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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4817, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376662

RESUMO

Engineered ectodomain trimer immunogens based on BG505 envelope glycoprotein are widely utilized as components of HIV vaccine development platforms. In this study, we used rhesus macaques to evaluate the immunogenicity of several stabilized BG505 SOSIP constructs both as free trimers and presented on a nanoparticle. We applied a cryoEM-based method for high-resolution mapping of polyclonal antibody responses elicited in immunized animals (cryoEMPEM). Mutational analysis coupled with neutralization assays were used to probe the neutralization potential at each epitope. We demonstrate that cryoEMPEM data can be used for rapid, high-resolution analysis of polyclonal antibody responses without the need for monoclonal antibody isolation. This approach allowed to resolve structurally distinct classes of antibodies that bind overlapping sites. In addition to comprehensive mapping of commonly targeted neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes in BG505 SOSIP immunogens, our analysis revealed that epitopes comprising engineered stabilizing mutations and of partially occupied glycosylation sites can be immunogenic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/ultraestrutura , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ultraestrutura
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443566

RESUMO

(1) Background: Deferoxamine B (DFO) is the most widely used chelator for labeling of zirconium-89 (89Zr) to monoclonal antibody (mAb). Despite the remarkable developments of the clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET, chemical species and stability constants of the Zr-DFO complexes remain controversial. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate their stability constants by identifying species of Zr-DFO complexes and demonstrate that the stability constants can estimate radiochemical yield (RCY) and chelator-to-antibody ratio (CAR). (2) Methods: Zr-DFO species were determined by UV and ESI-MS spectroscopy. Stability constants and speciation of the Zr-DFO complex were redetermined by potentiometric titration. Complexation inhibition of Zr-DFO by residual impurities was investigated by competition titration. (3) Results: Unknown species, ZrHqDFO2, were successfully detected by nano-ESI-Q-MS analysis. We revealed that a dominant specie under radiolabeling condition (pH 7) was ZrHDFO, and its stability constant (logß111) was 49.1 ± 0.3. Competition titration revealed that residual oxalate inhibits Zr-DFO complex formation. RCYs in different oxalate concentration (0.1 and 0.04 mol/L) were estimated to be 86% and >99%, which was in good agreement with reported results (87%, 97%). (4) Conclusion: This study succeeded in obtaining accurate stability constants of Zr-DFO complexes and estimating RCY and CAR from accurate stability constants established in this study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Quelantes/química , Desferroxamina/química , Radioisótopos/química , Zircônio/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioquímica
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445776

RESUMO

Different manufacturing processes and storage conditions of biotherapeutics can lead to a significant variability in drug products arising from chemical and enzymatic post-translational modifications (PTMs), resulting in the co-existence of a plethora of proteoforms with different physicochemical properties. To unravel the heterogeneity of these proteoforms, novel approaches employing strong cation-exchange (SCX) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated to mass spectrometry (MS) using a pH gradient of volatile salts have been developed in recent years. Here, we apply an established SCX-HPLC-MS method to characterize and compare two rituximab-based biotherapeutics, the originator MabThera® and its Indian copy product Reditux™. The study assessed molecular differences between the two drug products in terms of C-terminal lysine variants, glycosylation patterns, and other basic and acidic variants. Overall, MabThera® and Reditux™ displayed differences at the molecular level. MabThera® showed a higher degree of galactosylated and sialylated glycoforms, while Reditux™ showed increased levels of oligomannose and afucosylated glycoforms. Moreover, the two drug products showed differences in terms of basic variants such as C-terminal lysine and N-terminal truncation, present in Reditux™ but not in MabThera®. This study demonstrates the capability of this fast SCX-HPLC-MS approach to compare different drug products and simultaneously assess some of their quality attributes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Cátions/química , Rituximab/química , Medicamentos Biossimilares/química , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosilação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
4.
Cell Rep ; 36(10): 109679, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464610

RESUMO

A wide range of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been reported, most of which target the spike glycoprotein. Therapeutic implementation of these antibodies has been challenged by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutated spike versions. Consequently, re-assessment of previously identified mAbs is of high priority. Four previously selected mAbs targeting non-overlapping epitopes are now evaluated for binding potency to mutated RBD versions, reported to mediate escape from antibody neutralization. In vitro neutralization potencies of these mAbs, and two NTD-specific mAbs, are evaluated against two frequent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the B.1.1.7 Alpha and the B.1.351 Beta. Furthermore, we demonstrate therapeutic potential of three selected mAbs by treatment of K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice 2 days post-infection with each virus variant. Thus, despite the accumulation of spike mutations, the highly potent MD65 and BL6 mAbs retain their ability to bind the prevalent viral mutants, effectively protecting against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Afinidade de Anticorpos , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361793

