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2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4137, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230468

RESUMO

Unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an effective treatment for hematopoietic disorders. However, this attractive approach is frequently accompanied by pre-engraftment syndrome (PES), severe cases of PES are associated with enhanced mortality and morbidity, but the pathogenesis of PES remains unclear. Here we show that GM-CSF produced by cord blood-derived inflammatory monocytes drives PES pathology, and that monocytes are the main source of IL-6 during PES. Further, we report the outcome of a single arm, single-center clinical study of tocilizumab in the treatment of steroid-refractory severe PES patients (www.chictr.org.cn ChiCTR1800015472). The study met the primary outcome measure since none of the patients was nonrelapse death during the 100 days follow-up. The study also met key secondary outcomes measures of neutrophil engraftment and hematopoiesis. These findings offer a therapeutic strategy with which to tackle PES and improve nonrelapse mortality.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Doenças Hematológicas , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933973, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276042

RESUMO

Vaccinated, non-vaccinated, and immunosuppressed individuals will continue to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, there is a priority to develop treatments that reduce the severity of COVID-19 in patients who require hospital admission. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine. In 2011, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), tocilizumab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and Castleman's disease. In 2017, tocilizumab was approved to treat chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy-induced cytokine release syndrome (CRS). In 2021, the results of the REMAP-CAP clinical trial (NCT02735707) and the COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) clinical trial (NCT04381936) supported FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for tocilizumab to treat hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies are currently in clinical development or undergoing clinical trials to treat COVID-19. Further clinical trials will provide safety and efficacy data on targeting IL-6 and IL-6R and provide rationales for more personalized combination treatments to control the systemic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. This Editorial aims to present the background to the recent authorization of tocilizumab, a humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), for hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 and future combination therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos
4.
JAMA ; 326(3): 230-239, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283183

RESUMO

Importance: Effective treatments for patients with severe COVID-19 are needed. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of canakinumab, an anti-interleukin-1ß antibody, in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was conducted at 39 hospitals in Europe and the United States. A total of 454 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxia (not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV]), and systemic hyperinflammation defined by increased blood concentrations of C-reactive protein or ferritin were enrolled between April 30 and August 17, 2020, with the last assessment of the primary end point on September 22, 2020. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of canakinumab (450 mg for body weight of 40-<60 kg, 600 mg for 60-80 kg, and 750 mg for >80 kg; n = 227) or placebo (n = 227). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival without IMV from day 3 to day 29. