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1.
Euro Surveill ; 25(45)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183404

RESUMO

We analysed factors associated with neutralising antibody levels in 330 convalescent plasma donors. Women and younger donors were more likely not to have measurable neutralising antibodies, while higher antibody levels were observed in men, in older donors and in those who had been hospitalised. These data will be of value in the timely recruitment of convalescent plasma donors most likely to have high levels of neutralising antibodies for ongoing studies investigating its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inglaterra , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 893-899, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026332

RESUMO

Non-infectious uveitis is a heterogenous group of potentially blinding ocular autoimmune diseases that may represent a manifestation of a systemic condition or may affect the eyes only. A systemically administered anti-TNF has recently been approved for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis, broadening the therapeutic arsenal available to control intraocular inflammation and reduce uveitis complications that can lead to vision loss. When uveitis affects only the eyes, a local anti-TNF-α administration strategy could optimize the ocular therapeutic effect and reduce undesirable systemic side-effects. A new ocular method of non-viral gene therapy, currently in development, may broaden the indications for ocular anti-TNF-α agents, not only for uveitis but also for other diseases in which TNF-α-mediated neuro-inflammation has been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Uveíte/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072111

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most infected people have mild or moderate symptoms and recover without the need for extensive treatment. However, for seriously ill patients, no specific treatments are currently available. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), a passive immunotherapy, involves infusing plasma from recovered people into actively infected people, and is thought to be a specific intervention to improve outcome in patients with severe COVID-19. The presumed mechanism involves neutralizing antibodies and antibody dependent cytotoxicity/phagocytosis. Previous CPT trials showed an effect in SARS and pilot studies suggest CPT is an effective and safe strategy for seriously ill COVID-19 patients. CPT is currently being tested in large randomized clinical trials. Herein, we critically review the mechanism, applications and the challenges for CPT in the treatment of severe COVID-19, paving the way toward vaccine and immunotherapy development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Plasma/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080984

RESUMO

Combination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy, reduced toxicity, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections. Here, we identify new synergistic combinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), echovirus 1 (EV1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with convalescent serum and with purified neutralizing antibody 23G7 against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of nelfinavir with EIDD-2801 or remdesivir in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we showed synergistic activity of vemurafenib with emetine, homoharringtonine, anisomycin, or cycloheximide against EV1 infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar or niclosamide are synergistic against HCV infection in hepatocyte-derived Huh-7.5 cells, and that combinations of monensin with lamivudine or tenofovir are synergistic against HIV-1 infection in human cervical TZM-bl cells. These results indicate that synergy is achieved when a virus-directed antiviral is combined with another virus- or host-directed agent. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterovirus Humano B/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
8.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877642

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CACO-2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Brasília; s.n; 11 ago. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117979

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 5 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Meropeném/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico
10.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(9): 1033-1046, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to several countries globally. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine available for managing COVID-19. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic strategies using convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and intravenous immunoglobulins have therapeutic potential. AREAS COVERED: This review provides the current status of the development of various antibody-based immunotherapeutics such as convalescent plasma, mAbs, NAbs, and intravenous immunoglobulins against COVID-19. The review also highlights their advantages, disadvantages, and clinical utility for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. EXPERT OPINION: In a pandemic situation such as COVID-19, the development of new drugs should focus on and expedite the strategies where safety and efficacy are proven. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic approaches such as convalescent plasma, intravenous immunoglobulins, and mAbs have a proven record of safety and efficacy and are in use for decades. Some of them are already being used to manage COVID-19 patients and found to be useful. However, the mAbs with virus neutralization potential is the need of the hour during this COVID-19 pandemic to be more specific and virus targeted. The research and investment need to be accelerated to bring them into clinical use for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/imunologia , Imunoterapia/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760407

RESUMO

The current outbreak of viral pneumonia, caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is the focus of worldwide attention. The WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic event on Mar 12, 2020, and the number of confirmed cases is still on the rise worldwide. While most infected individuals only experience mild symptoms or may even be asymptomatic, some patients rapidly progress to severe acute respiratory failure with substantial mortality, making it imperative to develop an efficient treatment for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia alongside supportive care. So far, the optimal treatment strategy for severe COVID-19 remains unknown. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a blood product pooled from healthy donors with high concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and has been used in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases for more than 30 years. In this review, we aim to highlight the known mechanisms of immunomodulatory effects of high-dose IVIg therapy, the immunopathological hypothesis of viral pneumonia, and the clinical evidence of IVIg therapy in viral pneumonia. We then make cautious therapeutic inferences about high-dose IVIg therapy in treating severe COVID-19. These inferences may provide relevant and useful insights in order to aid treatment for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720940719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841042

