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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 304-310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004730

RESUMO

Background: Despite endodontic infections being a common problem in the primary dentition, some of the infected primary teeth can remain functional until the exfoliation through endodontic treatment. The primary endodontic treatment goal must be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antifungal efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, LASER, and 1% clotrimazole as irrigants by reducing the colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans in the infected root canals of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Pulp therapy was performed on deciduous mandibular second molars of 20 healthy children aged 5-8 years, which were divided into four groups of intracanal disinfection protocols: Group 1 (n = 5) - Sodium Hypochlorite, Group 2 (n = 5) - Photodynamic, Group 3 (n = 5) - Normal saline with LASER, and Group 4 - (n = 5) Antifungal. Disinfection potential was compared by collecting samples one just after access opening and the other after the experimental groups using paper points. The samples were cultured and incubated for 48 h to check change in CFU of the fungi. Results: Data were analyzed statistically using the Shapiro-Wilk's test, Mann-Whitney U-test; Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between the different groups. However, complete inhibition of C. albicans CFU was seen with Group 4. Conclusion: One percent Clotrimazole (antifungal) can be utilized as an adjunct in the endodontic irrigation protocol for better success of pulpectomy in children.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fotoquimioterapia , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cavidade Pulpar , Desinfecção , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Dente Decíduo
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 739, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive infections with Candida krusei are uncommon and rarely complicated by spondylitis. Previous described cases were solely treated with antimycotic therapy, despite guidelines recommending surgical interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of C. krusei spondylitis in a patient treated with chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. After induction chemotherapy, the patient developed a candidemia, which was treated with micafungin. One month after the candidemia, the patient was admitted with severe lumbar pain. Spondylitis of the L4 and L5 vertebra was diagnosed on MR-imaging, with signs suggesting an atypical infection. The patient was treated with anidulafungin combined with voriconazole. Despite maximal conservative management symptoms gradually worsened eventually requiring surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous case reports, antimycotic treatment alone could be insufficient in treating C. krusei spondylitis.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Espondilite/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite/imunologia , Idoso , Anidulafungina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidemia/induzido quimicamente , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/cirurgia , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Micafungina/uso terapêutico , Espondilite/microbiologia , Espondilite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
3.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 66(3): 91-103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069188

RESUMO

The most recent genome-editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with associated protein 9-nuclease) was employed to delete four non-essential genes (i.e., Caeco1, Caidh1, Carom2, and Cataf10) individually to establish their gene functionality annotations in pathogen Candida albicans. The biological roles of these genes were investigated with respect to the cell wall integrity and biogenesis, calcium/calcineurin pathways, susceptibility of mutants towards temperature, drugs and salts. All the mutants showed increased vulnerability compared to the wild-type background strain towards the cell wall-perturbing agents, (antifungal) drugs and salts. All the mutants also exhibited repressed and defective hyphal growth and smaller colony size than control CA14. The cell cycle of all the mutants decreased enormously except for those with Carom2 deletion. The budding index and budding size also increased for all mutants with altered bud shape. The disposition of the mutants towards cell wall-perturbing enzymes disclosed lower survival and more rapid cell wall lysis events than in wild types. The pathogenicity and virulence of the mutants was checked by adhesion assay, and strains lacking rom2 and eco1 were found to possess the least adhesion capacity, which is synonymous to their decreased pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/fisiologia , Genes Fúngicos , Acetiltransferases/deficiência , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cálcio/fisiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Cátions/farmacologia , Adesão Celular , Ciclo Celular , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitinases/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Glucana Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase/farmacologia , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/fisiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reprodução Assexuada , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/deficiência , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/genética , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/fisiologia , Virulência/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22584, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031309

