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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3387-3396, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477818

RESUMO

The 9p24.1 chromosomal alteration in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is associated with increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/PD-L2 and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Blockade of PD-L1/PD-1 interactions with avelumab (anti-PD-L1) is hypothesized to restore antitumor immunity. JAVELIN Hodgkins was a phase 1b, multiple-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-arm trial of avelumab in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) cHL. Primary end points included avelumab target occupancy by dose/schedule in peripheral blood immune cells and pharmacokinetic parameters. Secondary end points included safety and antitumor activity. Four dose levels and 2 dosing schedules were investigated: 70, 350, and 500 mg administered every 2 weeks; 500 mg every 3 weeks; and 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Thirty-one patients with R/R cHL were randomized; 9 (29.0%) and 20 (64.5%) had received 3 or ≥4 prior anticancer treatments, respectively. Target occupancy of >90% was observed across all treatment arms, throughout the dosing interval. Avelumab pharmacokinetic data were similar to those previously reported. The most common treatment-related adverse events of any grade were infusion-related reaction (30.0%), nausea (20.0%), increased alanine aminotransferase and rash (16.7% each), and fatigue (13.3%). The objective response rate (ORR) in all randomized patients was 41.9%, with a complete response rate of 19.4%; ORR in those with prior allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) was 55.6%. Due to decreased use of allo-HSCT in patients with R/R cHL, the expansion phase enrolling post-allo-HSCT patients was terminated. Avelumab was tolerable and demonstrated antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with cHL, suggesting that PD-L1 blockade may be sufficient for therapeutic benefit in cHL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02603419.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211038135, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination regimens containing daratumumab in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: A systematic search of publications listed on electronic databases (PubMed®, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Web of Science) between inception and 13 November 2020 was conducted to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included patients with MM that were treated with combination regimens containing daratumumab. RESULTS: A total of seven RCTs were included (n = 4268 patients). Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the group containing daratumumab showed a significantly better overall response rate and a complete response or better. Daratumumab improved efficacy in both standard-risk and cytogenetically high-risk patients with MM. The prevalence of neutropenia (≥grade 3) and pneumonia was significantly higher in the daratumumab group compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The available evidence demonstrated that the clinical application of combination regimens containing daratumumab improved the efficacy in patients with MM and had acceptable safety.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Neutropenia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 803-814, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Additional interventions are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by malaria. METHODS: We conducted a two-part, phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS, an antimalarial monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life, and its efficacy against infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Part A of the trial assessed the safety, initial side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS in healthy adults who had never had malaria. Participants received CIS43LS subcutaneously or intravenously at one of three escalating dose levels. A subgroup of participants from Part A continued to Part B, and some received a second CIS43LS infusion. Additional participants were enrolled in Part B and received CIS43LS intravenously. To assess the protective efficacy of CIS43LS, some participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites 4 to 36 weeks after administration of CIS43LS. RESULTS: A total of 25 participants received CIS43LS at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 20 mg per kilogram, or 40 mg per kilogram, and 4 of the 25 participants received a second dose (20 mg per kilogram regardless of initial dose). No safety concerns were identified. We observed dose-dependent increases in CIS43LS serum concentrations, with a half-life of 56 days. None of the 9 participants who received CIS43LS, as compared with 5 of 6 control participants who did not receive CIS43LS, had parasitemia according to polymerase-chain-reaction testing through 21 days after controlled human malaria infection. Two participants who received 40 mg per kilogram of CIS43LS and underwent controlled human malaria infection approximately 36 weeks later had no parasitemia, with serum concentrations of CIS43LS of 46 and 57 µg per milliliter at the time of controlled human malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults who had never had malaria infection or vaccination, administration of the long-acting monoclonal antibody CIS43LS prevented malaria after controlled infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 612 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04206332.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417242

