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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5469, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552091

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 remains a global threat to human health particularly as escape mutants emerge. There is an unmet need for effective treatments against COVID-19 for which neutralizing single domain antibodies (nanobodies) have significant potential. Their small size and stability mean that nanobodies are compatible with respiratory administration. We report four nanobodies (C5, H3, C1, F2) engineered as homotrimers with pmolar affinity for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Crystal structures show C5 and H3 overlap the ACE2 epitope, whilst C1 and F2 bind to a different epitope. Cryo Electron Microscopy shows C5 binding results in an all down arrangement of the Spike protein. C1, H3 and C5 all neutralize the Victoria strain, and the highly transmissible Alpha (B.1.1.7 first identified in Kent, UK) strain and C1 also neutralizes the Beta (B.1.35, first identified in South Africa). Administration of C5-trimer via the respiratory route showed potent therapeutic efficacy in the Syrian hamster model of COVID-19 and separately, effective prophylaxis. The molecule was similarly potent by intraperitoneal injection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
2.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436976

RESUMO

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Mimetismo Molecular , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Transfecção , Células Vero , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417349

RESUMO

To investigate the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the immune population, we coincupi bated the authentic virus with a highly neutralizing plasma from a COVID-19 convalescent patient. The plasma fully neutralized the virus for seven passages, but, after 45 d, the deletion of F140 in the spike N-terminal domain (NTD) N3 loop led to partial breakthrough. At day 73, an E484K substitution in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) occurred, followed, at day 80, by an insertion in the NTD N5 loop containing a new glycan sequon, which generated a variant completely resistant to plasma neutralization. Computational modeling predicts that the deletion and insertion in loops N3 and N5 prevent binding of neutralizing antibodies. The recent emergence in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan of natural variants with similar changes suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to escape an effective immune response and that vaccines and antibodies able to control emerging variants should be developed.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescença , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Soros Imunes/química , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Células Vero
4.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372553

RESUMO

The recent spreading of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, carrying several mutations in the spike protein, could impact immune protection elicited by natural infection or conferred by vaccination. In this study, we evaluated the neutralizing activity against the viral variants that emerged in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), Brazil (P.1), and South Africa (B.1.351) in human serum samples from hospitalized patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the first pandemic wave in Italy in 2020. Of the patients studied, 59.5% showed a decrease (≥2 fold) in neutralizing antibody titer against B.1.1.7, 83.3% against P.1, and 90.5% against B.1.351 with respect to the original strain. The reduction in antibody titers against all analyzed variants, and in particular P.1 and B.1.351, suggests that previous symptomatic infection might be not fully protective against exposure to SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying a set of relevant spike mutations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mutação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Células Vero
5.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109452, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289385

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 variants that attenuate antibody neutralization could jeopardize vaccine efficacy. We recently reported the protective activity of an intranasally administered spike protein-based chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in animals, which has advanced to human trials. Here, we assessed its durability, dose response, and cross-protective activity in mice. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced durably high neutralizing and Fc effector antibody responses in serum and S-specific IgG and IgA secreting long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. Protection against a historical SARS-CoV-2 strain was observed across a 100-fold vaccine dose range and over a 200-day period. At 6 weeks or 9 months after vaccination, serum antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2 strains with B.1.351, B.1.1.28, and B.1.617.1 spike proteins and conferred almost complete protection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts after challenge with variant viruses. Thus, in mice, intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provides durable protection against historical and emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Camundongos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17818-17829, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254951

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which environmental factors play an important role, and the effect of particulate matter (PM) on the occurrence and severity of asthma is drawing more attention. This study aims to identify the correlation between PM and pediatric asthma exacerbation and explore the potential mechanisms. The asthma visits data (N = 16,779,739) in a university-based tertiary children's hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected, and the relationship between asthma visits and local PM concentration was analyzed. For further study, we established a house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation model with PM intervention. We detected a correlation between PM concentration and pediatric asthma visits, especially in children under 6 years old. The in vivo data showed that PM aggravated HDM-induced airway inflammation, and IL-33 neutralizing antibody exerted a protective role. Our study suggests that PM is a risk factor in promoting pediatric asthma exacerbation, in which IL-33 might be a promising target.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Alérgenos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-33/análise , Interleucina-33/biossíntese , Interleucina-33/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4584, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321474