RESUMO

NATIONALE: Trichosporon species are widely distributed in nature and are emerging opportunistic human pathogens. Trichosporon infections are associated with superficial cutaneous involvement in immunocompetent individuals to severe systemic disease in immunocompromised patients. Until now, there is no report in infective endocarditis by Trichosporon mucoides confirmed by molecular diagnostics PATIENT CONCERNS:: A 66-year-old man presented with a fever that had occurred for a period of 6 months. He had undergone aortic valve replacement 10 years prior. Transthoracic echocardiography showed vegetations on the prosthetic aortic valve and native mitral valve. T mucoides was detected in the cultures of blood and vegetations. DIAGNOSIS: DNA sequencing using D/D2 region of rRNA and internal transcribed spacer were performed. INTERVENTIONS: Infections were successfully controlled with valve replacement and voriconazole plus liposomal amphotericin B therapy. OUTCOMES: There has been no sign of recurrence for 18-months after treatment completion. LESSONS: This is the first reported case of infective endocarditis due to T mucoides. Clinicians should consider Trichosporon species as causative agents of endocarditis in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Endocardite/microbiologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Trichosporon/isolamento & purificação , Tricosporonose/microbiologia , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Reoperação , Tricosporonose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tricosporonose/terapia
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 760-764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020359

RESUMO

AIM: One of the most vital characteristics of an ideal root filling material is the capability to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is one of the most used root repair materials, with approved antibacterial effect. A newly introduced root repair material is nano-fast cement (NFC) which should be investigated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of NFC were evaluated in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis (PTCC 1394), Escherichia coli (ATTC 15224), and Candida albicans (PTCC 5027) were employed for the antimicrobial assessment. The following were the steps used to conduct the agar diffusion test (ADT): six agar plates were used. 0.5 McFarland concentration of each strain was cultured on two plates by a sterile cotton-tipped swab. Three holes with 5mm diameter were created on each plate. Freshly mixed cement was placed in the holes of the related plate. After two hours, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Then, the diameter of the growth inhibition zones were measured, and the mean values were used for the analysis. Direct contact test (DCT) was done by using the following steps: Freshly mixed materials were placed in the 96-well microtiter plate. 10 µL of each bacterial suspension was added to the tested cement. After one-hour incubation at 37°C, 245 µL of BHI broth was added to each well, and the plate was vortexed for 2 minutes. About 15 µL of this bacterial suspension was added to a new well which contained 215 µL of fresh medium. The kinetics of the bacterial outgrowth were measured by the microplate spectrophotometer hourly for 12 hours. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the diameters of the growth inhibition zones of MTA and NFC groups in ADT. In DCT, the MTA inhibits E. coli more effectively than NFC (p value < 0.001). Both cements had the same inhibitory effect on E. faecalis and C. albicans. CONCLUSION: The MTA and NFC are almost equally effective against the tested microorganisms. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The antibacterial characteristic of any dental material is an important matter. As well, the antibacterial efficacy of the NFC should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Compostos de Alumínio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Silicatos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876295

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis highly prevalent in Brazil, associated with soil activities and contact with infected animals. It has numerous clinical manifestations and its disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon, found in approximately 4% of cases and usually related to immunosuppressive conditions. We report an alcoholic 56-year-old male patient with no other comorbidities, presenting with multiple cutaneous nodules and ulcers. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was initially treated with amphotericin B with satisfactory results and then with itraconazole.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera/etiologia
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EO) extracted from Cinnamomum verum has been used as an antimicrobial agents for centuries. The effects of C. verum leaf oil against virulence of microorganisms is not well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the effect of C. verum leaf oil against three virulence factors of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis and its in-vivo toxicity. METHODS: Chemical composition of EO was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) M27-A3 broth microdilution. Effect of EO on initial adhesion was quantified using XTT assay after allowing Candida cells to adhere to the polystyrene surface for 2 h. Biofilm formation of Candida in the presence of EO was quantified using XTT viability assay. Efficacy on reduction of germ tube formation was evaluated using standard protocol. Visualisation of biofilm formation and progression under the EO treatment were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Time lapses microscope respectively. In-vivo toxicity of EO was determined using Galleria mellonella larvae. Chlorhexidine digluconate: positive control. RESULTS: Eugenol was the main compound of EO. MIC was 1.0 mg/mL. 50% reduction in initial adhesion was achieved by C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis with 1.0, > 2.0 and 0.34 mg/mL respectively. 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL significantly inhibit the germ tube formation. MBIC50 for forming biofilms were ≤ 0.35 mg/mL. 1.0 mg/mL prevent biofilm progression of Candida. SEM images exhibited cell wall damages, cellular shrinkages and decreased hyphal formation. No lethal effect was noted with in-vivo experiment model at any concentration tested. CONCLUSION: C. verum leaf oil acts against virulence factors of Candida and does not show any toxicity.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência
10.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 9): 914-920, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887863

