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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484190

RESUMO

Small number of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic lineages did not efficiently exhibit a neutralization profile, while single amino acid mutation in the spike protein has not been confirmed in altering viral antigenicity resulting in immune escape. To identify crucial mutations in spike protein that escape humoral immune response, we evaluated the cross-neutralization of convalescent plasmas and RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against various spike protein-based pseudoviruses. Three of 24 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses containing different mutations in spike protein, including D614G, A475V, and E484Q, consistently showed an altered sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent plasmas. A475V and E484Q mutants are highly resistant to neutralization by mAb B38 and 2-4, suggesting that some crucial mutations in spike protein might evolve SARS-CoV-2 variants capable of escaping humoral immune response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Convalescença , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Humoral , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 723585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489974

RESUMO

Objectives: Our objective was to determine the antibody and cytokine profiles in different COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVID-19 patients with different clinical classifications were enrolled in this study. The level of IgG antibodies, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgG subclasses targeting N and S proteins were tested using ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined by using a toxin neutralization assay (TNA) with live SARS-CoV-2. The concentrations of 8 cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, CCL2, CXCL10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, were measured using the Protein Sample Ella-Simple ELISA system. The differences in antibodies and cytokines between severe and moderate patients were compared by t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Results: A total of 79 COVID-19 patients, including 49 moderate patients and 30 severe patients, were enrolled. Compared with those in moderate patients, neutralizing antibody and IgG-S antibody titers in severe patients were significantly higher. The concentration of IgG-N antibody was significantly higher than that of IgG-S antibody in COVID-19 patients. There was a significant difference in the distribution of IgG subclass antibodies between moderate patients and severe patients. The positive ratio of anti-S protein IgG3 is significantly more than anti-N protein IgG3, while the anti-S protein IgG4 positive rate is significantly less than the anti-N protein IgG4 positive rate. IL-2 was lower in COVID-19 patients than in healthy individuals, while IL-4, IL-6, CCL2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy individuals. IL-6 was significantly higher in severe patients than in moderate patients. The antibody level of anti-S protein was positively correlated with the titer of neutralizing antibody, but there was no relationship between cytokines and neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Our findings show the severe COVID-19 patients' antibody levels were stronger than those of moderate patients, and a cytokine storm is associated with COVID-19 severity. There was a difference in immunoglobulin type between anti-S protein antibodies and anti-N protein antibodies in COVID-19 patients. And clarified the value of the profile in critical prevention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/classificação , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(35): e250, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490757

RESUMO

There are still no agreed guidelines on the vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for previously infected patients. Here, we present two seropositive healthcare workers (HCWs) working in an isolation ward who recovered from COVID-19 in April 2020 and got vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine in March 2021. We have assessed the clinical course, vaccine-related adverse events, and antibody response after natural infection and after first and second dose vaccination. One of the two HCWs was asymptomatic during quarantine, but the other had mild upper respiratory infection symptoms 1 day before admission, and the symptoms continued for 9 days. There was no pneumonic infiltration in chest X-ray in both patients, and no COVID-19 specific treatment was administered. Total immunoglobulin antibody and neutralizing antibody to anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were confirmed to be present in both HCWs in blood tests performed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after discharge. Antibody response to mRNA vaccination showed marked elevation after the first vaccination, which was 30-40 times higher than that of antibody titer after natural infection in each patient (83.2 U/mL vs. > 2,500 U/mL in patient 1; 61.6 U/mL vs. > 2,500 U/mL in patient 2). Signal inhibition rate of neutralizing antibodies was also increased to over 97%. Due to this increased effect, there was little difference in antibody levels after the first and second dose. Both patients 1 and 2 suffered more from adverse vaccine reactions after the second vaccination than from COVID-19 symptoms.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vacinação
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497602

RESUMO

A convalescent, non-severe, patient with COVID-19 was enrolled as a hyper-immune plasma voluntary donor by the Immuno-Hematology and Transfusion Unit of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome, under the TSUNAMI national study criteria. During a nearly 6-month period (May-October 2020), the patient was closely monitored and underwent four hyperimmune plasma collections. Serum SARS-CoV-2 (anti-S + anti-N) IgG and IgM, anti-S1 IgA, and neutralizing titers (NTs) were measured. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels steadily decreased. No correlation was found between anti-S/anti-N IgG and IgM levels and viral NT, measured by either a microneutralization test or the surrogate RBD/ACE2-binding inhibition test. Conversely, NTs directly correlated with anti-S1 IgA levels. Hyperimmune donor plasma, administered to five SARS-CoV-2 patients with persistent, severe COVID-19 symptoms, induced short-term clinical and pathological improvement. Reported data suggest that high NTs can persist longer than expected, thus widening hyperimmune plasma source, availability, and potential use. In vitro RBD/ACE2-binding inhibition test is confirmed as a convenient surrogate index for neutralizing activity and patients' follow-up, suitable for clinical settings where biosafety level 3 facilities are not available. IgA levels may correlate with serum neutralizing activity and represent a further independent index for patient evaluation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulina A/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Immunohorizons ; 5(6): 466-476, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398806

