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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(20): 1897-1908, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries have stockpiled vaccines because of concerns about the reemergence of smallpox. Traditional smallpox vaccines are based on replicating vaccinia viruses; these vaccines have considerable side effects. METHODS: To evaluate the efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a potential smallpox vaccine, we randomly assigned 440 participants to receive two doses of MVA followed by one dose of the established replicating-vaccinia vaccine ACAM2000 (the MVA group) or to receive one dose of ACAM2000 (the ACAM2000-only group). The two primary end points were noninferiority of the MVA vaccine to ACAM2000 with respect to the peak serum neutralizing antibody titers and attenuation of the ACAM2000-associated major cutaneous reaction by previous MVA vaccination, measured according to the maximum lesion area and the derived area attenuation ratio. RESULTS: A total of 220 and 213 participants were randomly assigned and vaccinated in the MVA group and ACAM2000-only group, respectively, and 208 participants received two MVA vaccinations. At peak visits, MVA vaccination induced a geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies of 153.5 at week 6, as compared with 79.3 at week 4 with ACAM2000 (a ratio of 1.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.56 to 2.40]). At day 14, the geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies induced by a single MVA vaccination (16.2) was equal to that induced by ACAM2000 (16.2), and the percentages of participants with seroconversion were similar (90.8% and 91.8%, respectively). The median lesion areas of the major cutaneous reaction were 0 mm2 in the MVA group and 76.0 mm2 in the ACAM2000-only group, resulting in an area attenuation ratio of 97.9% (95% CI, 96.6 to 98.3). There were fewer adverse events or adverse events of grade 3 or higher after both MVA vaccination periods in the MVA group than in the ACAM2000-only group (17 vs. 64 participants with adverse events of grade 3 or higher, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: No safety concerns associated with the MVA vaccine were identified. Immune responses and attenuation of the major cutaneous reaction suggest that this MVA vaccine protected against variola infection. (Funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services and Bavarian Nordic; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01913353.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina Antivariólica/imunologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola/imunologia , Vacina Antivariólica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 932, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although DAAs hold promise to significantly reduce rates of chronic HCV infections, its eradication still requires development of an effective vaccine. Prolonged T cell responses and cross neutralizing antibodies are ideal for vaccination against the infection. We aimed to design and synthesize a 6 multi epitope peptide vaccine candidate and provide evidence for production of extended cellular and neutralizing Abs in mice. METHODS: Six peptides derived from conserved epitopes in E1, E2 (n = 2),NS4B, NS5A and NS5B were designed, synthesized in a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) form and administered w/o adjuvant to BALB/c mice as HCVp6-MAP at doses ranging from 800 ng to 16 µg. Humoral responses to structural epitopes were assayed by ELISA at different times after injection. ELISpot assay was used to evaluate IFN É£ producing CD4+/ CD8+ T- lymphocytes at extended durations i.e. > 20 weeks. Viral neutralization by mice sera was tested for genotypes 2a (JFH1) and a chimeric 2a/4a virus (ED43/JFH1) in HCVcc culture. RESULTS: HCVp6-MAP confers potent viral neutralization and specific cellular responses at > 1600 ng/ animal for at least 20 weeks. CONCLUSION: We report on a promising anti HCV vaccine for future studies on permissive hosts and in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Epitopos/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Imunidade Celular , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peptídeos/síntese química , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 933, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has emerged as a major public health issue in Vietnam since 2003. We aimed to investigate the household transmission of HFMD and its causative viruses from 150 households in a high incidence province in Vietnam. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted in patients presenting to the provincial hospital with a HFMD-like syndrome, along with their household members between April and August 2014 in Dong Thap Province. Each participant was followed up for 2 weeks. We enrolled 150 patients aged under 15 who were clinically diagnosed with HFMD in Dong Thap Hospital, 600 household members, and 581/600 household members completed the study. All participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Throat swabs and blood samples were taken for molecular detection of viruses and assessment of neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Index cases were defined using a clinical case definition, household contact cases were defined using a similar definition applied to the 2 weeks before admission and 2 weeks after discharge of the index case. Characteristics of index cases, household contacts, the attack rate, serotype features and related factors of HFMD were reported. RESULT: Among 150 index cases, 113 were laboratory confirmed: 90/150 were RT-PCR-positive, 101/142 had a ≥ 4-fold increase of neutralizing antibody against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 or CV-A16 across the two samples collected. 80/150 (53%) were males, and 45/150 (30%) were under the age of 1. The predominant serotype was CV-A6, identified in 57/87 (65.5%) of the specimens. No deaths were reported. Among 581 household contacts, 148 were laboratory confirmed: 12/581 were RT-PCR-positive, 142/545 had a ≥ 4-fold increase of neutralizing antibodies against EV-A71, CV-A6 or CV-A16; 4 cases experienced HFMD in the past 4 weeks. Attack rate among household contacts was 148/581 (25.5%). In 7/12 (58%) instances, the index and secondary cases were infected with the same serotype. Having a relationship to index case was significantly associated with EV infection. CONCLUSION: The attack rate among household contacts was relatively high (25.5%) in this study and it seems justified to also consider the household setting as an additional target for intervention programs.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/transmissão , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Sorogrupo , Vietnã/epidemiologia
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2009-2019, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, was designated a World Health Organization top 10 threat to global health in 2019. METHODS: We present primary efficacy data from part 1 of an ongoing phase 3 randomized trial of a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TAK-003) in regions of Asia and Latin America in which the disease is endemic. Healthy children and adolescents 4 to 16 years of age were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio (stratified according to age category and region) to receive two doses of vaccine or placebo 3 months apart. Participants presenting with febrile illness were tested for virologically confirmed dengue by serotype-specific reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The primary end point was overall vaccine efficacy in preventing virologically confirmed dengue caused by any dengue virus serotype. RESULTS: Of the 20,071 participants who were given at least one dose of vaccine or placebo (safety population), 19,021 (94.8%) received both injections and were included in the per-protocol analysis. The overall vaccine efficacy in the safety population was 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.2 to 85.3; 78 cases per 13,380 [0.5 per 100 person-years] in the vaccine group vs. 199 cases per 6687 [2.5 per 100 person-years] in the placebo group). In the per-protocol analyses, vaccine efficacy was 80.2% (95% CI, 73.3 to 85.3; 61 cases of virologically confirmed dengue in the vaccine group vs. 149 cases in the placebo group), with 95.4% efficacy against dengue leading to hospitalization (95% CI, 88.4 to 98.2; 5 hospitalizations in the vaccine group vs. 53 hospitalizations in the placebo group). Planned exploratory analyses involving the 27.7% of the per-protocol population that was seronegative at baseline showed vaccine efficacy of 74.9% (95% CI, 57.0 to 85.4; 20 cases of virologically confirmed dengue in the vaccine group vs. 39 cases in the placebo group). Efficacy trends varied according to serotype. The incidence of serious adverse events was similar in the vaccine group and placebo group (3.1% and 3.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TAK-003 was efficacious against symptomatic dengue in countries in which the disease is endemic. (Funded by Takeda Vaccines; TIDES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02747927.).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Américas/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 336-346.e3, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513771