RESUMO

The terpenoid (-)-Istanbulin A is a natural product isolated from Senecio filaginoides DC, one of the 270 species of Senecio (Asteraceae) which occurs in Argentina. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound [9a-hydroxy-3,4a,5-trimethyl-4a,6,7,8a,9,9a-hexahydro-4H,5H-naphtho[2,3-b]-furan-2,8-dione or (4S,5R,8R,10S)-1-oxo-8ß-hydroxy-10ßH-eremophil-7(11)-en-12,8ß-olide, C15H20O4] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It proved to be a sesquiterpene lactone showing an eremophilanolide skeleton whose chirality is described as 4S,5R,8R,10S. Structural results were also in agreement with the one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, and other complementary spectroscopic information. In addition, (-)-Istanbulin A is a polymorph of the previously reported form of (-)-Istanbulin A, form I; thus, the title compound is denoted form II or polymorph II. Structural data and a literature search allowed the chirality of Istanbulin A to be revisited. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of (-)-Istanbulin A, form II, were evaluated in order to establish a reference for future comparisons and applications related to specific crystal forms of Istanbulins.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Furanos/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estereoisomerismo
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 717, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal peritonitis (FP) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. We herein describe the second case in Asia of Histoplasma capsulatum peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who had been on CAPD for 3 years and who had a history of 3 prior episodes of peritonitis presented with intermittent abdominal pain for 2 weeks and high-grade fever for 3 days. Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and rare small oval budding yeasts were found in her peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. From this fluid, a white mold colony was observed macroscopically after 7 days of incubation, and numerous large, round with rough-walled tuberculate macroconidia along with small smooth-walled microconidia were observed microscopically upon tease slide preparation, which is consistent with H. capsulatum. The peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter was then removed, and it also grew H. capsulatum after 20 days of incubation. The patient was switched from CAPD to hemodialysis. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD) for 2 weeks, followed by oral itraconazole for 6 months with satisfactory result. The patient remains on hemodialysis and continues to be clinically stable. CONCLUSION: H. capsulatum peritonitis is an extremely rare condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Demonstration of small yeasts upon staining of PD fluid, and isolation of slow growing mold in the culture of clinical specimen should provide important clues for diagnosis of H. capsulatum peritonitis. Prompt removal of the PD catheter and empirical treatment with amphotericin B or itraconazole is recommended until the culture results are known.