RESUMO

The pretargeting strategy has recently emerged in order to overcome the limitations of direct targeting, mainly in the field of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This strategy is directly dependent on chemical reactions, namely bioorthogonal reactions, which have been developed for their ability to occur under physiological conditions. The Staudinger ligation, the copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the strain-promoted [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) were the first bioorthogonal reactions introduced in the literature. However, due to their incomplete biocompatibility and slow kinetics, the inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction was advanced in 2008 by Blackman et al. as an optimal bioorthogonal reaction. The IEDDA is the fastest bioorthogonal reaction known so far. Its biocompatibility and ideal kinetics are very appealing for pretargeting applications. The use of a trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and a tetrazine (Tz) in the reaction encouraged researchers to study them deeply. It was found that both reagents are sensitive to acidic or basic conditions. Furthermore, TCO is photosensitive and can be isomerized to its cis-conformation via a radical catalyzed reaction. Unfortunately, the cis-conformer is significantly less reactive toward tetrazine than the trans-conformation. Therefore, extensive research has been carried out to optimize both click reagents and to employ the IEDDA bioorthogonal reaction in biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Química Click/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Radioimunoterapia/métodos , Alcinos/química , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azidas/química , Reação de Cicloadição/métodos , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Elétrons , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunoconjugados/química , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Neoplasias/química , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacocinética , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4676, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344900

RESUMO

Interventions against variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Stable and potent nanobodies (Nbs) that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike are promising therapeutics. However, it is unknown if Nbs broadly neutralize circulating variants. We found that RBD Nbs are highly resistant to variants of concern (VOCs). High-resolution cryoelectron microscopy determination of eight Nb-bound structures reveals multiple potent neutralizing epitopes clustered into three classes: Class I targets ACE2-binding sites and disrupts host receptor binding. Class II binds highly conserved epitopes and retains activity against VOCs and RBDSARS-CoV. Cass III recognizes unique epitopes that are likely inaccessible to antibodies. Systematic comparisons of neutralizing antibodies and Nbs provided insights into how Nbs target the spike to achieve high-affinity and broadly neutralizing activity. Structure-function analysis of Nbs indicates a variety of antiviral mechanisms. Our study may guide the rational design of pan-coronavirus vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/classificação , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/classificação , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Nature ; 597(7874): 97-102, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261126

RESUMO

An ideal therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape1-3, have activity against diverse sarbecoviruses4-7, and be highly protective through viral neutralization8-11 and effector functions12,13. Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and guide vaccine design. Here we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Despite a trade-off between in vitro neutralization potency and breadth of sarbecovirus binding, we identify neutralizing antibodies with exceptional sarbecovirus breadth and a corresponding resistance to SARS-CoV-2 escape. One of these antibodies, S2H97, binds with high affinity across all sarbecovirus clades to a cryptic epitope and prophylactically protects hamsters from viral challenge. Antibodies that target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escaped by mutations despite high neutralization potency. Nevertheless, we also characterize a potent RBM antibody (S2E128) with breadth across sarbecoviruses related to SARS-CoV-2 and a high barrier to viral escape. These data highlight principles underlying variation in escape, breadth and potency among antibodies that target the RBD, and identify epitopes and features to prioritize for therapeutic development against the current and potential future pandemics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinologia
8.
Nature ; 597(7874): 103-108, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280951

RESUMO

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern1-10 and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses11,12 into the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here we describe a human monoclonal antibody designated S2X259, which recognizes a highly conserved cryptic epitope of the receptor-binding domain and cross-reacts with spikes from all clades of sarbecovirus. S2X259 broadly neutralizes spike-mediated cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.427/B.1.429), as well as a wide spectrum of human and potentially zoonotic sarbecoviruses through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding to the receptor-binding domain. Furthermore, deep-mutational scanning and in vitro escape selection experiments demonstrate that S2X259 possesses an escape profile that is limited to a single substitution, G504D. We show that prophylactic and therapeutic administration of S2X259 protects Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against challenge with the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant of concern, which suggests that this monoclonal antibody is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of emergent variants and zoonotic infections. Our data reveal a key antigenic site that is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies and will guide the design of vaccines that are effective against all sarbecoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Mesocricetus/virologia , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Zoonoses Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses Virais/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses Virais/virologia
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 664-678, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224755