RESUMO

Passively administered broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) have been shown to protect non-human primates (NHPs) against chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. With data from multiple non-human primate SHIV challenge studies that used single bNAbs, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between predicted serum 50% neutralization titer (ID50) against the challenge virus and infection outcome. In a logistic model that adjusts for bNAb epitopes and challenge viruses, serum ID50 had a highly significant effect on infection risk (p < 0.001). The estimated ID50 to achieve 50%, 75%, and 95% protection was 91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55, 153), 219 (117, 410), and 685 (319, 1471), respectively. This analysis indicates that serum neutralizing titer against the relevant virus is a key parameter of protection and that protection from acquisition by a single bNAb might require substantial levels of neutralization at the time of exposure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Modelos Logísticos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007648, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449521

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a newly-identified infectious cause of congenital disease. Transplacental transfer of maternal IgG to the fetus plays an important role in preventing many neonatal infections. However, antibody transfer may also have negative consequences, such as mediating enhancement of flavivirus infections in early life, or trafficking of virus immune complexes to the fetal compartment. ZIKV infection produces placental pathology which could lead to impaired IgG transfer efficiency as occurs in other maternal infections, such as HIV-1 and malaria. In this study, we asked whether ZIKV infection during pregnancy impairs transplacental transfer of IgG. We enrolled pregnant women with fever or rash in a prospective cohort in Vitoria, Brazil during the recent ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV)-specific IgG, ZIKV and DENV neutralizing antibodies, and routine vaccine antigen-specific IgG were measured in maternal samples collected around delivery and 20 paired cord blood samples. We concluded that 8 of these mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy and 12 were ZIKV-uninfected. The magnitude of flavivirus-specific IgG, neutralizing antibody, and vaccine-elicited IgG were highly correlated between maternal plasma and infant cord blood in both ZIKV-infected and -uninfected mother-infant pairs. Moreover, there was no difference in the magnitude of plasma flavivirus-specific IgG levels between mothers and infants regardless of ZIKV infection status. Our data suggests that maternal ZIKV infection during pregnancy does not impair the efficiency of placental transfer of flavivirus-specific, functional, and vaccine-elicited IgG. These findings have implications for the neonatal outomes of maternal ZIKV infection and optimal administration of antibody-based ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Brasil , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007654, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369554

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the largest and deadliest outbreak to date. Here we conducted a serological study to examine the antibody levels in survivors and the seroconversion in close contacts who took care of Ebola-infected individuals, but did not develop symptoms of Ebola virus disease. In March 2017, we collected blood samples from 481 individuals in Makeni, Sierra Leone: 214 survivors and 267 close contacts. Using commercial, quantitative ELISAs, we tested the plasma for IgG-specific antibodies against three major viral antigens: GP, the only viral glycoprotein expressed on the virus surface; NP, the most abundant viral protein; and VP40, a major structural protein of Zaire ebolavirus. We also determined neutralizing antibody titers. In the cohort of Ebola survivors, 97.7% of samples (209/214) had measurable antibody levels against GP, NP, and/or VP40. Of these positive samples, all but one had measurable neutralizing antibody titers against Ebola virus. For the close contacts, up to 12.7% (34/267) may have experienced a subclinical virus infection as indicated by detectable antibodies against GP. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether these close contacts truly experienced subclinical infections and whether these asymptomatic infections played a role in the dynamics of transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Plasma/imunologia , Serra Leoa , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007766, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369649

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led to the hypothesis that DENV infection induces cross-reactive antibodies that influence the severity of secondary ZIKV infections. It has also been proposed that pre-existing ZIKV immunity could affect DENV pathogenesis. We examined outcomes of secondary ZIKV infections in three rhesus and fifteen cynomolgus macaques, as well as secondary DENV-2 infections in three additional rhesus macaques up to a year post-primary ZIKV infection. Although cross-binding antibodies were detected prior to secondary infection for all animals and cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected for some animals, previous DENV or ZIKV infection had no apparent effect on the clinical course of heterotypic secondary infections in these animals. All animals had asymptomatic infections and, when compared to controls, did not have significantly perturbed hematological parameters. Rhesus macaques infected with DENV-2 approximately one year after primary ZIKV infection had higher vRNA loads in plasma when compared with serum vRNA loads from ZIKV-naive animals infected with DENV-2, but a differential effect of sample type could not be ruled out. In cynomolgus macaques, the serotype of primary DENV infection did not affect the outcome of secondary ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/complicações , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/complicações , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 255, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease, and bluetongue virus (BTV) outbreaks can cause substantial economic losses. Even subclinical infection may carry significant associated costs, including a loss of condition, reduced milk yield, and infertility and abortion, and indirect costs, largely due to the export restrictions and surveillance requirements imposed to limit the spread of the virus. However, the BTV epidemiology in the Far East remains incompletely understood, especially in the cattle population in South Korea. In this study, the seroprevalence of BTV antibodies and distribution of BTV serotypes in dairy cattle in South Korea were evaluated to improve the understanding of the BTV epidemiological situation in the Asia-Pacific region. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 37 out of 171 dairy cattle herds (21.6%) and 85 out of 466 dairy cattle heads (18.2%) showed antibodies against BTV. Neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 7, - 15, and - 16 serotypes were identified, and the RNAs of the BTV-1, - 2, - 3, - 15, and - 16 serotypes were detected, indicating that BTV was circulating in the dairy cattle population in South Korea. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that BTV is widespread and has circulated in dairy cattle in South Korea. This is the first report presenting evidence of circulating antibodies against BTV and the serotype distribution in bovine populations in South Korea.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3068, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296843