Assuntos
Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/etiologia , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Peritonite/etiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Ácido Desoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 681, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient. CASE PRESENTATION: After an initial misdiagnosis and 7 months of failed treatment, the patient received nearly a month of treatment with voriconazole (200 mg IV q12 h) and knee irrigation with amphotericin B until the infection was controlled. The treatment continued with fluconazole for nearly 7 months and approximately 5 weeks of antibiotic treatment for a skin bacterial coinfection. In the end, the patient's symptoms disappeared completely, the left knee recovered well, and there was no recurrence of infection. CONCLUSION: The key points of successful treatment in this case were the thorough debridement, the adequate course of knee irrigation with antifungal drugs and more than 6 months of oral antifungal drugs that were able to eradicate the infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Joelho/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Criptococose/cirurgia , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Desbridamento , Erros de Diagnóstico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecção Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Focal/microbiologia , Infecção Focal/cirurgia , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
13.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1049-1055, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of growth and metabolism and the in vivo toxicity of Candida auris under different conditions. METHODS: We observed the growth of Candida auris and Candida albicans under routine culture conditions and in different pH and salt concentrations, and compared their activities of sugar fermentation using microbiochemical reaction tubes. Four-week-old nude mice were randomized into Candida auris infection group (n=5), Candida albicans infection group (n=5) and control group (n=5) for intragastric administration of 0.3 mL suspension the two Candida species (5×109 cfu/mL) or 0.3 mL normal saline. Samples of the liver, kidney, intestine, feces and blood were taken for analysis of the in vivo distribution and toxicity of Candida albicans by fungal culture and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Candida auris exhibited logarithmic growth at 8-24 h after inoculation and showed stable growth after 24 h. Candida auris showed optimal growth within the pH value range of 5-7 with a growth pattern identical to that of Candida albicans. Candida auris grew better than Candida albicans in media containing 5% and 10% NaCl, and could ferment glucose, sucrose, trehalose and sorbitol. Candida auris could be isolated from the feces, blood, liver and kidney of infected nude mice, and the liver had the highest fungal load (5.7 log10 cfu/g). Candida auris could cause pathological changes in the liver and intestine of the mice, but with a lesser severity as compared with Candida albicans. CONCLUSIONS: Candida auris exhibits optimal growth in mildly acidic or neutral conditions with a high salt tolerance, and can potentially penetrate the intestinal barrier into blood and lead to tissue injuries in hosts with immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , Animais , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104696, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980050

RESUMO

Combined application of plant essential oils (EOs) with known antimicrobial effects and silica nanocapsules with high loading capacity and protection capability of the EOs make them proper candidates for creating environmentally friendly fungicides. In this study, EOs of the Lemongrass (LGO) and Clove (CO) were used against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), a causal agent of take-all disease of wheat. To provide controlled delivery of the EOs, they were encapsulated into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) and then compared to the effects of pure EOs both in- vitro and in- vivo. MSNPs were synthesized via the sol-gel process. Various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the successful loading of the EOs into the pore of MSNPs. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) was calculated as high as 84.24% for LGO and 80.69% for CO, while loading efficiency (LE) was determined 36% and 29% for LGO and CO, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed spherical shapes and porous structures with average diameters of 50-70 nm. Recognition of the main components of the EOs via gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) before and after the EO loading, detected eugenol and citral as the most frequent compounds in LGO and CO, respectively. For antifungal test in- vitro, selected concentrations of the pure EOs, EOs loaded in MSNPs (EOs- MSNPs) and Mancozeb ® fungicide based on pre-tests were mixed using potato dextrose agar (PDA). The inhibition percentage (IP) of fungal growth at each concentration, as well as minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were obtained. The results indicated that antifungal effects in the encapsulated form increased by up to three times. In- vivo, the sterile wheat seeds were treated with pure EOs, EOs-MSNPs, and mancozeb at MFC concentration. Also, in order to keep on the EOs-MSNPs around the seeds, sodium alginate was used. The consequences of in- vivo experiments indicated that rate of disease control in presence of EOs-MSNPs and mancozeb was the same (~70%) and higher than pure EOs (LGO: 57.44%, CO: 49%). Also, improving the growth parameters in wheat plant, the covering of the EOs-MSNPs in alginate, had better control (84%) than that of EOs-MSNPs alone. Further, the release kinetics studies showed a gradual release of LGO and CO from MSNPs for four weeks in water and for five weeks in the soil-plant system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the control effect of LGO, CO, and their nanocapsule in MSNPs against the take-all disease of wheat. These results showed that the EOs-MSNPs can be a safe product for the efficient control of take-all disease in wheat crop.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício , Triticum
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104698, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980053