RESUMO

Nowadays, the targeted imaging probe and drug delivery systems are the novel breakthrough area in the nanomedicine and treatment of various diseases. Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies and their fragments on nanoparticles (NPs) have a remarkable impact on personalized medicine, such that it provides specific internalization and accumulation in the tumor microenvironment. Targeted imaging and early detection of cancer is presumably the strong participant to a diminution in mortality and recurrence of cancer disease that will be the next generation of the imaging device in clinical application. These intelligent delivery systems can deliver therapeutic agents that target cancerous tissue with minimal side effects and a wide therapeutic window. Overall, the linkage between the antibody and NPs is a critical subject and requires precise design and development. The attachment of antibody nanoconjugates (Ab-NCs) on the antigen surface shouldn't affect the function of the antibody-antigen binding. Also, the stability of the antibody nanoconjugates in blood circulation is concerned to avoid the release of drug in non-targeted regions and the possible for specific toxicity while disposal to the desired site. Here, we update the recent progress of Ab-NCs to improve early detection and cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Nanoconjugados , Neoplasias/imunologia , Patologia Molecular , Medicina de Precisão , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanobodies, or VHHs, are derived from heavy chain-only antibodies (hcAbs) found in camelids. They overcome some of the inherent limitations of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and derivatives thereof, due to their smaller molecular size and higher stability, and thus present an alternative to mAbs for therapeutic use. Two nanobodies, Nb23 and Nb24, have been shown to similarly inhibit the self-aggregation of very amyloidogenic variants of ß2-microglobulin. Here, the structure of Nb23 was modeled with the Chemical-Shift (CS)-Rosetta server using chemical shift assignments from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments, and used as prior knowledge in PONDEROSA restrained modeling based on experimentally assessed internuclear distances. Further validation was comparatively obtained with the results of molecular dynamics trajectories calculated from the resulting best energy-minimized Nb23 conformers. METHODS: 2D and 3D NMR spectroscopy experiments were carried out to determine the assignment of the backbone and side chain hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon resonances to extract chemical shifts and interproton separations for restrained modeling. RESULTS: The solution structure of isolated Nb23 nanobody was determined. CONCLUSIONS: The structural analysis indicated that isolated Nb23 has a dynamic CDR3 loop distributed over different orientations with respect to Nb24, which could determine differences in target antigen affinity or complex lability.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Elementos Estruturais de Proteínas , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Microglobulina beta-2/imunologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206616

RESUMO

The biophysical properties of therapeutic antibodies influence their manufacturability, efficacy, and safety. To develop an anti-cancer antibody, we previously generated a human monoclonal antibody (Ab417) that specifically binds to L1 cell adhesion molecule with a high affinity, and we validated its anti-tumor activity and mechanism of action in human cholangiocarcinoma xenograft models. In the present study, we aimed to improve the biophysical properties of Ab417. We designed 20 variants of Ab417 with reduced aggregation propensity, less potential post-translational modification (PTM) motifs, and the lowest predicted immunogenicity using computational methods. Next, we constructed these variants to analyze their expression levels and antigen-binding activities. One variant (Ab612)-which contains six substitutions for reduced surface hydrophobicity, removal of PTM, and change to the germline residue-exhibited an increased expression level and antigen-binding activity compared to Ab417. In further studies, compared to Ab417, Ab612 showed improved biophysical properties, including reduced aggregation propensity, increased stability, higher purification yield, lower pI, higher affinity, and greater in vivo anti-tumor efficacy. Additionally, we generated a highly productive and stable research cell bank (RCB) and scaled up the production process to 50 L, yielding 6.6 g/L of Ab612. The RCB will be used for preclinical development of Ab612.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Modelos Moleculares , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/química , Engenharia de Proteínas , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Células CHO , Fenômenos Químicos , Cricetulus , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/antagonistas & inibidores , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Estabilidade Proteica , Termodinâmica
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4320, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262046