RESUMO

Lasting immunity will be critical for overcoming COVID-19. However, the factors associated with the development of high titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs and how long those Abs persist remain incompletely defined. In particular, an understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs is limited. To address these unknowns, we quantified serum anti-SARS- CoV-2 Abs in clinically diverse COVID-19 convalescent human subjects 5 wk (n = 113) and 3 mo (n = 79) after symptom resolution with three methods: a novel multiplex assay to quantify IgG against four SARS-CoV-2 Ags, a new SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 inhibition assay, and a SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing assay. We then identified clinical and demographic factors, including never-before-assessed COVID-19 symptoms, that consistently correlate with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. We detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs in 98% of COVID-19 convalescent subjects 5 wk after symptom resolution, and Ab levels did not decline at 3 mo. Greater disease severity, older age, male sex, higher body mass index, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score correlated with increased anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. Moreover, we report for the first time (to our knowledge) that COVID-19 symptoms, most consistently fever, body aches, and low appetite, correlate with higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. Our results provide robust and new insights into the development and persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(7): 198-206, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340267

RESUMO

Background: High-throughput assays that can infer neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 are of great importance for assessing the immunity induced by natural infection and COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to evaluate the performance and degree of correlation of three fully automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays with neutralization activity using a surrogate virus-neutralizing test (sVNT) from GenScript, targeting the receptor-binding domain. Methods: 110 sera collected from PCR-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) using the sVNT. Positive samples were tested on three automated immunoassays targeting different viral antigens: Mindray CL-900i®, Abbott Architect, and Ortho VITROS®. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and correlation with the sVNT were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine optimal thresholds for predicting the presence of neutralizing activity by each assay. Results: All three assays showed 100% specificities. The highest sensitivity was 99.0%, demonstrated by VITROS®, followed by 94.3%, for CL-900i®, and 81.0%, for Architect. Both VITROS® and CL-900i® had the strongest correlation with the sVNT (ρ = 0.718 and ρ = 0.712, respectively), while Architect showed a moderate correlation (ρ = 0.618). ROC curve analysis indicated that the manufacturer's recommended cutoff values are adequate for predicting the presence of nAbs and providing a strong correlation with the sVNT. Conclusion: VITROS® and CL-900i® serological assays, which detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could serve as reliable assays to predict neutralization activity after infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Automação , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
7.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 138, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341335

RESUMO

Recent data suggest a suboptimal antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated in 276 patients with plasma cell neoplasms after vaccination with either the BNT162b2 or the AZD1222 vaccine, on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 22, and 50. Patients with MM (n = 213), SMM (n = 38), and MGUS (n = 25) and 226 healthy controls were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with either two doses of the BNT162b2 or one dose of the AZD1222 vaccine leads to lower production of NAbs in patients with MM compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Furthermore, MM patients showed an inferior NAb response compared with MGUS on day 22 (p = 0.009) and on day 50 (p = 0.003). Importantly, active treatment with either anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or belantamab mafodotin and lymphopenia at the time of vaccination were independent prognostic factors for suboptimal antibody response following vaccination. In conclusion, MM patients have low humoral response following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, especially under treatment with anti-CD38 or belamaf. This underlines the need for timely vaccination, possibly during a treatment-free period, and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures in non-responders.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Mieloma Múltiplo , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4740, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362897

RESUMO

Unraveling the long-term kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the individual characteristics influencing it, including the impact of pre-existing antibodies to human coronaviruses causing common cold (HCoVs), is essential to understand protective immunity to COVID-19 and devise effective surveillance strategies. IgM, IgA and IgG levels against six SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the nucleocapsid antigen of the four HCoV (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) were quantified by Luminex, and antibody neutralization capacity was assessed by flow cytometry, in a cohort of health care workers followed up to 7 months (N = 578). Seroprevalence increases over time from 13.5% (month 0) and 15.6% (month 1) to 16.4% (month 6). Levels of antibodies, including those with neutralizing capacity, are stable over time, except IgG to nucleocapsid antigen and IgM levels that wane. After the peak response, anti-spike antibody levels increase from ~150 days post-symptom onset in all individuals (73% for IgG), in the absence of any evidence of re-exposure. IgG and IgA to HCoV are significantly higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic seropositive individuals. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive HCoVs antibodies could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413139

RESUMO

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-ß. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-ß do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452371