RESUMO

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs 1, 2 and 3) can restrict viral pathogens, but pro- and anti-viral activities have been reported for coronaviruses. Here, we show that artificial overexpression of IFITMs blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, endogenous IFITM expression supports efficient infection of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells. Our results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein interacts with IFITMs and hijacks them for efficient viral infection. IFITM proteins were expressed and further induced by interferons in human lung, gut, heart and brain cells. IFITM-derived peptides and targeting antibodies inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in human lung cells, cardiomyocytes and gut organoids. Our results show that IFITM proteins are cofactors for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cell types representing in vivo targets for viral transmission, dissemination and pathogenesis and are potential targets for therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4635, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330908

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-191, features a receptor-binding domain (RBD) for binding to the host cell ACE2 protein1-6. Neutralizing antibodies that block RBD-ACE2 interaction are candidates for the development of targeted therapeutics7-17. Llama-derived single-domain antibodies (nanobodies, ~15 kDa) offer advantages in bioavailability, amenability, and production and storage owing to their small sizes and high stability. Here, we report the rapid selection of 99 synthetic nanobodies (sybodies) against RBD by in vitro selection using three libraries. The best sybody, MR3 binds to RBD with high affinity (KD = 1.0 nM) and displays high neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses (IC50 = 0.42 µg mL-1). Structural, biochemical, and biological characterization suggests a common neutralizing mechanism, in which the RBD-ACE2 interaction is competitively inhibited by sybodies. Various forms of sybodies with improved potency have been generated by structure-based design, biparatopic construction, and divalent engineering. Two divalent forms of MR3 protect hamsters from clinical signs after live virus challenge and a single dose of the Fc-fusion construct of MR3 reduces viral RNA load by 6 Log10. Our results pave the way for the development of therapeutic nanobodies against COVID-19 and present a strategy for rapid development of targeted medical interventions during an outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mesocricetus , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo
9.
Nature ; 596(7870): 103-108, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153975

RESUMO

Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants jeopardize antibody-based countermeasures. Although cell culture experiments have demonstrated a loss of potency of several anti-spike neutralizing antibodies against variant strains of SARS-CoV-21-3, the in vivo importance of these results remains uncertain. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which correspond to many in advanced clinical development by Vir Biotechnology, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Regeneron and Lilly, against SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses. Although some individual mAbs showed reduced or abrogated neutralizing activity in cell culture against B.1.351, B.1.1.28, B.1.617.1 and B.1.526 viruses with mutations at residue E484 of the spike protein, low prophylactic doses of mAb combinations protected against infection by many variants in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, 129S2 immunocompetent mice and hamsters, without the emergence of resistance. Exceptions were LY-CoV555 monotherapy and LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 combination therapy, both of which lost all protective activity, and the combination of AbbVie 2B04 and 47D11, which showed a partial loss of activity. When administered after infection, higher doses of several mAb cocktails protected in vivo against viruses with a B.1.351 spike gene. Therefore, many-but not all-of the antibody products with Emergency Use Authorization should retain substantial efficacy against the prevailing variant strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Mesocricetus/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
10.
J Mol Biol ; 433(15): 167086, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089718