RESUMO

Essential oils and their main compounds, monoterpenoids, are considered as alternative control systems for phytopathogenic fungi, particularly those related to late diseases of fruits and vegetables, like anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. In this context, we studied the effect of twenty monoterpenoids on Colletotrichum fructicola and C. acutatum to elucidate their effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Thus, we analyzed mycelial growth and conidial inhibitory concentration, as well as the effect of selected monoterpenoids on membrane integrity and cell vitality, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry. The results showed that oxygenated monoterpenoids (alcohols and aldehydes) exhibited higher antifungal activity than their corresponding hydrocarbons, esters, and cyclic counterparts. Indicating that OH- and O- radicals react with cellular components affecting fungal homeostasis. In this sense, selected monoterpenoids (citral, citronellol, geraniol, carvacrol, and thymol) inhibited conidial germination of C. acutatum in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of conidial germination is associated with a loss of membrane integrity, a decrease of cell metabolism, and a dose-dependent accumulation of ROS, which was non-directly associated with modifications on mitochondrial membrane potential. Membrane dysfunction and ROS accumulation may be responsible for the necrotic behavior induced by high monoterpenoids concentrations, and possible apoptotic response in sub dosages of these compounds.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Frutas , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104705, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980068

RESUMO

Magnolia officinalis, as a well-known herb worldwide, has been widely used to treat multiple diseases for a long time. In this study, the petroleum ether extract from M. officinalis showed effective antifungal activity against seven plant pathogens (particularly against R. solani with an inhibition rate of 100.00% at 250 µg/mL). Honokiol and magnolol, isolated by the bioassay-guided method, exhibited greater antifungal activity than tebuconazole (EC50 = 3.07 µg/mL, p ≤ 0.001) against R. solani, which EC50 values were 2.18 µg/mL and 3.48 µg/mL, respectively. We used transcriptomics to explore the mechanism of action of honokiol against R. solani. Results indicated that honokiol may exert antifungal effects by blocking the oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Further studies indicated that honokiol induced ROS overproduction, disrupted the mitochondrial function, affected respiration, and blocked the TCA cycle, which eventually inhibited ATP production. Besides, honokiol also damaged cell membranes and caused morphological changes. This study demonstrated that the lignans isolated from M. officinalis possess the potential to be developed as botanical fungicides.


Assuntos
Lignanas/farmacologia , Magnolia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140135, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927573

RESUMO

The increasing human population requires ongoing efforts in food production. This is frequently associated with an increased use of agrochemicals, leading to environmental contamination and altering microbial communities, including human fungal pathogens that reside in the environment. Cryptococcus gattii is an environmental yeast and is one of the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. Benomyl (BEN) is a broad-spectrum fungicide used on several crops. To study the effects of agrochemicals on fungal pathogens, we first evaluated the susceptibility of C. gattii to BEN and the interactions with clinical antifungals. Antagonistic interaction between BEN and fluconazole was seen and was strain- and concentration-dependent. We then induced BEN-resistance by culturing strains in increasing drug concentrations. One strain demonstrated to be more resistant and showed increased multidrug efflux pump gene (MDR1) expression and increased rhodamine 6G efflux, leading to cross-resistance between BEN and fluconazole. Morphologically, BEN-adapted cells had a reduced polysaccharide capsule; an increased surface/volume ratio; increased growth rate in vitro and inside macrophages and also higher ability in crossing an in vitro model of blood-brain-barrier. BEN-adapted strain demonstrated to be hypervirulent in mice, leading to severe symptoms of cryptococcosis, early mortality and higher fungal burden in the organs, particularly the brain. The parental strain was avirulent in murine model. In vivo cross-resistance between BEN and fluconazole was observed, with mice infected with the adapted strain unable to present any improvement in survival and behavior when treated with this antifungal. Furthermore, BEN-adapted cells cultured in drug-free media maintained the hypervirulent and cross-resistant phenotype, suggesting a persistent effect of BEN on C. gattii. In conclusion, exposure to BEN induces cross-resistance with fluconazole and increases the virulence of C. gattii. Altogether, our results indicate that agrochemicals may lead to unintended consequences on non-target species and this could result in severe healthy problems worldwide.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus gattii , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52267