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19-related mortality, measurements of biomarkers of systemic hyperinflammation, and safety evaluations. Results: Among 454 patients who were randomized (median age, 59 years; 187 women [41.2%]), 417 (91.9%) completed day 29 of the trial. Between days 3 and 29, 198 of 223 patients (88.8%) survived without requiring IMV in the canakinumab group and 191 of 223 (85.7%) in the placebo group, with a rate difference of 3.1% (95% CI, -3.1% to 9.3%) and an odds ratio of 1.39 (95% CI, 0.76 to 2.54; P = .29). COVID-19-related mortality occurred in 11 of 223 patients (4.9%) in the canakinumab group vs 16 of 222 (7.2%) in the placebo group, with a rate difference of -2.3% (95% CI, -6.7% to 2.2%) and an odds ratio of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.30 to 1.50). Serious adverse events were observed in 36 of 225 patients (16%) treated with canakinumab vs 46 of 223 (20.6%) who received placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19, treatment with canakinumab, compared with placebo, did not significantly increase the likelihood of survival without IMV at day 29. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04362813.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
South Med J ; 114(7): 432-437, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes of bradycardic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 221 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia between June and September 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, electrocardiographic data, and clinical and laboratory information were retrospectively collected. Patients not treated with drugs that blunt chronotropic response (nodal) were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Only patients whose heart rate was <60 beats per minute (bpm) (136/221, 61.5%) were included. Serial electrocardiography revealed that most patients (130/137, 97.7%) remained in sinus rhythm. The heart rate was between 50 and 59 bpm in 75% of the patients, while 18.4% were in the 40 to 49 bpm range, and 6.6% were <40 bpm. Medians for development of bradycardia after swab polymerase chain reaction positivity and duration of bradycardia were 41 hours and 5 days, respectively. Bradycardia resolved in 81 patients (59.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes according to degree of bradycardia (<50 vs 50-59, all P ≥ 0.073). No significant differences were noted for the overall cohort when comparing COVID-19 treatments according to resolution of bradycardia; however, when considering only the patients who were not receiving a nodal agent or antiarrhythmic, treatment with lenzilumab was more common in patients with resolution of bradycardia than patients without resolution of bradycardia (12.2% vs 0.0%, P = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Sinus bradycardia occurs frequently in patients with severe COVID-19, but the degree of bradycardia does not correlate with clinical outcomes. Lenzilumab may be associated with the resolution of bradycardia.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Bradicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is heterogenous. There are at least three subtypes: cytokine release syndrome (CRS), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective study comprising 276 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All patients were tested for ferritin, interleukin-6, D-Dimer, fibrinogen, calcitonin, and C-reactive protein. According to the diagnostic criteria, three groups of patients with different subtypes of cytokine storm syndrome were identified: MAS, CRS or sepsis. In the MAS and CRS groups, treatment results were assessed depending on whether or not tocilizumab was used. RESULTS: MAS was diagnosed in 9.1% of the patients examined, CRS in 81.8%, and sepsis in 9.1%. Median serum ferritin in patients with MAS was significantly higher (5894 vs. 984 vs. 957 ng/mL, p < 0.001) than in those with CRS or sepsis. Hypofibrinogenemia and pancytopenia were also observed in MAS patients. In CRS patients, a higher mortality rate was observed among those who received tocilizumab, 21 vs. 10 patients (p = 0.043), RR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.3). In MAS patients, tocilizumab decreased the mortality, 13 vs. 6 patients (p = 0.013), RR = 0.50 (95% CI 0.25-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab therapy in patients with COVID-19 and CRS was associated with increased mortality, while in MAS patients, it contributed to reduced mortality.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/classificação , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , COVID-19/classificação , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/virologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 365-371, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210491