RESUMO

Ricin toxin kills mammalian cells with notorious efficiency. The toxin's B subunit (RTB) is a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that attaches to cell surfaces and promotes retrograde transport of ricin's A subunit (RTA) to the trans Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). RTA is liberated from RTB in the ER and translocated into the cell cytoplasm, where it functions as a ribosome-inactivating protein. While antibodies against ricin's individual subunits have been reported, we now describe seven alpaca-derived, single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that span the RTA-RTB interface, including four Tier 1 VHHs with IC50 values <1 nM. Crystal structures of each VHH bound to native ricin holotoxin revealed three different binding modes, based on contact with RTA's F-G loop (mode 1), RTB's subdomain 2γ (mode 2) or both (mode 3). VHHs in modes 2 and 3 were highly effective at blocking ricin attachment to HeLa cells and immobilized asialofetuin, due to framework residues (FR3) that occupied the 2γ Gal/GalNAc-binding pocket and mimic ligand. The four Tier 1 VHHs also interfered with intracellular functions of RTB, as they neutralized ricin in a post-attachment cytotoxicity assay (e.g., the toxin was bound to cell surfaces before antibody addition) and reduced the efficiency of toxin transport to the TGN. We conclude that the RTA-RTB interface is a target of potent toxin-neutralizing antibodies that interfere with both extracellular and intracellular events in ricin's cytotoxic pathway.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Ricina/química , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HeLa , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Ricina/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Células THP-1 , Células Vero
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 1913-1932, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst development and enlargement lead to ESKD. Macrophage recruitment and interstitial inflammation promote cyst growth. TWEAK is a TNF superfamily (TNFSF) cytokine that regulates inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, and cell death, and its receptor Fn14 (TNFRSF12a) is expressed in macrophage and nephron epithelia. METHODS: To evaluate the role of the TWEAK signaling pathway in cystic disease, we evaluated Fn14 expression in human and in an orthologous murine model of ADPKD. We also explored the cystic response to TWEAK signaling pathway activation and inhibition by peritoneal injection. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of published animal-model data of cystic disease reveals mRNA upregulation of several components of the TWEAK signaling pathway. We also observed that TWEAK and Fn14 were overexpressed in mouse ADPKD kidney cysts, and TWEAK was significantly high in urine and cystic fluid from patients with ADPKD. TWEAK administration induced cystogenesis and increased cystic growth, worsening the phenotype in a murine ADPKD model. Anti-TWEAK antibodies significantly slowed the progression of ADPKD, preserved renal function, and improved survival. Furthermore, the anti-TWEAK cystogenesis reduction is related to decreased cell proliferation-related MAPK signaling, decreased NF-κB pathway activation, a slight reduction of fibrosis and apoptosis, and an indirect decrease in macrophage recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the TWEAK signaling pathway as a new disease mechanism involved in cystogenesis and cystic growth and may lead to a new therapeutic approach in ADPKD.


Assuntos
Citocina TWEAK/metabolismo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/metabolismo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/patologia , Receptor de TWEAK/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistos/metabolismo , Cistos/patologia , Citocina TWEAK/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocina TWEAK/genética , Citocina TWEAK/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor de TWEAK/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3279, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078883

RESUMO

Targeting the molecular pathways underlying the cardiotoxicity associated with thoracic irradiation and doxorubicin (Dox) could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these anticancer treatments. Here, we find that vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with persistent DNA damage induced by irradiation and Dox treatment exhibit a fibrotic phenotype (endothelial-mesenchymal transition, EndMT) correlating with the colocalization of L1CAM and persistent DNA damage foci. We demonstrate that treatment with the anti-L1CAM antibody Ab417 decreases L1CAM overexpression and nuclear translocation and persistent DNA damage foci. We show that in whole-heart-irradiated mice, EC-specific p53 deletion increases vascular fibrosis and the colocalization of L1CAM and DNA damage foci, while Ab417 attenuates these effects. We also demonstrate that Ab417 prevents cardiac dysfunction-related decrease in fractional shortening and prolongs survival after whole-heart irradiation or Dox treatment. We show that cardiomyopathy patient-derived cardiovascular ECs with persistent DNA damage show upregulated L1CAM and EndMT, indicating clinical applicability of Ab417. We conclude that controlling vascular DNA damage by inhibiting nuclear L1CAM translocation might effectively prevent anticancer therapy-associated cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Cocultura , Dano ao DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos da radiação , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos da radiação , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/antagonistas & inibidores , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
13.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1930636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097570

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), interacts with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via its spike 1 protein during infection. After the virus sequence was published, we identified two potent antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) from antibody libraries using a phage-to-yeast (PtY) display platform in only 10 days. Our lead antibody JMB2002, now in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ChiCTR2100042150), showed broad-spectrum in vitro blocking activity against hACE2 binding to the RBD of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.351 that was reportedly much more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma, vaccine sera and some clinical-stage neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, JMB2002 has demonstrated complete prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy in a rhesus macaque disease model. Prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasure intervention of SARS-CoV-2 using JMB2002 would likely slow down the transmission of currently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and result in more efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , Células CHO , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Células Vero
14.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114221, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182038