RESUMO

Mucosal melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma and represents a unique diagnosis and treatment challenge. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised metastatic melanoma treatment, and one of the leading regimens is the combination of ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4: CTLA4) and nivolumab (anti-programmed cell death protein 1: PD1). We report a case of a patient with metastatic mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab who developed multiple immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including uveitis, type I diabetes complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis, destructive thyroiditis, hepatitis and vitiligo. Endocrinopathies including type 1 diabetes and hypothyroidism were treated with insulin and levothyroxine. Hepatitis was responsive to steroids. She had sustained complete response 12 months after discontinuation of the combination therapy. With the wide usage of ICIs in multiple types of malignancies, it is important for general practioners to recognise common and serious irAEs due to ICIs.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Nivolumabe , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013424, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis and is more prevalent among people with CKD than among people who do not have CKD. Although several drugs have been used to effectively treat osteoporosis in the general population, it is unclear whether they are also effective and safe for people with CKD, who have altered systemic mineral and bone metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for osteoporosis in patients with CKD stages 3-5, and those undergoing dialysis (5D). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 25 January 2021 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing any anti-osteoporotic drugs with a placebo, no treatment or usual care in patients with osteoporosis and CKD stages 3 to 5D were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed their quality using the risk of bias tool, and extracted data. The main outcomes were the incidence of fracture at any sites; mean change in the bone mineral density (BMD; measured using dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA)) of the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, and distal radius; death from all causes; incidence of adverse events; and quality of life (QoL). Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: Seven studies involving 9164 randomised participants with osteoporosis and CKD stages 3 to 5D met the inclusion criteria; all participants were postmenopausal women. Five studies included patients with CKD stages 3-4, and two studies included patients with CKD stages 5 or 5D. Five pharmacological interventions were identified (abaloparatide, alendronate, denosumab, raloxifene, and teriparatide). All studies were judged to be at an overall high risk of bias. Among patients with CKD stages 3-4, anti-osteoporotic drugs may reduce the risk of vertebral fracture (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.69; low certainty evidence). Anti-osteoporotic drugs probably makes little or no difference to the risk of clinical fracture (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.05; moderate certainty evidence) and adverse events (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.00; moderate certainty evidence). We were unable to incorporate studies into the meta-analyses for BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and total hip as they only reported the percentage change in the BMD in the intervention group. Among patients with severe CKD stages 5 or 5D, it is uncertain whether anti-osteoporotic drug reduces the risk of clinical fracture (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.87; very low certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether anti-osteoporotic drug improves the BMD at the femoral neck because the certainty of this evidence is very low (MD 0.01, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.02). Anti-osteoporotic drug may slightly improve the BMD at the lumbar spine (MD 0.03, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.04, low certainty evidence). No adverse events were reported in the included studies. It is uncertain whether anti-osteoporotic drug reduces the risk of death (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.22 to 4.56; very low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD stages 3-4, anti-osteoporotic drugs may reduce the risk of vertebral fracture in low certainty evidence. Anti-osteoporotic drugs make little or no difference to the risk of clinical fracture and adverse events in moderate certainty evidence. Among patients with CKD stages 5 and 5D, it is uncertain whether anti-osteoporotic drug reduces the risk of clinical fracture and death because the certainty of this evidence is very low. Anti-osteoporotic drug may slightly improve the BMD at the lumbar spine in low certainty evidence. It is uncertain whether anti-osteoporotic drug improves the BMD at the femoral neck because the certainty of this evidence is very low. Larger studies including men, paediatric patients or individuals with unstable CKD-mineral and bone disorder are required to assess the effect of each anti-osteoporotic drug at each stage of CKD.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Conduta Expectante , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Viés , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraturas Espontâneas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Espontâneas/prevenção & controle , Quadril , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/mortalidade , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/efeitos adversos , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Teriparatida/efeitos adversos , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
6.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(6): 600-603, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225439

RESUMO

The application of immune checkpoint inhibitors has significantly improved the immunotherapy effect of a variety of solid tumors. With the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of nivolumab and pembrolizumab as second-line treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma, the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially in combination with other treatment methods, has become more and more widely used in hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, these drugs play a therapeutic role in tumor immunosuppression; however, they can also stimulate related side effects caused by autoimmunity, so their side effects are very different from traditional chemotherapy and targeted drugs. Therefore, effective monitoring, detection and intervention of immune-related side effects are obligatory assurances for patients to attain clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos
7.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(8): 739-751, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253139

RESUMO

Introduction: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by lifelong elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), early onset coronary atherosclerosis, and premature death. FH is underdiagnosed and undertreated, but requires aggressive LDL-C-lowering to prevent complications. Current treatment strategies such as lifestyle modification and numerous LDL-C-lowering medications are often insufficient to achieve lipid goals in FH.Areas covered: Angiopoietin-like 3 protein (ANGPTL3) is intricately involved in lipid metabolism. Loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL3 are associated with panhypolipidemia and reduced coronary atherosclerosis. Evinacumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, inhibits ANGPTL3 and reduces multiple lipoprotein fractions ~50%, including LDL-C. The use of evinacumab within the FH population is described as well as its regulatory journey to an approved therapeutic.Expert opinion: Evinacumab, with its capacity to lower multiple lipoprotein fractions, particularly LDL-C, independently of LDLR function has potential to revolutionize treatment for FH patients. Current FDA-approval is only for homozygous FH (HoFH), arguably the most impactful indication, but use in other lipid disorders is under investigation. The short-term tolerability of evinacumab is very good, with infrequent, mild, and transient adverse events; however, long-term safety data are needed. The high cost and requirement for intravenous administration may limit adoption of evinacumab, but dramatic LDL-C-lowering and need for new therapeutic options for HoFH will drive interest.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281247

