% of patients treated with triplet and doublet therapies, respectively, which were most commonly fever, increased transaminase levels and rash. One patient who received triplet therapy died of pneumonitis. In summary, triplet therapy with dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab conferred numerically longer progression-free survival and duration of response with a higher rate of grade 3/4 adverse events compared with the doublet therapy of dabrafenib, trametinib and placebo.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 936-940, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171879

RESUMO

Oncogene-targeted therapy with B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces a high initial response rate in patients with BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with a median duration of response of approximately 1 year1-3. Immunotherapy with antibodies to programmed death 1 (PD-1) produces lower response rates but with long response duration. Preclinical models suggest that combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors with PD-1 blockade therapy improves antitumor activity4-6, which may provide additional treatment options for patients unlikely to have long-lasting responses to either mode of therapy alone. We enrolled 15 patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma in a first-in-human clinical trial of dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab ( NCT02130466 ). Eleven patients (73%) experienced grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events, the most common being elevation of liver function tests and pyrexia, most of which resolved with drug interruption or discontinuation of either the anti-PD-1 antibody or the targeted therapy combination. Eleven patients (73%; 95% confidence interval = 45-92%) had an objective response, and six (40%; 95% confidence interval = 16-68%) continued with a response at a median follow-up of 27 months (range = 10.3-38.4+ months) for all patients. This study suggests that this triple-combined therapy may benefit a subset of patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma by increasing the frequency of long-lasting antitumor responses.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(6): 444-448, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159524

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab and cyclophosphamide in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). Methods: Twenty-seven TA patients treated with tocilizumab (TCZ group) and 22 treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX group) were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. The duration of treatment was 6 months. Disease activity and side effects were compared between the two groups. Results: After treatment, the median C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and disease activity scores in TCZ group were significantly lower than those in CTX group respectively [ESR 3 mm/1h vs. 8 mm/1h; CRP 0.13 mg/L vs. 1.09 mg/L; National Institutes of Health (NIH) score 0(0,1) vs. 0(1,1); the Indian Takayasu clinical activity score (ITAS 2010) 0(0,2) vs. 2(0,3.5), and the Indian Takayasu activity score with the acute phase response (ITAS-A) 0(0,2) vs. 2.5(0,3.5); all P<0.05]. The daily prednisone doses before treatment and after treatment in TCZ group were significantly lower than those in CTX group [(20.1±15.9) mg/d vs. (39.3±16.7) mg/d;(5.1±4.2)mg/d vs. (12.1±4.6) mg/d,both P<0.05)].The incidence of drug-related side effects in TCZ group was significantly lower than that in CTX group, which was 22.2% vs. 54.5% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with CTX treatment, TCZ treatment for TA with less prednisone has better efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Arterite de Takayasu/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arterite de Takayasu/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 380(23): 2225-2236, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax has shown activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but its efficacy in combination with other agents in patients with CLL and coexisting conditions is not known. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we investigated fixed-duration treatment with venetoclax and obinutuzumab in patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting conditions. Patients with a score of greater than 6 on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (scores range from 0 to 56, with higher scores indicating more impaired function of organ systems) or a calculated creatinine clearance of less than 70 ml per minute were randomly assigned to receive venetoclax-obinutuzumab or chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. The safety of each regimen was also evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 432 patients (median age, 72 years; median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, 8; median creatinine clearance, 66.4 ml per minute) underwent randomization, with 216 assigned to each group. After a median follow-up of 28.1 months, 30 primary end-point events (disease progression or death) had occurred in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and 77 had occurred in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.53; P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the percentage of patients with progression-free survival at 24 months was significantly higher in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group than in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group: 88.2% (95% CI, 83.7 to 92.6) as compared with 64.1% (95% CI, 57.4 to 70.8). This benefit was also observed in patients with TP53 deletion, mutation, or both and in patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 52.8% of patients in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and in 48.1% of patients in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group, and grade 3 or 4 infections occurred in 17.5% and 15.0%, respectively. All-cause mortality was 9.3% in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and 7.9% in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group. These differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with untreated CLL and coexisting conditions, venetoclax-obinutuzumab was associated with longer progression-free survival than chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and AbbVie; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02242942.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
17.
N Engl J Med ; 381(11): 1023-1034, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of benralizumab, an interleukin-5 receptor alpha-directed cytolytic monoclonal antibody, for the prevention of exacerbations in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not known. METHODS: In the GALATHEA and TERRANOVA trials, we enrolled patients with COPD (at a ratio of approximately 2:1 on the basis of eosinophil count [≥220 per cubic millimeter vs. <220 per cubic millimeter]) who had frequent exacerbations despite receiving guideline-based inhaled treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to receive benralizumab (30 or 100 mg in GALATHEA; 10, 30, or 100 mg in TERRANOVA) every 8 weeks (every 4 weeks for the first three doses) or placebo. The primary end point was the treatment effect of benralizumab, measured as the annualized COPD exacerbation rate ratio (benralizumab vs. placebo) at week 56 in patients with baseline blood eosinophil counts of 220 per cubic millimeter or greater. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: In GALATHEA, the estimates of the annualized exacerbation rate were 1.19 per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.36) in the 30-mg benralizumab group, 1.03 per year (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.19) in the 100-mg benralizumab group, and 1.24 per year (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.42) in the placebo group; the rate ratio as compared with placebo was 0.96 for 30 mg of benralizumab (P = 0.65) and 0.83 for 100 mg of benralizumab (P = 0.05). In TERRANOVA, the estimates of the annualized exacerbation rate for 10 mg, 30 mg, and 100 mg of benralizumab and for placebo were 0.99 per year (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.13), 1.21 per year (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.37), 1.09 per year (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.23), and 1.17 per year (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.32), respectively; the corresponding rate ratios were 0.85 (P = 0.06), 1.04 (P = 0.66), and 0.93 (P = 0.40). At 56 weeks, none of the annualized COPD exacerbation rate ratios for any dose of benralizumab as compared with placebo reached significance in either trial. Types and frequencies of adverse events were similar with benralizumab and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Add-on benralizumab was not associated with a lower annualized rate of COPD exacerbations than placebo among patients with moderate to very severe COPD, a history of frequent moderate or severe exacerbations, and blood eosinophil counts of 220 per cubic millimeter or greater (Funded by AstraZeneca [GALATHEA and TERRANOVA] and Kyowa Hakko Kirin [GALATHEA]; GALATHEA and TERRANOVA ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02138916 and NCT02155660.).