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the culprit causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). For the study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a BSL-2 laboratory, a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle (SARS2pp) production and infection system was constructed by using a lentiviral vector bearing dual-reporter genes eGFP and firefly luciferase (Luc2) for easy observation and analysis. Comparison of SARS2pp different production conditions revealed that the pseudovirus titer could be greatly improved by: 1) removing the last 19 amino acids of the spike protein and replacing the signal peptide with the mouse Igk signal sequence; 2) expressing the spike protein using CMV promoter other than CAG (a hybrid promoter consisting of a CMV enhancer, beta-actin promoter, splice donor, and a beta-globin splice acceptor); 3) screening better optimized spike protein sequences for SARS2pp production; and 4) adding 1 % BSA in the SARS2pp production medium. For infection, this SARS2pp system showed a good linear relationship between MOI 2-0.0002 and then was successfully used to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection inhibitors including recombinant human ACE2 proteins and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. The kidney, liver and small intestine-derived cell lines were also found to show different susceptibility to SARSpp and SARS2pp. Given its robustness and good performance, it is believed that this pseudovirus particle production and infection system will greatly promote future research for SARS-CoV-2 entry mechanisms and inhibitors and can be easily applied to study new emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Testes de Neutralização/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/genética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vírion , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106944

RESUMO

Until now, antiviral therapeutic agents are still urgently required for treatment or prevention of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SCoV-2) virus infection. In this study, we established a sensitive SCoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (SP), including an SP mutant D614G, pseudotyped HIV-1-based vector system and tested their ability to infect ACE2-expressing cells. Based on this system, we have demonstrated that an aqueous extract from the Natural herb Prunella vulgaris (NhPV) displayed potent inhibitory effects on SCoV-2 SP (including SPG614 mutant) pseudotyped virus (SCoV-2-SP-PVs) mediated infections. Moreover, we have compared NhPV with another compound, Suramin, for their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities and the mode of their actions, and found that both NhPV and Suramin are able to directly interrupt SCoV-2-SP binding to its receptor ACE2 and block the viral entry step. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of NhPV and Suramin were confirmed by the wild type SARS-CoV-2 (hCoV-19/Canada/ON-VIDO-01/2020) virus infection in Vero cells. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the combination of NhPV/Suramin with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody mediated a more potent blocking effect against SCoV2-SP-PVs. Overall, by using SARS-CoV-2 SP-pseudotyped HIV-1-based entry system, we provide strong evidence that NhPV and Suramin have anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and may be developed as a novel antiviral approach against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunella/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Suramina/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
16.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(3): 226-228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169908

RESUMO

Although many potent drugs have been used for cytokine storm, mortality is high for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which is followed up in the intensive care unit. Interferons (IFNs) are the major cytokines of the antiviral defense system released from many cell types. However, IFN-γ plays a key role in both primary and secondary cytokine storms. If the cytokine storm is not treated urgently, it will be fatal; therefore, it should be treated immediately. Anakinra, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) antagonist, tocilizumab, an IL-6 antagonist, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are successfully used in cytokine storm caused by COVID-19. However, sometimes, despite these treatments, the patient's clinical course does not improve. Emapalumab (Eb) is the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody and is a potent and noncompetitive antagonist of IFN-γ. Eb can be life saving for cytokine storm caused by COVID-19, which is resistant to anakinra, tocilizumab, and JAK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Farmacorresistência Viral , Humanos , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon gama/imunologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/farmacologia , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/imunologia , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Recidiva
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161386