RESUMO

Most neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein and block its binding to the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The epitopes and mechanisms of mAbs targeting non-RBD regions have not been well characterized yet. Here we report the monoclonal antibody 7D10 that binds to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike glycoprotein and inhibits the cell entry of MERS-CoV with high potency. Structure determination and mutagenesis experiments reveal the epitope and critical residues on the NTD for 7D10 binding and neutralization. Further experiments indicate that the neutralization by 7D10 is not solely dependent on the inhibition of DPP4 binding, but also acts after viral cell attachment, inhibiting the pre-fusion to post-fusion conformational change of the spike. These properties give 7D10 a wide neutralization breadth and help explain its synergistic effects with several RBD-targeting antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300130

RESUMO

Rabies is a neglected disease with an estimated annual mortality of 55,000 human deaths, affecting mainly low-income countries. Over 95% of these cases result from virus transmission through the bite of infected dogs and for this reason there is a real need for a cheap and effective rabies veterinary vaccine to be used in mass vaccination campaigns. In this work, we describe the establishment of a simple platform for the production of a virus-like particles based rabies vaccine using mammalian cells and roller bottles as culture system. Adherent cells were cultured during more than 15 days and VLPs were continuously produced and secreted to the culture supernatant. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VLPs were tested through rabies virus neutralizing antibody test and NIH potency test. These viral particles induced high titer of long lasting neutralizing antibodies and protected mice against active virus challenge. Therefore, this development represents a promising platform for the production of a new generation and virus-free rabies vaccine candidate for veterinary applications.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Cultura de Vírus/instrumentação , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/biossíntese , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/biossíntese , Cultura de Vírus/métodos
12.
Clin Lab ; 65(7)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, many broadly applicable and potent neutralizing antibodies have been screened from HIV-1-infected patients. However, all these effective neutralizing antibodies were isolated from patients naive to anti-retroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: To better understand the induction of neutralizing antibodies in patients on ART, we screened 3 patients with an over ten-year infection history on ART from 350 patients in China for a cross-reactive neutralizing antibody response based on the use of different antigens and recombinant viruses. We studied the evolution of neutralizing activity in two patients during a one-year period with previously described recombinant viruses NL4-3 and SF162 using ELISA and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Antibodies purified from sera were able to react with recombinant virus antigens R2-gp120 and SF162-gp140 and neutralize SF162 recombinant virus but not NL4-3 recombinant virus. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the neutralizing response of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from the serum sample in Patient 1 and compared it with the serum from Patient 1 six months ago. CONCLUSIONS: We thus confirm the possibility of production of neutralizing antibodies in patients infected for over ten years on ART, and it is possible over time of the improvement of HIV-1 potent neutralizing activity associated with viremia and immune reconstruction.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
13.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(4): e12801, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269273

RESUMO

Influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen, and vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis. In 2012, the trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in Europe for use in children. Vaccine-induced antibodies directed against the main viral surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) play important roles in limiting virus infection. The objective of this study was to dissect the influenza-specific antibody responses in children and adults, and T cell responses in children induced after LAIV immunization to the A/H1N1 virus. Blood samples were collected pre- and at 28 and 56 days post-vaccination from 20 children and 20 adults. No increase in micro-neutralization (MN) antibodies against A/H1N1 was observed after vaccination. A/H1N1 stalk-specific neutralizing and NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies were boosted in children after LAIV. Interferon γ-producing T cells increased significantly in children, and antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxic (ADCC) cell activity increased slightly in children after vaccination, although this change was not significant. The results indicate that the NI assay is more sensitive to qualitative changes in serum antibodies after LAIV. There was a considerable difference in the immune response in children and adults after vaccination, which may be related to priming and previous influenza history. Our findings warrant further studies for evaluating LAIV vaccination immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Vacinação
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 86-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282383