RESUMO

Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) lower LDL-cholesterol and slow atherosclerosis preventing cardiovascular events. While it is known that circulating PCSK9 enhances platelet activation (PA) and that PCSK9i reduce it, the underlying mechanism is not still clarified. Methods: In a multicenter before-after study in 80 heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients on treatment with maximum tolerated statin dose ± ezetimibe, PA, soluble-NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), and oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) were measured before and after six months of PCSK9i treatment. In vitro study investigates the effects of plasma from HeFH patients before and after PCK9i on PA in washed platelets (wPLTs) from healthy subjects. Results: Compared to baseline, PCSK9i reduced the serum levels of LDL-c, ox-LDL, Thromboxane (Tx) B2, sNOX2-dp, and PCSK9 (p < 0.001). The decrease of TxB2 correlates with that of ox-LDL, while ox-LDL reduction correlated with PCSK9 and sNOX2-dp delta. In vitro study demonstrated that wPLTs resuspended in plasma from HeFH after PCSK9i treatment induced lower PA and sNOX2-dp release than those obtained using plasma before PCSK9i treatment. This reduction was vanished by adding ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced PA was blunted by CD36, LOX1, and NOX2 inhibition. Conclusions: PCSK9i treatment reduces PA modulating NOX2 activity and in turn ox-LDL formation in HeFH patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Itália , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2/análise , NADPH Oxidase 2/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 46-58, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils of light chains produced by clonal CD38+ plasma cells. Daratumumab, a human CD38-targeting antibody, may improve outcomes for this disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis to receive six cycles of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone either alone (control group) or with subcutaneous daratumumab followed by single-agent daratumumab every 4 weeks for up to 24 cycles (daratumumab group). The primary end point was a hematologic complete response. RESULTS: A total of 388 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 11.4 months. The percentage of patients who had a hematologic complete response was significantly higher in the daratumumab group than in the control group (53.3% vs. 18.1%) (relative risk ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 4.1; P<0.001). Survival free from major organ deterioration or hematologic progression favored the daratumumab group (hazard ratio for major organ deterioration, hematologic progression, or death, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.93; P = 0.02). At 6 months, more cardiac and renal responses occurred in the daratumumab group than in the control group (41.5% vs. 22.2% and 53.0% vs. 23.9%, respectively). The four most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were lymphopenia (13.0% in the daratumumab group and 10.1% in the control group), pneumonia (7.8% and 4.3%, respectively), cardiac failure (6.2% and 4.8%), and diarrhea (5.7% and 3.7%). Systemic administration-related reactions to daratumumab occurred in 7.3% of the patients. A total of 56 patients died (27 in the daratumumab group and 29 in the control group), most due to amyloidosis-related cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis, the addition of daratumumab to bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone was associated with higher frequencies of hematologic complete response and survival free from major organ deterioration or hematologic progression. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; ANDROMEDA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03201965.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 622770, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149686

RESUMO

The term spondyloarthritis (SpA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases with several common genetic background and clinical features, including the possible involvement of the axial skeleton with peripheral mono- or oligo- arthritis and frequently coexisting skin, eye and intestinal manifestations. When the sacroiliac joints or other parts of the spine or thoracic wall are predominantly affected at magnetic resonance or X-ray imaging with inflammatory back pain, the disease is classified as axial SpA and the therapeutic choices are significantly different compared to cases of peripheral arthritis. Moving from the narrow effectiveness and safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, there has been a significant research effort aimed at identifying new treatments based on our better understanding of the pathogenesis of SpA. Indeed, in parallel with the solid data demonstrating that IL-17 and IL-23 are key cytokines in the development of enthesitis and spondylitis, monoclonal antibodies interfering with this pathway have been developed for the treatment of axial SpA. Furthermore, the IL-17/IL-23 axis is key to extra-articular manifestations such as inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, and psoriasis which are frequent comorbidities of SpA. Currently available drugs act through these mechanisms recognizing IL-23 and targeting IL-17, such as secukinumab and ixekizumab. These therapeutic approaches are now envisioned in the international treatment recommendations for psoriatic arthritis with an axial phenotype as well as for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We will provide herein a concise comprehensive overview of the clinical evidence supporting the use of these and other drugs acting on IL-23 and IL-17 in axial SpA.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico , Espondilartrite/imunologia , Espondilartrite/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nature ; 595(7869): 718-723, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082438