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-5/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia
18.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 449, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of solid malignancies has been revolutionized with the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and their use is being expanded in therapy of different cancers. However, immune related adverse events (IRAEs) can occur during treatment. These side effects occur due to stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune system and can lead to serious complications. Recently, acral ischemia has been reported in some cases during treatment with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. Here, we discuss a case in which acral necrosis developed after initiation of a PD-1 inhibitor. We offer a review of the existing literature on the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old female was diagnosed with stage IV non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma and was started on pembrolizumab. The patient developed sudden onset numbness and discoloration of fingertips bilaterally at week 25 after initiation of ICI treatment. Extensive workup to rule out hypercoagulable, autoimmune and vascular disease was unremarkable except for mild elevation of ANA and ESR. The symptoms quickly progressed into dry gangrene within four weeks and did not respond to medical or surgical treatment. Pembrolizumab was subsequently discontinued due to progression of metastatic disease. The patient refused further interventions and transitioned to hospice care where she expired after two months. CONCLUSION: Acral ischemia can develop during treatment of malignancies. This complication, although uncommon, canresult in digital amputation. Physicians should be aware of the possible progression of acral vascular necrosis when Raynaud's like symptoms develop. Larger studies are needed to confirm the role of ICIs in the pathogenesis of acral vascular necrosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Dedos/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Dedos/cirurgia , Gangrena , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico
19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 413, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies targeting the PD1/PD-L1 pathway have had a large impact on the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Concerning multimodality tumor therapy, only few trials until today have been performed investigating neoadjuvant treatment with anti PD-1 immunotherapy prior to curative intent surgery. Aim of the NEOMUN investigator initiated trial (EudraCT-Number: 2017-000105-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03197467) is to assess feasibility and safety of pre-surgical anti PD-1 treatment in order to improve long term survival. METHODS: The study is designed as an open-label, single arm, prospective, monocenter, phase II study including 30 patients with NSCLC stage II/IIIA suitable for curative intent surgery. Investigational drug is Pembrolizumab. After 2 cycles of immunotherapy (à 200 mg q3w i.v.), tumor resection with lobectomy or bilobectomy will be performed. Primary objectives are to assess the feasibility and safety of a neoadjuvant immunotherapy and to assess antitumor activity of Pembrolizumab with regard to clinical and pathological tumor response. Secondary objective is disease free and overall survival. Exploratory objective is to analyze potential predictive biomarkers and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Pembrolizumab by extended immune cell and cytokine analysis of tumor tissue. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee and the federal authority. Start of patient enrollment is scheduled for June 2018. DISCUSSION: The NEOMUN trial will be one of the first clinical trials investigating a multimodal treatment strategy including neoadjuvant immunotherapy using Pembrolizumab as an investigational drug. Assessing the safety and therapeutic potential of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in connection with lung surgery will be of great interest for thoracic surgeons. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively, the NEOMUN study has been registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT03197467 (first post: June 23rd, 2017).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 415, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While recent years have seen a revolution in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous melanoma, no treatment has yet been able to demonstrate any prolonged survival in metastatic uveal melanoma. Thus, metastatic uveal melanoma remains a disease with an urgent unmet medical need. Reports of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors have thus far been disappointing. Based on animal experiments, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the effect of immunotherapy may be augmented by epigenetic therapy. Proposed mechanisms include enhanced expression of HLA class I and cancer antigens on cancer cells, as well as suppression of myeloid suppressor cells. METHODS: The PEMDAC study is a multicenter, open label phase II study assessing the efficacy of concomitant use of the PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab and the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat in adult patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Primary endpoint is objective response rate. Eligible patients have histologically confirmed metastatic uveal melanoma, ECOG performance status 0-1, measurable disease as per RECIST 1.1 and may have received any number of prior therapies, with the exception of anticancer immunotherapy. Twenty nine patients will be enrolled. Patients receive pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every third week in combination with entinostat 5 mg orally once weekly. Treatment will continue until progression of disease or intolerable toxicity or for a maximum of 24 months. DISCUSSION: The PEMDAC study is the first trial to assess whether the addition of an HDAC inhibitor to anti-PD1 therapy can yield objective anti-tumoral responses in metastatic UM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02697630 . (Registered 3 March 2016). EudraCT registration number: 2016-002114-50.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
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