RESUMO

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the susceptibility of animals and their potential to act as reservoirs or intermediate hosts for the virus has been of significant interest. Pigs are susceptible to multiple coronaviruses and have been used as an animal model for other human infectious diseases. Research groups have experimentally challenged swine with human SARS-CoV-2 isolates with results suggesting limited to no viral replication. For this study, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate obtained from a tiger which is identical to human SARS-CoV-2 isolates detected in New York City and contains the D614G S mutation was utilized for inoculation. Pigs were challenged via intravenous, intratracheal, or intranasal routes of inoculation (n = 4/route). No pigs developed clinical signs, but at least one pig in each group had one or more PCR positive nasal/oral swabs or rectal swabs after inoculation. All pigs in the intravenous group developed a transient neutralizing antibody titer, but only three other challenged pigs developed titers greater than 1:8. No gross or histologic changes were observed in tissue samples collected at necropsy. In addition, no PCR positive samples were positive by virus isolation. Inoculated animals were unable to transmit virus to naïve contact animals. The data from this experiment as well as from other laboratories supports that swine are not likely to play a role in the epidemiology and spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Administração Intranasal , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Nariz/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Suínos , Traqueia/virologia , Replicação Viral
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452373

RESUMO

The development of rapid serological detection methods re urgently needed for determination of neutralizing antibodies in sera. In this study, four rapid methods (ACE2-RBD inhibition assay, S1-IgG detection, RBD-IgG detection, and N-IgG detection) were established and evaluated based on chemiluminescence technology. For the first time, a broadly neutralizing antibody with high affinity was used as a standard for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients (N = 119), vaccinated donors (N = 86), and healthy donors (N = 299) confirmed by microneutralization test (MNT) were used to evaluate the above methods. The result showed that the ACE2-RBD inhibition assay calculated with either ACE2-RBD binding inhibition percentage rate or ACE2-RBD inhibiting antibody concentration were strongly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.78, p < 0.0001) and also highly consistent with MNT (Kappa Value ≥ 0.94, p < 0.01). There was also a strong correlation between the two evaluation indices (r ≥ 0.99, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, S1-IgG and RBD-IgG quantitative detection were also significantly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.73, p < 0.0001), and both methods were highly correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.95, p < 0.0001). However, the concentration of N-IgG antibodies showed a lower correlation with the MNT results (r < 0.49, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic assays presented here could be used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization effect and serological diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, and could also have guiding significance for establishing other rapid serological methods to surrogate neutralization tests for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/instrumentação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0251114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Countries across the globe have mobilized their armed forces in response to COVID-19, placing them at increased risk for viral exposure. Humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 among military personnel serve as biomarkers of infection and provide a basis for disease surveillance and recognition of work-related risk factors. METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen-specific IgG in serum obtained from N = 988 US National Guard soldiers between April-June 2020. Occupational information, e.g. military operating specialty (MOS) codes, and demographic data were obtained via questionnaire. Plaque assays with live SARS-CoV-2 were used to assess serum neutralizing capacity for limited subjects (N = 12). RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity rate among the study population was 10.3% and significantly associated with occupation and demographics. Odds ratios were highest for those working in MOS 2T-Transportation (3.6; 95% CI 0.7-18) and 92F-Fuel specialist/ground and aircraft (6.8; 95% CI 1.5-30), as well as black race (2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.1), household size ≥6 (2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6) and known COVID-19 exposure (2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Seropositivity tracked along major interstate highways and clustered near the international airport and the New York City border. SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG+ serum exhibited low to moderate SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity with IC50s ranging from 1:15 to 1:280. In limited follow-up testing SARS-CoV-2 serum IgG levels remained elevated up to 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight increased SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among National Guard vs. the local civilian population in association with transportation-related occupations and specific demographics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Demografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23921, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently ongoing, meanwhile vaccinations are rapidly underway in some countries. The quantitative immunoassays detecting antibodies against spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 have been developed based on the findings that they have a better correlation with the neutralizing antibody. METHODS: The performances of the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant, DiaSorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG, and Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S were evaluated on 173 sera from 126 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 151 pre-pandemic sera. Their correlations with GenScript cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit were also analyzed on 173 sera from 126 SARS-CoV-2 patients. RESULTS: Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S showed the highest overall sensitivity (96.0%), followed by LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG (93.6%). The specificities of Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG were 100.0%, followed by Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (99.3%). Regarding the correlation with cPass neutralization antibody assay, LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG showed the best correlation (Spearman rho = 0.88), followed by Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (all rho = 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The three automated quantitative immunoassays showed good diagnostic performance and strong correlations with neutralization antibodies. These assays will be useful in diagnostic assistance, evaluating the response to vaccination, and the assessment of herd immunity in the future.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/instrumentação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Testes de Neutralização , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16535, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400739