RESUMO

Although PCV2 infections generally cause mild disease in pigs, concurrent co-infections with other pathogens can damage the immune system and cause more severe diseases, collectively termed porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Involvement of porcine parvovirus (PPV, a common cause of reproductive failure in naïve dams) in PCVAD caused by PCV2, has been reported. As this co-infection can be difficult to eliminate, there is a critical need to develop an effective vaccine to protect against PPV or synergistic effects of PCV2 and PPV under field conditions. In this study, we designed chimeric PCV2 virus-like particles (cVLPs) displaying a B-cell epitope derived from PPV1 structural protein around the surface of the 2-fold axes of PCV2 VLPs, based on 3D-structure analysis of the PCV2 capsid. The cVLPs were successfully prepared, verified by transmission electron microscopy and chromatography, with robust antibody titers against PCV2 and PPV1 produced in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, in guinea pigs challenged with 106 TCID50 PCV2, cVLPs conferred more effective immune protection (based on viral load) than a commercial PCV2 vaccine. Finally, antibody responses and immune protection against PPV were also evaluated. In guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs, although PPV antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay appeared later after vaccination in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in the commercial PPV vaccine group, there were fewer PPV genomic DNA copies in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in a PBS group. In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Camundongos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(5): 312-317, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257237

RESUMO

Dozens of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been identified from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, but it is still unclear what determines the acquisition of broad neutralizing activities. Two chronic HIV-1 infected cases with similar autologous neutralizing activities were followed up for two years to study the viral evolution of the envelope gene and the neutralizing activity against autologous and heterologous viruses. The neutralization activities against homologous viruses gradually increased in both patients. HA172 eventually developed a cross-clade neutralizing antibodies response, with a neutralization breadth of 88.9% (8/9) against tier 2 heterologous HIV-1. However, HA084 could only neutralize 44.4% (4/9) of the same virus panel. Higher genetic diversity of the env gene at baseline (0.027 vs. 0.002, p < 0.001), stronger immune pressure on V3 (3.08 vs. 0.99, p < 0.001) or V4 loops (2.63 vs. 0.62, p = 0.002), increasing length of V1V2 and V4 loops, and evolution on V1V2 and CD4-binding sites (CD4bs) were identified in HA172. The findings demonstrated that higher viral genetic diversity, viral evolution on V1V2 and CD4bs might contribute to the development of bnAbs. The findings indicate the possibility of inducing better neutralizing antibodies in immunodeficient patients and may help develop an immune therapy strategy based on bnAbs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Variação Genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 52(5): 685-692, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of an efficacious egg-free mock-up H5N1 vaccine is key to our preparedness against pandemic avian flu. METHODS: This is a single-center, randomized, observer-blinded phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of an alum-adjuvanted Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-derived inactivated whole-virion H5N1 influenza vaccine in healthy adults. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were measured using horse and turkey red blood cells (RBCs). RESULTS: Thirty-six adult subjects were randomized to receive two doses of 0.5 mL of the MDCK-derived H5N1 alum-adjuvanted vaccine containing 7.5, 15, or 30 µg of hemagglutinin (HA) 21 days apart. The candidate vaccine was well tolerated and safe across the three dosing groups. The most frequent adverse event was injection site pain (46.5%). Both HAI and neutralizing antibody titers increased after each vaccination in all three dosing groups. The best HAI responses, namely a seroconversion rate of 91.7% and a geometric mean ratio of 9.51 were achieved with the HA dose of 30 µg assayed using horse RBCs at day 42. HAI titers against H5N1 avian influenza virus was significantly higher when measured using horse RBCs compared with turkey RBCs. CONCLUSIONS: This Phase I trial showed the MDCK-derived H5N1 candidate vaccine is safe and immunogenic. The source of RBCs has a significant impact on the measurement of HAI titers (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01675284.).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Compostos de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves , Cães , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Aviária , Injeções Intramusculares , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Soroconversão , Taiwan , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
APMIS ; 127(10): 671-680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344276

RESUMO

Regardless of the communal impact of Shiga toxins, till today neither a specific treatment nor licensed vaccine is available. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), generally regarded as safe organism, is well known to provide a valuable approach regarding the oral delivery of vaccines. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of Stx2a1 expressed in nisin-inducible L. lactis, against Shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2) in mouse model. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with LL-Stx2a1 elicited significant serum antibody titer with elevated fecal and serum IgA, along with minimized intestinal and kidney damage resulting in survival of immunized animals at 84% and 100% when challenged with 10 × LD50 of Escherichia coli O157 and Shigella dysenteriae toxins, respectively. HeLa cells incubated with immune sera and toxin mixture revealed high neutralizing capacity with 90% cell survivability against both the toxins. Mice immunized passively with both toxins and antibody mixture survived the observation period of 15 days, and the controls administered with sham sera and toxins were succumbed to death within 3 days. Our results revealed protective efficacy and toxin neutralization ability of LL-Stx2a1, proposing it as an oral vaccine candidate against Shiga toxicity mediated by E. coli O157 and S. dysenteriae.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Toxina Shiga/imunologia , Toxina Shiga/toxicidade , Shigella dysenteriae/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Antitoxinas/administração & dosagem , Antitoxinas/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Toxina Shiga/genética , Shigella dysenteriae/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 9-14, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213252