RESUMO

Germline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequencing enables patients to be tested for a more comprehensive panel of germline and somatic mutations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3673-3682, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230166

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate useful prognostic factors of immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively observed 73 patients who underwent immunotherapy (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab) for lung cancer. The systemic inflammatory score (SIS) was calculated as the sum of the following factors scored one point each: Hemoglobin <12.5 g/dl and serum albumin <3.6 g/dl, resulting in scores of 0-2. We examined the correlation between the SIS and initial tumor response and progression-free and overall survival with other existing markers, namely tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); modified Glasgow prognostic score; and prognostic nutritional index, etc. Results: SIS ≤1 was significantly associated with better initial tumor response. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression ≥50% (p=0.010), SIS ≤1 (p=0.028) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.047) were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival, and SIS ≤1 (p=0.030) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.037) were associated with longer overall survival. CONCLUSION: SIS is a useful marker of the efficacy of immunotherapy that can be obtained via routine blood tests.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3699-3706, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have recently been shown to have clinical benefits in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The novel tumour responses to these agents are changing the management of patients with cancer. Pseudo-progression of disease (pseudo-PD), that is, an initial flare followed by shrinkage of the tumour, has been described as a distinctive response to ICIs. However, pseudo-PD manifest initial progression and is difficult to segregate with hyper progressive disease (HPD). We, therefore, analysed a case with pseudo-PD histologically. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 68-year-old Japanese man with stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) was treated by anti-PD-1 antibody (pembrolizumab). Four weeks later after second time treatment with pembrolizumab, the patient showed severe melena followed by Trousseau syndrome and died at day 174 after first treatment by pembrolizumab, suggesting HPD clinically. Primary lesion and metastatic lesions were analysed histologically. RESULTS: Histological analysis revealed that NSCLC cells expressed PD-L1, and CD8+ tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes (TILs) were observed. CD8+ TILs showed higher rates of PD-1 indicating that lesions were of the inflamed type and the case was pseudo-PD. Furthermore, it was found that cancer cells expressed MUC1. CONCLUSION: The clinical appearance of the case was aggressive after treatment by pembrolizumab, and the case seemed to be HPD; however, histological analysis revealed that the case was likely pseudo-PD. Therefore, careful histological evaluation is important when investigating the clinical response to an ICI and mucin expression might be a predictive marker for Trousseau syndrome.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical consequences of extended interval dosing (EID) of ocrelizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In our retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we compared patients with RRMS on EID (defined as ≥4-week delay of dose interval) with a control group on standard interval dosing (SID) at the same period (January to December 2020). RESULTS: Three hundred eighteen patients with RRMS were longitudinally evaluated in 5 German centers. One hundred sixteen patients received ocrelizumab on EID (median delay [interquartile range 8.68 [5.09-13.07] weeks). Three months after the last ocrelizumab infusion, 182 (90.1%) patients following SID and 105 (90.5%) EID patients remained relapse free (p = 0.903). Three-month confirmed progression of disability was observed in 18 SID patients (8.9%) and 11 EID patients (9.5%, p = 0.433). MRI progression was documented in 9 SID patients (4.5%) and 8 EID patients (6.9%) at 3-month follow-up (p = 0.232). Multivariate logistic regression showed no association between treatment regimen and no evidence of disease activity status at follow-up (OR: 1.266 [95% CI: 0.695-2.305]; p = 0.441). Clinical stability was accompanied by persistent peripheral CD19+ B-cell depletion in both groups (SID vs EID: 82.6% vs 83.3%, p = 0.463). Disease activity in our cohort was not associated with CD19+ B-cell repopulation. CONCLUSION: Our data support EID of ocrelizumab as potential risk mitigation strategy in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with RRMS, an EID of at least 4 weeks does not diminish effectiveness of ocrelizumab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antígenos CD19 , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4172, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234141

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is attractive for many applications, including detecting cancer, identifying the tissue of origin, and monitoring. A fundamental task underlying these applications is SNV calling from cfDNA, which is hindered by the very low tumor content. Thus sensitive and accurate detection of low-frequency mutations (<5%) remains challenging for existing SNV callers. Here we present cfSNV, a method incorporating multi-layer error suppression and hierarchical mutation calling, to address this challenge. Furthermore, by leveraging cfDNA's comprehensive coverage of tumor clonal landscape, cfSNV can profile mutations in subclones. In both simulated and real patient data, cfSNV outperforms existing tools in sensitivity while maintaining high precision. cfSNV enhances the clinical utilities of cfDNA by improving mutation detection performance in medium-depth sequencing data, therefore making Whole-Exome Sequencing a viable option. As an example, we demonstrate that the tumor mutation profile from cfDNA WES data can provide an effective biomarker to predict immunotherapy outcomes.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(4): 1001-1013, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Omalizumab is the first biologic known to be effective in patients with severe allergic asthma. METHODS: This study was conducted as a multicenter, single-group, open trial to evaluate the improvement in the quality of life with the additional administration of omalizumab for 24 weeks in Korean patients with severe persistent allergic asthma. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 31.8% were men and the mean age was 49.8 ± 11.8 years. A score improvement of 0.5 points or more in the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Korean Asthmatics (KAQLQ) was noted in 50.0% (22/44) of the patinets. In the improved group, the baseline total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and the amount of omalizumab used were higher, and the day and night asthma symptoms were more severe, compared to those in the non-improved group. According to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness, favorable outcomes were found in 78.6% of patients. The Korean asthma control test (p < 0.005) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted (FEV1%; p < 0.01) improved significantly in patients who received omalizumab treatment, compared to that at week 0, and the total dose of rescue systemic corticosteroids significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The improved group on KAQLQ showed a significant improvement in FEV1% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Omalizumab can be considered a biological treatment for Korean patients with severe allergic asthma. It is recommended to consider omalizumab as add-on therapy in patients with high baseline total IgE levels and severe asthma symptoms.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 331-347, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244988