RESUMO

Resistance represents a major challenge for antibody-based therapy for COVID-191-4. Here we engineered an immunoglobulin M (IgM) neutralizing antibody (IgM-14) to overcome the resistance encountered by immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based therapeutics. IgM-14 is over 230-fold more potent than its parental IgG-14 in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2. IgM-14 potently neutralizes the resistant virus raised by its corresponding IgG-14, three variants of concern-B.1.1.7 (Alpha, which first emerged in the UK), P.1 (Gamma, which first emerged in Brazil) and B.1.351 (Beta, which first emerged in South Africa)-and 21 other receptor-binding domain mutants, many of which are resistant to the IgG antibodies that have been authorized for emergency use. Although engineering IgG into IgM enhances antibody potency in general, selection of an optimal epitope is critical for identifying the most effective IgM that can overcome resistance. In mice, a single intranasal dose of IgM-14 at 0.044 mg per kg body weight confers prophylactic efficacy and a single dose at 0.4 mg per kg confers therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. IgM-14, but not IgG-14, also confers potent therapeutic protection against the P.1 and B.1.351 variants. IgM-14 exhibits desirable pharmacokinetics and safety profiles when administered intranasally in rodents. Our results show that intranasal administration of an engineered IgM can improve efficacy, reduce resistance and simplify the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Imunoglobulina M/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina M/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Engenharia de Proteínas , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética
13.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 57(5): 321-336, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061127

RESUMO

Until recently, the use of preventative immunotherapy in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) was based on observational studies and clinical experiences. Meanwhile, the first drugs, among others the monoclonal antibody inebilizumab, were approved for the treatment of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive NMOSD. Inebilizumab binds to the CD19 antigen on B cells and leads to B-cell depletion. The first two dosages of 300 mg inebilizumab are administered intravenously at an interval of 2 weeks followed by further infusions every 6 months. In the placebo-controlled pivotal phase II/III study N-MOmentum, inebilizumab significantly prolonged the time to a first adjudicated relapse in AQP4 antibody-positive patients compared with placebo. The most frequent side effects were infusion reactions, urinary and respiratory tract infections, and arthralgia. This review presents data on clinical and preclinical pharmacology, administration, safety aspects and clinical trials of inebilizumab.