RESUMO

Targeting antigens to endocytic receptors on the surface of dendritic cells is a new strategy for increasing the adaptive immune response. The objective of the current study was the construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant antibody single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) directed against chicken DEC 205, an endocytic receptor, for use in the genetic fusion of antigens. In particular, we use as antigen the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus. Our results show that inoculation of chickens with HN genetically fused to the ScFv anti-DEC 205 induced an evidently higher immune response against HN, in contrast to inoculation with unconjugated HN. In addition, neutralizing antibodies against Newcastle disease virus were detected only in the serum from chickens immunized with HN fused to ScFv anti-DEC 205. Inoculated fused antigens to ScFv against endocytic receptor DEC 205 resulted in a greater antibody-specific anti-HN production compared with antigens applied alone. The results of this study show that the strategy described here has the potential to be used in the development of more effective vaccines against infectious diseases in chickens.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/enzimologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/biossíntese , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Hemaglutininas Virais/imunologia , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007454, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166946

RESUMO

The ability to appropriately mimic human disease is critical for using animal models as a tool for understanding virus pathogenesis. In the case of Nipah virus (NiV), infection of humans appears to occur either through inhalation, contact with or consumption of infected material. In two of these circumstances, respiratory or sinusoidal exposure represents a likely route of infection. In this study, intermediate-size aerosol particles (~7 µm) of NiV-Malaysia were used to mimic potential routes of exposure by focusing viral deposition in the upper respiratory tract. Our previous report showed this route of exposure extended the disease course and a single animal survived the infection. Here, analysis of the peripheral immune response found minimal evidence of systemic inflammation and depletion of B cells during acute disease. However, the animal that survived infection developed an early IgM response with rapid development of neutralizing antibodies that likely afforded protection. The increase in NiV-specific antibodies correlated with an expansion of the B cell population in the survivor. Cell-mediated immunity was not clearly apparent in animals that succumbed during the acute phase of disease. However, CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory cells increased in the survivor with correlating increases in cytokines and chemokines associated with cell-mediated immunity. Interestingly, kinetic changes of the CD4+ and CD8bright T cell populations over the course of acute disease were opposite from animals that succumbed to infection. In addition, increases in NK cells and basophils during convalescence of the surviving animal were also evident, with viral antigen found in NK cells. These data suggest that a systemic inflammatory response and "cytokine storm" are not major contributors to NiV-Malaysia pathogenesis in the AGM model using this exposure route. Further, these data demonstrate that regulation of cell-mediated immunity, in addition to rapid production of NiV specific antibodies, may be critical for surviving NiV infection.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Exposição por Inalação , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41(4): 572-577, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The formation of neutralizing antibodies (FVIII inhibitors) in haemophilia A patients is an immune response to the deficient factor. This process is multifactorial and includes environmental and genetic factors. Some genetic markers that play a decisive role in the immune response have been identified as risk factors for inhibitor development. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in several genes involved in the regulation of the immune response and inhibitor development in patients with haemophilia A in North China. METHODS: We analysed eight SNPs (MAPK9 rs4147385, CSF1R rs17725712, CD44 rs927335, STAT4 rs7574865, IKZF1 rs4917014, ETS1 rs6590330, BANK1 rs17266594 and rs10516487) by Snapshot SNP genotyping assays in 100 haemophilia A patients, including 29 with inhibitors and 71 without inhibitors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the rs17725712 A allele and the AA homozygous genotype of CSF1R were more frequent in patients with inhibitors. The rs4147385 G allele in MAPK9 was also more frequent in the inhibitor cohort. CONCLUSION: We confirmed an association of CSF1R rs17725712 and MAPK9 rs4147385 with inhibitor development in haemophilia A patients in North China.


Assuntos
Alelos , Inibidores dos Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Fator VIII/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 9 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Autoanticorpos/sangue , China , Fator VIII/genética , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemofilia A/sangue , Hemofilia A/genética , Humanos , Masculino
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