RESUMO

The rational development of norovirus vaccine candidates requires a deep understanding of the antigenic diversity and mechanisms of neutralization of the virus. Here, we isolate and characterize a panel of broadly cross-reactive naturally occurring human monoclonal IgMs, IgAs and IgGs reactive with human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup I or II (GI or GII). We note three binding patterns and identify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize at least one GI or GII HuNoV strain when using a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assay. The HBGA blocking assay and a virus neutralization assay using human intestinal enteroids reveal that the GII-specific mAb NORO-320, mediates HBGA blocking and neutralization of multiple GII genotypes. The Fab form of NORO-320 neutralizes GII.4 infection more potently than the mAb, however, does not block HBGA binding. The crystal structure of NORO-320 Fab in complex with GII.4 P-domain shows that the antibody recognizes a highly conserved region in the P-domain distant from the HBGA binding site. Dynamic light scattering analysis of GII.4 virus-like particles with mAb NORO-320 shows severe aggregation, suggesting neutralization is by steric hindrance caused by multivalent cross-linking. Aggregation was not observed with the Fab form of NORO-320, suggesting that this clone also has additional inhibitory features.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Norovirus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Variação Antigênica , Sítios de Ligação , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Norovirus/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
13.
Cell ; 184(12): 3086-3108, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087172

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have revolutionized the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer and autoimmunity and inflammatory conditions, and represent a new frontier for the treatment of infectious diseases. In the last 20 years, innovative methods have allowed the rapid isolation of mAbs from convalescent subjects, humanized mice, or libraries assembled in vitro and have proven that mAbs can be effective countermeasures against emerging pathogens. During the past year, an unprecedentedly large number of mAbs have been developed to fight coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Lessons learned from this pandemic will pave the way for the development of more mAb-based therapeutics for other infectious diseases. Here, we provide an overview of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing mAbs, including their origin, specificity, structure, antiviral and immunological mechanisms of action, and resistance to circulating variants, as well as a snapshot of the clinical trials of approved or late-stage mAb therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
14.
Food Chem ; 361: 129901, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082384

RESUMO

A simple electrochemical immunosensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene and polyamide-amine (GN-PAM) composites was proposed for the detection of the CP4-EPSPS protein in genetically modified (GM) crops. In this immunosensor, the amplification of the detection signal was realized through antibodies labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were linear (R2 = 0.9935 and 0.9912) when the GM soybean RRS and maize NK603 content ranged from 0.025% to 1.0% and 0.05% to 1.5%, respectively. The limits of detection for the GM soybean RRS and maize NK603 were as low as 0.01% and 0.03%, respectively. The immunosensor also exhibited high specificity, and satisfactory stability, reproducibility, and accuracy. Our findings indicated that the constructed immunosensor provides a new approach for the sensitive detection of the CP4-EPSPS protein. Notably, the sensor may be applied to other proteins or pathogenic bacteria by simply changing the antibodies, and may also be used for multi-component analysis.


Assuntos
3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Imunoensaio/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Poliaminas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética
15.
Leuk Res ; 108: 106626, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062328

RESUMO

Refractory T cell acute leukaemias that no longer respond to treatment would benefit from new modalities that target T cell-specific surface proteins. T cell associated surface proteins (the surfaceome) offer possible therapy targets to reduce tumour burden but also target the leukaemia-initiating cells from which tumours recur. Recent studies of the T cell leukaemia surfaceome confirmed that CD7 is highly expressed in overt disease. We have used an anti-CD7 antibody drug conjugate (ADC) to show that the binding of antibody to surface CD7 protein results in rapid internalization of the antigen together with the ADC. As a consequence, cell killing was observed via induction of apoptosis and was dependent on cell surface CD7. The in vitro cytotoxic activity (EC50) of the anti-CD7 ADC on T cell acute leukaemia (T-ALL) cells Jurkat and KOPT-K1 was found to be in the range of 5-8 ng/mL. In a pre-clinical xenograft model of human tumour growth expressing CD7 antigen, growth was curtailed by a single dose of ADC. The data indicate that CD7 targeting ADCs may be developed into an important second stage therapy for T cell acute leukaemia, for refractory CD7-positive leukaemias and for subsets of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) expressing CD7.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Antígenos CD7/imunologia , Apoptose , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígenos CD7/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Mol Biol ; 433(15): 167099, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119488