Assuntos
Neuromielite Óptica , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Aquaporina 4 , Humanos , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 801-812, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a phase 1b study, intravenous daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone induced a very good partial response or better rate of 42% and was well tolerated in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma. We aimed to evaluate whether daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone would improve progression-free survival versus pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this ongoing, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial (APOLLO) done at 48 academic centres and hospitals across 12 European countries, eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma with measurable disease, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, had at least one previous line of therapy, including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor, had a partial response or better to one or more previous lines of antimyeloma therapy, and were refractory to lenalidomide if only one previous line of therapy was received. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web-response system in a random block size of two or four to receive pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone or daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone. Randomisation was stratified by number of previous lines of therapy and International Staging System disease stage. All patients received oral pomalidomide (4 mg, once daily on days 1-21) and oral dexamethasone (40 mg once daily on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; 20 mg for those aged 75 years or older) at each 28-day cycle. The daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group received daratumumab (1800 mg subcutaneously or 16 mg/kg intravenously) weekly during cycles 1 and 2, every 2 weeks during cycles 3-6, and every 4 weeks thereafter until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03180736. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2017, and June 13, 2019, 304 patients (median age 67 years [IQR 60-72]; 161 [53%] men and 143 [47%] women) were randomly assigned to the daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=153). At a median follow-up of 16·9 months (IQR 14·4-20·6), the daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group showed improved progression-free survival compared with the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (median 12·4 months [95% CI 8·3-19·3] vs 6·9 months [5·5-9·3]; hazard ratio 0·63 [95% CI 0·47-0·85], two-sided p=0·0018). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (101 [68%] of 149 patients in the daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group vs 76 [51%] of 150 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group), anaemia (25 [17%] vs 32 [21%]), and thrombocytopenia (26 [17%] vs 27 [18%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 75 (50%) of 149 patients in the daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 59 (39%) of 150 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group; pneumonia (23 [15%] vs 12 [8%] patients) and lower respiratory tract infection (18 [12%] vs 14 [9%]) were most common. Treatment-emergent deaths were reported in 11 (7%) patients in the daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 11 (7%) patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. INTERPRETATION: Among patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, daratumumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone reduced the risk of disease progression or death versus pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone and could be considered a new treatment option in this setting. FUNDING: European Myeloma Network and Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos
15.
RMD Open ; 7(2)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term safety and effectiveness of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1ß monoclonal antibody, in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), in a real-world setting. METHODS: From December 2009 to December 2015, the ß-Confident Registry prospectively enrolled patients with CAPS and non-CAPS conditions who received canakinumab per routine care and were prospectively followed for up to 6 years. The registry protocol did not mandate specific visits or procedures; however, all observed adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) had to be recorded. Canakinumab effectiveness was evaluated by Physician's Global Assessment (PGA). RESULTS: Of 288 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded due to missing informed consent. Among the remaining 285 patients, 243 (85.3%) were patients with CAPS and 42 (14.7%) had atypical CAPS (6.3%) or other conditions (8.4%). The median age was 26.6 years. Based on PGA, 58 of 123 (47.2%) patients with CAPS had no disease activity at 48 months, and 65 of 123 (52.8%) experienced mild/moderate disease activity at 48 months. Among CAPS phenotypes, AE incidence rates per 100 patient-years were lowest for FCAS (73.1; 95% CI 60.3 to 87.8) compared with those with MWS (105.0; 95% CI 97.2 to 113.2) or NOMID (104.6; 95% CI 86.6 to 125.2). One hundred twenty-eight SAEs were reported in 68 patients with CAPS (incidence rate/100 patient-years, 14.0; 95% CI 11.6 to 16.6). One death (metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma in a patient with MWS) was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The response to canakinumab was sustained for up to 6 years. Canakinumab demonstrated a favourable safety profile over long-term treatment in patients with CAPS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01213641.


Assuntos
Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1876(1): 188557, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945846