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Reportar las especies identificadas en candidemias aisladas en hospitales del país, su distribución según los grupos etarios y determinar la sensibilidad a fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B. Métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de candidemias reportados por siete hospitales al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública en el período 2010 - 2018. La identificación y el antifungigrama fueron realizados en el sistema automatizado Vitek®2. Resultados. Se informaron 520 casos de candidemias. Las especies prevalentes fueron Candida albicans (34,4%), C. parapsilosis (30,4%), C. tropicalis (25,4%), C. glabrata (4,8%), C. krusei (2,1%). Otras menos frecuentes fueron: C. lusitaniae (1,2%), C. guilliermondii (1%), C. famata (0,3%), C. rugosa (0,2%) y C. kefyr (0,2%). Las candidemias en ancianos (48,5%) y adultos (29,9%) fueron las más prevalentes. C. parapsilosis fue más frecuente en recién nacidos y lactantes y C. tropicalis en pacientes pediátricos. El 2,8 % y 0,6% de C. albicans y el 4,4% y 2,5% de C. parapsilosis fueron resistentes a fluconazol y voriconazol, respectivamente. El 8% de C. glabrata fue resistente a fluconazol y dos aislamientos presentaron una concentración inhibitoria mínima para voriconazol mayor que 0,25 mg/L. Conclusiones. Este es el primer reporte de candidemias en hospitales de Paraguay que, junto a otros estudios, permitirá un mejor conocimiento de esta infección en el país.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To report the species identified in candidemia isolated in hospitals in Paraguay, their distribution by age groups, and their susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Methods. Retrospective study of candidemia reported to the Central Health Public Laboratory by seven hospitals between 2010 and 2018. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the automated Vitek 2® system. Results. 520 cases of candidiasis were reported. The prevalent species were Candida albicans (34.4%), C. parapsilosis (30.4%), C. tropical (25.4%), C. glabrata (4.8%), and C. krusei (2.1%). Less frequent species were: C. lusitaniae (1.2%), C. guilliermondii (1%), C. famata (0.3%), C. rugous (0.2%), and C. kefyr (0.2%). Candidiasis was most prevalent in the elderly (48.5%) and adults (29.9%). C. parapsilosis was most frequent in newborns and infants, and C. tropical in pediatric patients; 2.8% and 0.6% of C. albicans and 4.4% and 2.5% of C. parapsilosis were resistant, respectively, to fluconazole and voriconazole; 8% of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole and two isolations showed a minimum inhibitory concentration for voriconazole greater than 0.25 mg/L. Conclusions. This is the first report on candidemias in hospitals of Paraguay. Together with other studies, it will improve knowledge about this infection in the country.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Relatar as espécies identificadas em candidemias isoladas em hospitais do país, apresentar a sua distribuição por faixa etária e determinar a sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B. Métodos. Estudo retrospectivo de candidemias notificadas por sete hospitais ao Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no período de 2010 a 2018. A identificação e o antifungigrama foram realizados pelo sistema automatizado Vitek®2. Resultados. Foram notificados 520 casos de candidemia. As espécies predominantes foram Candida albicans (34,4%), C. parapsilosis (30,4%), C. tropicalis (25,4%), C. glabrata (4,8%) e C. krusei (2,1%). Outras espécies menos frequentes foram: C. lusitaniae (1,2%), C. guilliermondii (1%), C. famata (0,3%), C. rugosa (0,2%) e C. kefyr (0,2%). As candidemias em pacientes idosos (48,5%) e adultos (29,9%) foram as mais prevalentes. C. parapsilosis foi a espécie mais frequente em recém-nascidos e lactentes, e C. tropicalis predominou em pacientes pediátricos. Ao todo, 2,8% e 0,6% dos casos de C. albicans e 4,4% e 2,5% dos de C. parapsilosis foram resistentes a fluconazol e voriconazol, respectivamente. Além disso, 8% dos casos de C. glabrata foram resistentes ao fluconazol, e duas amostras isoladas apresentaram uma concentração inibitória mínima para voriconazol acima de 0,25 mg/L. Conclusões. Este é o primeiro estudo sobre candidemias em hospitais do Paraguai, o que, juntamente com outros estudos, permitirá conhecer melhor esta infecção no país.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Antifúngicos , Fluconazol , Voriconazol , Paraguai , Antifúngicos , Fluconazol , Voriconazol , Paraguai
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