RESUMO

Glycans decorate the cell surface, secreted glycoproteins and glycolipids, and altered glycans are often found in cancers. Despite their high diagnostic and therapeutic potential, however, glycans are polar and flexible molecules that are quite challenging for the development and design of high-affinity binding antibodies. To understand the mechanisms by which glycan neoantigens are specifically recognized by antibodies, we analyze the biomolecular recognition of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 by two distinct antibodies using X-ray crystallography. Despite the potential plasticity of glycans and the very different antigen-binding surfaces presented by the antibodies, both structures reveal an essentially identical extended CA19-9 conformer, suggesting that this conformer's stability selects the antibodies. Starting from the bound structure of one of the antibodies, we use the AbLIFT computational algorithm to design a variant with seven core mutations in the variable domain's light-heavy chain interface that exhibits tenfold improved affinity for CA19-9. The results reveal strategies used by antibodies to specifically recognize glycan antigens and show how automated antibody-optimization methods may be used to enhance the clinical potential of existing antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Antígeno CA-19-9/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica
17.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1611-1621.e5, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166623

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge during the global pandemic and may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here we showed that the South African variant B.1.351 was the most resistant to current monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals, followed by the Brazilian variant P.1 and the United Kingdom variant B.1.1.7. This resistance hierarchy corresponded with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain and K417N/T, E484K, and N501Y mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structure analysis of the B.1.351 triple mutant (417N-484K-501Y) RBD complexed with the monoclonal antibody P2C-1F11 revealed the molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. B.1.351 and P.1 also acquired the ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 receptors for entry. Our results demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potential broadening of the host range for B.1.351 and P.1 variants, which poses serious challenges to current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Variação Antigênica/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Camundongos , Vison , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(25): 5987-5993, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161095

RESUMO

The rapid and relentless emergence of novel highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, possibly decreasing vaccine efficacy, currently represents a formidable medical and societal challenge. These variants frequently hold mutations on the Spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD), which, binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, mediates viral entry into host cells. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and dynamical network theory of the wild-type and mutant RBD/ACE2 adducts disclose that while the N501Y mutation (UK variant) enhances the Spike's binding affinity toward ACE2, the concomitant N501Y, E484K, and K417N mutations (South African variant) aptly adapt to increase SARS-CoV-2 propagation via a two-pronged strategy: (i) effectively grasping ACE2 through an allosteric signaling between pivotal RBD structural elements and (ii) impairing the binding of antibodies elicited by infected or vaccinated patients. This information unlocks the molecular terms and evolutionary strategies underlying the increased virulence of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, setting the basis for developing the next-generation anti-COVID-19 therapeutics.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Termodinâmica
19.
Structure ; 29(7): 655-663.e4, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111408

RESUMO

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, from the UK and South Africa, respectively, show decreased neutralization by monoclonal antibodies and convalescent or vaccinee sera raised against the original wild-type virus, and are thus of clinical concern. However, the neutralization potency of two antibodies, 1-57 and 2-7, which target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike, was unaffected by these emerging strains. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of 1-57 and 2-7 in complex with spike, revealing each of these antibodies to utilize a distinct mechanism to bypass or accommodate RBD mutations. Notably, each antibody represented an immune response with recognition distinct from those of frequent antibody classes. Moreover, many epitope residues recognized by 1-57 and 2-7 were outside hotspots of evolutionary pressure for ACE2 binding and neutralizing antibody escape. We suggest the therapeutic use of antibodies, such as 1-57 and 2-7, which target less prevalent epitopes, could ameliorate issues of monoclonal antibody escape.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Receptores Virais/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 325-338, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119547

RESUMO

Breast cancer has been one of the top chronic and life-threatening diseases worldwide. Nano-drug therapeutic systems have proved their efficacy as a selective treatment compared to the traditional ones that are associated with serious adverse effects. Here, biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were synthesized to provide selective and sustained release of doxorubicin (DOX) within the breast tumor microenvironment. CSNPs surface was modified using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance their blood circulation timing. To provide high drug selectivity, CSNPs functionalized with two different types of breast cancer-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb); anti-human mammaglobin (Anti-hMAM) and anti-human epidermal growth factor (Anti-HER2). Anti-hMAM PEGylated DOX loaded CSNPs and Anti-HER2 PEGylated DOX loaded CSNPs nano-formulations were the most cytotoxic against MCF-7 cancer cells than L-929 normal cells compared to free DOX. Finally, we believe that dose-dependent system toxicity of freely ingested DOX can be managed with such targeted nano-formulated drug delivery platforms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/química , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células MCF-7 , Mamoglobina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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