RESUMO

Adaptive immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) dynamics remain largely unknown. The neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are helpful for understanding the pathology. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, serum sample neutralization values in symptomatic COVID-19 patients were measured using the chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT). At least two sequential serum samples collected during hospitalization were analyzed to assess NAbs neutralizing activity dynamics at different time points. Of the 11 patients, four (36.4%), six (54.5%), and one (9.1%) had moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Fifty percent neutralization (N50%-CRNT) was observed upon admission in 90.9% (10/11); all patients acquired neutralizing activity 2-12 days after onset. In patients with moderate disease, neutralization was observed at earliest within two days after symptom onset. In patients with severe-to-critical disease, neutralization activity increased, plateauing 9-16 days after onset. Neutralization activity on admission was significantly higher in patients with moderate disease than in patients with severe-to-critical disease (relative % of infectivity, 6.4% vs. 41.1%; P = .011). Neutralization activity on admission inversely correlated with disease severity. The rapid NAb response may play a crucial role in preventing the progression of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5135, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446720

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 and its variants continue to infect hundreds of thousands every day despite the rollout of effective vaccines. Therefore, it is essential to understand the levels of protection that these vaccines provide in the face of emerging variants. Here, we report two demographically balanced cohorts of BNT162b2 vaccine recipients and COVID-19 patients, from which we evaluate neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 as well as the B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta) variants. We show that both B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 are less well neutralized by serum from vaccinated individuals, and that B.1.351, but not B.1.1.7, is less well neutralized by convalescent serum. We also find that the levels of variant-specific anti-spike antibodies are proportional to neutralizing activities. Together, our results demonstrate the escape of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants from neutralization by serum antibodies, which may lead to reduced protection from re-infection or increased risk of vaccine breakthrough.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452459

RESUMO

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is currently under investigation for both treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. The active component of CCP mediating improved outcome is commonly reported as specific antibodies, particularly neutralizing antibodies, with clinical efficacy characterized according to the level or antibody affinity. In this review, we highlight the potential role of additional factors in CCP that can be either beneficial (e.g., AT-III, alpha-1 AT, ACE2+ extracellular vesicles) or detrimental (e.g., anti-ADAMTS13, anti-MDA5 or anti-interferon autoantibodies, pro-coagulant extracellular vesicles). Variations in these factors in CCP may contribute to varied outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and undergoing CCP therapy. We advise careful, retrospective investigation of such co-factors in randomized clinical trials that use fresh frozen plasma in control arms. Nevertheless, it might be difficult to establish a causal link between these components and outcome, given that CCP is generally safe and neutralizing antibody effects may predominate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Inibidores dos Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Reações Cruzadas , Vesículas Extracelulares , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/sangue , Imunossupressores/sangue
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452461

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has rapidly spread to more than 222 countries and has put global public health at high risk. The world urgently needs cost-effective and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, antiviral, and therapeutic drugs to control it. In this study, we engineered the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and produced it in the plant Nicotiana benthamiana in a glycosylated and deglycosylated form. Expression levels of both glycosylated (gRBD) and deglycosylated (dRBD) RBD were greater than 45 mg/kg fresh weight. The purification yields were 22 mg of pure protein/kg of plant biomass for gRBD and 20 mg for dRBD, which would be sufficient for commercialization of these vaccine candidates. The purified plant-produced RBD protein was recognized by an S protein-specific monoclonal antibody, demonstrating specific reactivity of the antibody to the plant-produced RBD proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 RBD showed specific binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. In mice, the plant-produced RBD antigens elicited high titers of antibodies with a potent virus-neutralizing activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that mice immunized with plant-produced deglycosylated RBD form elicited high titer of RBD-specific antibodies with potent neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, obtained data support that plant-produced glycosylated and in vivo deglycosylated RBD antigens, developed in this study, are promising vaccine candidates for the prevention of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glicosilação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Engenharia de Proteínas , Estabilidade Proteica , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Células Vero
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452482

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of understanding the immune response to seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections such as HCoV-NL63, how existing neutralising antibodies to HCoV may modulate responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the utility of seasonal HCoV as human challenge models. Therefore, in this study we quantified HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres in a healthy adult population using plasma from 100 blood donors in Australia. A microneutralisation assay was performed with plasma diluted from 1:10 to 1:160 and tested with the HCoV-NL63 Amsterdam-1 strain. Neutralising antibodies were detected in 71% of the plasma samples, with a median geometric mean titre of 14. This titre was similar to those reported in convalescent sera taken from individuals 3-7 months following asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 2-3 years post-infection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-1 patients. HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres decreased with increasing age (R2 = 0.042, p = 0.038), but did not differ by sex. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutralising antibody to HCoV-NL63 is detectable in approximately 71% of the healthy adult population of Australia. Similar titres did not impede the use of another seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV-229E) in a human challenge model, thus, HCoV-NL63 may be useful as a human challenge model for more pathogenic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
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