RESUMO

Although SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are promising therapeutics against COVID-19, little is known about their mechanism(s) of action or effective dosing windows. We report the generation and development of SC31, a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, isolated from a convalescent patient. Antibody-mediated neutralization occurs via an epitope within the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. SC31 exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities in multiple animal models. In SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice, treatment with SC31 greatly reduced viral loads and attenuated pro-inflammatory responses linked to the severity of COVID-19. Importantly, a comparison of the efficacies of SC31 and its Fc-null LALA variant revealed that the optimal therapeutic efficacy of SC31 requires Fc-mediated effector functions that promote IFNγ-driven anti-viral immune responses, in addition to its neutralization ability. A dose-dependent efficacy of SC31 was observed down to 5mg/kg when administered before viral-induced lung inflammatory responses. In addition, antibody-dependent enhancement was not observed even when infected mice were treated with SC31 at sub-therapeutic doses. In SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, SC31 treatment significantly prevented weight loss, reduced viral loads, and attenuated the histopathology of the lungs. In rhesus macaques, the therapeutic potential of SC31 was evidenced through the reduction of viral loads in both upper and lower respiratory tracts to undetectable levels. Together, the results of our preclinical studies demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of SC31 in three different models and its potential as a COVID-19 therapeutic candidate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescença , Cricetinae , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Carga Viral
18.
EBioMedicine ; 68: 103390, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) continues to challenge the limits of our knowledge and our healthcare system. Here we sought to define the host immune response, a.k.a, the "cytokine storm" that has been implicated in fatal COVID-19 using an AI-based approach. METHOD: Over 45,000 transcriptomic datasets of viral pandemics were analyzed to extract a 166-gene signature using ACE2 as a 'seed' gene; ACE2 was rationalized because it encodes the receptor that facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) into host cells. An AI-based approach was used to explore the utility of the signature in navigating the uncharted territory of Covid-19, setting therapeutic goals, and finding therapeutic solutions. FINDINGS: The 166-gene signature was surprisingly conserved across all viral pandemics, including COVID-19, and a subset of 20-genes classified disease severity, inspiring the nomenclatures ViP and severe-ViP signatures, respectively. The ViP signatures pinpointed a paradoxical phenomenon wherein lung epithelial and myeloid cells mount an IL15 cytokine storm, and epithelial and NK cell senescence and apoptosis determine severity/fatality. Precise therapeutic goals could be formulated; these goals were met in high-dose SARS-CoV-2-challenged hamsters using either neutralizing antibodies that abrogate SARS-CoV-2•ACE2 engagement or a directly acting antiviral agent, EIDD-2801. IL15/IL15RA were elevated in the lungs of patients with fatal disease, and plasma levels of the cytokine prognosticated disease severity. INTERPRETATION: The ViP signatures provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for titrating the immune response in viral pandemics and may serve as a powerful unbiased tool to rapidly assess disease severity and vet candidate drugs. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) [grants CA151673 and GM138385 (to DS) and AI141630 (to P.G), DK107585-05S1 (SD) and AI155696 (to P.G, D.S and S.D), U19-AI142742 (to S. C, CCHI: Cooperative Centers for Human Immunology)]; Research Grants Program Office (RGPO) from the University of California Office of the President (UCOP) (R00RG2628 & R00RG2642 to P.G, D.S and S.D); the UC San Diego Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center (to P.G, D.S and S.D); LJI Institutional Funds (to S.C); the VA San Diego Healthcare System Institutional funds (to L.C.A). GDK was supported through The American Association of Immunologists Intersect Fellowship Program for Computational Scientists and Immunologists. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: The host immune response in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Interleucina-15/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-15/genética , Viroses/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inteligência Artificial , Autopsia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Cricetinae , Citidina/administração & dosagem , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcadores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas/administração & dosagem , Hidroxilaminas/farmacologia , Interleucina-15/sangue , Pulmão/imunologia , Mesocricetus , Pandemias , Receptores de Interleucina-15/sangue , Viroses/imunologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10220, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986382

RESUMO

The urgent need for a treatment of COVID-19 has left researchers with limited choice of either developing an effective vaccine or identifying approved/investigational drugs developed for other medical conditions for potential repurposing, thus bypassing long clinical trials. In this work, we compared the sequences of experimentally verified SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and sequentially/structurally similar commercialized therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We have identified three therapeutic antibodies, Tremelimumab, Ipilimumab and Afasevikumab. Interestingly, these antibodies target CTLA4 and IL17A, levels of which have been shown to be elevated during severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The candidate antibodies were evaluated further for epitope restriction, interaction energy and interaction surface to gauge their repurposability to tackle SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our work provides candidate antibody scaffolds with dual activities of plausible viral neutralization and immunosuppression. Further, these candidate antibodies can also be explored in diagnostic test kits for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We opine that this in silico workflow to screen and analyze antibodies for repurposing would have widespread applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/imunologia , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
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