RESUMO

Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a prototype of a multisystemic, inflammatory, heterogeneous autoimmune condition. This disease is characterized by simultaneous or sequential organ and system involvement, with unpredictable flare and high levels of morbidity and mortality. Racial/ethnic background, socioeconomic status, cost of medications, difficulty accessing health care, and poor adherence seem to impact lupus outcomes and treatment response. In this article, the management of cSLE patients is updated. Regarding pathogenesis, a number of potential targets for drugs have been studied. However, most treatments in pediatric patients are off-label drugs with recommendations based on inadequately powered studies, therapeutic consensus guidelines, or case series. Management practices for cSLE patients include evaluations of disease activity and cumulative damage scores, routine non-live vaccinations, physical activity, and addressing mental health issues. Antimalarials and glucocorticoids are still the most common drugs used to treat cSLE, and hydroxychloroquine is recommended for nearly all cSLE patients. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) should be standardized for each patient, based on disease flare and cSLE severity. Mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide is suggested as induction therapy for lupus nephritis classes III and IV. Calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, voclosporin) appear to be another good option for cSLE patients with lupus nephritis. Regarding B-cell-targeting biologic agents, rituximab may be used for refractory lupus nephritis patients in combination with another DMARD, and belimumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for cSLE treatment in children aged > 5 years. New therapies targeting CD20, such as atacicept and telitacicept, seem to be promising drugs for SLE patients. Anti-interferon therapies (sifalimumab and anifrolumab) have shown beneficial results in phase II randomized control trials in adult SLE patients, as have some Janus kinase inhibitors, and these could be alternative treatments for pediatric patients with severe interferon-mediated inflammatory disease in the future. In addition, strict control of proteinuria and blood pressure is required in cSLE, especially with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Idade de Início , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Criança , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/terapia , Humanos , Isquemia/terapia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/fisiopatologia , Linfadenopatia/terapia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeos/genética , Pulsoterapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Esplenopatias/fisiopatologia , Esplenopatias/terapia , Dedos do Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(2): 194-201, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251348

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been a problem worldwide, particularly due to the high rate of transmission and wide range of clinical manifestations. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure are the most common events observed in severe cases and can be fatal. Cytokine storm syndrome emerges as one of the possibilities for the development of ARDS and multiorgan failure in severe cases of COVID-19. This case report describes a case of a 53-year-old male patient who has been diagnosed with COVID-19. Further evaluation in this patient showed that there was a marked increase in IL-6 level in blood accompanied with hyperferritinemia, which was in accordance with the characteristic of cytokine storm syndrome. Patient was treated with tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody and is an antagonist to IL-6 receptor. The binding between tocilizumab and IL-6 receptors effectively inhibit and manage cytokine storm syndrome. Although this case report reported the efficacy of tocilizumab in managing cytokine storm syndrome, tocilizumab has several adverse effects requiring close monitoring. Further clinical randomized control trial is required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab administration in participants with various clinical characteristics and greater number of subjects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 257, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erenumab, a monoclonal antibody against the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, is registered for migraine prevention. Compared to other conventional migraine prevention medicines (i.e. topiramate, betablockers and amitriptyline) erenumab has better tolerability. Impaired hemostasis has not been reported previously. Here, we report the first case of an increased tendency to bruise in a migraine patient treated with erenumab. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year old female migraine patient was treated with erenumab for 12 months, which led to a significant reduction of headache and migraine days. Three months after treatment start, she experienced increased tendency to bruise leading to extreme ecchymosis after 4 months treatment. Platelet counts and aggregation, thromboelastography, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio (INR) were all normal. Thorough interview revealed intake of fish oil supplements for many years prior to treatment. The increased tendency to bruise subsided after discontinuation of fish oil supplements. CONCLUSION: The combination of fish oil supplements and erenumab may cause increased tendency to bruise. Erenumab has no effect on the platelets per se but may cause impaired wound healing by suppression of CGRP. Thus, small and unnoticeable bruises may be aggravated instead in patients with tendency to bruise caused by for instance fish oil supplements.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/efeitos adversos , Equimose/induzido quimicamente , Óleos de Peixe , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Humanos
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