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 is highly infectious, which can lead to acute and chronic debilitating symptoms, as well as mortality. The advent of safe and effective vaccines or antiviral drugs remains distant in the future. Practical public health measures, such as social distancing, hand washing, and wearing a face mask, are the current recommended guidelines by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for limiting the spread of the virus. Weakened immune system and aberrant inflammation represent a major pathological symptom of COVID-19 patients. Based on the unique immunomodulatory properties of both convalescent plasma and stem cells, we discuss here their potential use for treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Carga Viral
15.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 41(11): 815-829, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829936

RESUMO

With the recent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)_ infecting >16 million people worldwide as of 28 July 2020, causing >650 000 deaths, there is a desperate need for therapeutic agents and vaccines. Building on knowledge of previous outbreaks of SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the development of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is taking place at an unprecedented speed. Current efforts towards the development of neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19 are summarized. We also highlight the importance of a fruitful antibody development pipeline to combat the potential escape plans of SARS-CoV-2, including somatic mutations and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700670

RESUMO

Serological reactivity was analysed in plasma from 436 individuals with a history of disease compatible with COVID-19, including 256 who had been laboratory-confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 99% of laboratory-confirmed cases developed a measurable antibody response (254/256) and 88% harboured neutralising antibodies (226/256). Antibody levels declined over 3 months following diagnosis, emphasising the importance of the timing of convalescent plasma collections. Binding antibody measurements can inform selection of convalescent plasma donors with high neutralising antibody levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708112

RESUMO

Coronavirus 2 (CoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is causing a highly infectious pandemic pneumonia. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect several animal species, causing symptoms that range from those similar to the common cold to severe respiratory syndrome. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV2 functional receptor. Measures are currently undertaken worldwide to control the infection to avoid disruption of the social and economic equilibrium, especially in countries with poor healthcare resources. In a guarded optimistic view, we hope that the undertaken preventive and treatment measures will at least contribute to contain viral diffusion, attenuate activity, or even eliminate SARS-CoV2. In this review, we discuss emerging perspectives for prevention/treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. A full spectrum of potential drugs for COVID-19 infections could in turn affect virus binding or enzymatic activities involved in viral replication and transcription. Furthermore, clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as tocilizumab. Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells' frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome. Combinatorial antibody phage display may be empowered to identify the immune repertoire of CoV2-specific neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Células A549 , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(26): e239, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627442

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading around the world, causing much morbidity and mortality everywhere. However, effective treatments or vaccines are still not available. Although convalescent plasma (CP) therapy can be useful in the treatment of COVID-19, it has not been widely used in Korea because of the concerns about adverse effects and the difficulty in matching patients to donors. The use of ABO-incompatible plasma is not contraindicated in treatment, but can be hesitated due to the lack of experience of physicians. Here, we describe a 68-year old man with COVID-19 who was treated ABO-incompatible plasma therapy; additionally, we comment on the acute side effects associated with ABO mismatch transfusion. To overcome the obstacles of donor-recipient connections (schedule and distance), we propose the storage of frozen plasma, modification of the current Blood Management Law, and the establishment of a CP bank. We suggest that experience gained in CP therapy will be useful for not only the treatment of COVID-19, but also for coping with new emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/patologia , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva/efeitos adversos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , República da Coreia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/terapia
20.
Nature ; 584(7821): 353-363, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659783

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease is a general concern for the development of vaccines and antibody therapies because the mechanisms that underlie antibody protection against any virus have a theoretical potential to amplify the infection or trigger harmful immunopathology. This possibility requires careful consideration at this critical point in the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we review observations relevant to the risks of ADE of disease, and their potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection. At present, there are no known clinical findings, immunological assays or biomarkers that can differentiate any severe viral infection from immune-enhanced disease, whether by measuring antibodies, T cells or intrinsic host responses. In vitro systems and animal models do not predict the risk of ADE of disease, in part because protective and potentially detrimental antibody-mediated mechanisms are the same and designing animal models depends on understanding how antiviral host responses may become harmful in humans. The implications of our lack of knowledge are twofold. First, comprehensive studies are urgently needed to define clinical correlates of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Second, because ADE of disease cannot be reliably predicted after either vaccination or treatment with antibodies-regardless of what virus is the causative agent-it will be essential to depend on careful analysis of safety in humans as immune interventions for COVID-19 move forward.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Pandemias , Ratos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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