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer remains an extremely deadly disease, with little improvement seen in treatment or outcomes over the last 40 years. Targeted monoclonal antibody therapy is one area that has been explored in attempts to tackle this disease. This review examines antibodies that have undergone clinical evaluation in pancreatic cancer. These antibodies target a wide variety of molecules, including tumour cell surface, stromal, immune and embryonic pathway targets. We discuss the therapeutic utility of these therapies both as monotherapeutics and in combination with other treatments such as chemotherapy. While antibody therapy for pancreatic cancer has yet to yield significant success, lessons learned from research thus far highlights future directions that may help overcome observed hurdles to yield clinically efficacious results.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
18.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(9): 610-617, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to assess the efficacy and safety of secukinumab at various doses in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed using direct and indirect data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and safety of secukinumab 75, 150, and 300 mg in patients with active AS. RESULTS: Data of 1,049 patients from three RCTs were examined. In AS patients with inadequate response (IR) to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFI), secukinumab 300 mg was associated with the most favorable assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society 40% (ASAS40) response rate according to surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA), while placebo was associated with the least favorable outcomes. In TNFI-IR patients with AS, ASAS40 was significantly higher in the secukinumab 300, 150, and 75 mg groups than in the placebo group. SUCRA-based rating of likelihood indicated that secukinumab 300 mg was most likely to be the best therapy to achieve ASAS40 response rate, followed by secukinumab 150 mg and 75 mg and placebo. ASAS20 response rate showed a distribution pattern identical to ASAS40 response rate. In TNFI-naïve patients with AS, the response rates for ASAS40 and ASAS20 were also significantly higher in the 300, 150, and 75 mg groups than in the placebo group. There was no substantial difference in the number of severe adverse effects (SAEs) between the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Secukinumab demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in TNFI-IR patients with AS without increasing the risk of SAEs.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Espondilite Anquilosante , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 872-882, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma is generally incurable and has scarce treatment options, especially for cisplatin-ineligible patients previously treated with PD-1 or PD-L1 therapy. Enfortumab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate directed at Nectin-4, a protein highly expressed in urothelial carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enfortumab vedotin in the post-immunotherapy setting in cisplatin-ineligible patients. METHODS: EV-201 is a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study of enfortumab vedotin in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma previously treated with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors. Cohort 2 included adults (aged ≥18 years) with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less who were considered ineligible for cisplatin at enrolment and who had not received platinum-containing chemotherapy in the locally advanced or metastatic setting. Enfortumab vedotin was given intravenously at a dose of 1·25 mg/kg on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1 assessed by blinded independent central review. Efficacy and safety were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of enfortumab vedotin. EV-201 is an ongoing study and the primary analysis is complete. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03219333. FINDINGS: Between Oct 8, 2017, and Feb 11, 2020, 91 patients were enrolled at 40 sites globally, of whom 89 received treatment. Median follow-up was 13·4 months (IQR 11·3-18·9). At data cutoff (Sept 8, 2020), the confirmed objective response rate was 52% (46 of 89 patients; 95% CI 41-62), with 18 (20%) of 89 patients achieving a complete response and 28 (31%) achieving a partial response. 49 (55%) of 89 patients had grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events. The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (eight [9%] patients), maculopapular rash (seven [8%] patients), and fatigue (six [7%] patients). Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 15 (17%) patients. Three (3%) patients died due to acute kidney injury, metabolic acidosis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (one [1%] each) within 30 days of first dose and these deaths were considered by the investigator to be related to treatment; a fourth death from pneumonitis occurred more than 30 days after the last dose and was also considered to be related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with enfortumab vedotin was tolerable and confirmed responses were seen in 52% of cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who were previously treated with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors. These patients have few treatment options, and enfortumab vedotin could be a promising new therapy for a patient population with a high unmet need. FUNDING: Astellas Pharma Global Development and Seagen.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Urotélio/patologia
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 824-835, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous phase 2 trials of neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monotherapy in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer have reported major pathological response rates in the range of 15-45%. Evidence suggests that stereotactic body radiotherapy might be a potent immunomodulator in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this trial, we aimed to evaluate the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with early-stage NSCLC as an immunomodulator to enhance the anti-tumour immune response associated with the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab. METHODS: We did a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial, comparing neoadjuvant durvalumab alone with neoadjuvant durvalumab plus stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with early-stage NSCLC, at NewYork-Presbyterian and Weill Cornell Medical Center (New York, NY, USA). We enrolled patients with potentially resectable early-stage NSCLC (clinical stages I-IIIA as per the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer) who were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either neoadjuvant durvalumab monotherapy or neoadjuvant durvalumab plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (8 Gy × 3 fractions), using permuted blocks with varied sizes and no stratification for clinical or molecular variables. Patients, treating physicians, and all study personnel were unmasked to treatment assignment after all patients were randomly assigned. All patients received two cycles of durvalumab 3 weeks apart at a dose of 1·12 g by intravenous infusion over 60 min. Those in the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group also received three consecutive daily fractions of 8 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy delivered to the primary tumour immediately before the first cycle of durvalumab. Patients without systemic disease progression proceeded to surgical resection. The primary endpoint was major pathological response in the primary tumour. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT02904954, and is ongoing but closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Jan 25, 2017, and Sept 15, 2020, 96 patients were screened and 60 were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the durvalumab monotherapy group (n=30) or the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group (n=30). 26 (87%) of 30 patients in each group had their tumours surgically resected. Major pathological response was observed in two (6·7% [95% CI 0·8-22·1]) of 30 patients in the durvalumab monotherapy group and 16 (53·3% [34·3-71·7]) of 30 patients in the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group. The difference in the major pathological response rates between both groups was significant (crude odds ratio 16·0 [95% CI 3·2-79·6]; p<0·0001). In the 16 patients in the dual therapy group with a major pathological response, eight (50%) had a complete pathological response. The second cycle of durvalumab was withheld in three (10%) of 30 patients in the dual therapy group due to immune-related adverse events (grade 3 hepatitis, grade 2 pancreatitis, and grade 3 fatigue and thrombocytopaenia). Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in five (17%) of 30 patients in the durvalumab monotherapy group and six (20%) of 30 patients in the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group. The most frequent grade 3-4 events were hyponatraemia (three [10%] patients in the durvalumab monotherapy group) and hyperlipasaemia (three [10%] patients in the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group). Two patients in each group had serious adverse events (pulmonary embolism [n=1] and stroke [n=1] in the durvalumab monotherapy group, and pancreatitis [n=1] and fatigue [n=1] in the durvalumab plus radiotherapy group). No treatment-related deaths or deaths within 30 days of surgery were reported. INTERPRETATION: Neoadjuvant durvalumab combined with stereotactic body radiotherapy is well tolerated, safe, and associated with a high major pathological response rate. This neoadjuvant strategy should be validated in a larger trial. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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