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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1256-1264, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean is widely used in food formulations; however, few studies on fungal or mycotoxin contamination have been undertaken. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant and antifungal potential, were therefore evaluated together with the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in soybeans. RESULTS: The conjugated and bound phenolic soybean extracts were more efficient for the inhibition of the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the peroxidase enzyme, and the fungal α-amylase enzyme. Aflatoxin B1, detected at low levels (0.96 to 1.67 ng g-1 ), confirmed the protective effect of soybean phenolic compounds against mycotoxigenic contamination. Principal component analysis confirmed that syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric acids and vanillin were essential for antioxidant and antifungal activities. CONCLUSION: This study presented new insights into the functionality of phenolic compounds in soybeans, regarding their potential to protect the crops naturally against fungal contamination, avoiding aflatoxin production, as attested by the correlations between phenolic compounds and antioxidant mechanisms. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/química , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Soja/microbiologia
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 247-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602502

RESUMO

Many researchers proved that plant endophytes manage successful issues to synthesize active chemicals within plant cells. These bioactive compounds might support a range of plant defense mechanism against many pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a total of 22 isolates representing 21 fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera in addition to one variety were isolated and identified for the first time from Euphorbia geniculate plants. The genus Aspergillus was the most common fungus isolated from the studied plant. The fungus Isaria feline was recorded in both leaves and stem, while Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus var. terreus, Emercilla nidulans var. acristata, Macrophomina phaseolina colonized both stem and root. The isolated fungi showed antagonistic activities against six strains of plant pathogenic fungi viz., Eupenicillium brefeldianum, Penicillium echinulatum, Alternaria phragmospora, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticilloid, and Alternaria alternata in dual culture assay. The highest antagonistic activity fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and Fusarium lateritium) and the lowest (Cladosprium herbarum, F. culomrum, and Sporotrichum thermophile) showed twining in their secondary metabolites especially terpens and alkaloids with that of their host E. geniculata. Three concentrations of (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of these secondary metabolites extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol from the above six endophytic fungal species were tested against three pathogenic fungi isolated from infected tomato plant (E. brefeldianum-EBT-1, P. echinulatum-PET-2, and A. phragmospora-APT-3), whereas these pathogens showed promising sensitivity to these fungal secondary metabolites. In conclusion, this is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. geniculata and evaluation of their antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Endófitos/química , Euphorbia/microbiologia , Fungos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(5): 822-825, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848534

RESUMO

Produced by a newly isolated Streptomycetes strain, meijiemycin is a gigantic linear polyene-polyol that exhibits structural features not seen in other members of the polyene-polyol family. We propose a biosynthetic mechanism and demonstrate that meijiemycin inhibits hyphal growth by inducing the aggregation of ergosterol and restructuring of the fungal plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Polienos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois Graxos/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Genômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Família Multigênica , Polienos/isolamento & purificação , Polienos/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Streptomyces/química
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 7, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845300

RESUMO

Orange juice is a major agricultural product, and oranges are among the most widely sold fresh fruits in several countries. Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, affects almost every species of citrus, causing a esthetic depreciation of the fruit and fruit drop, with consequent financial loss for its in natura commercialization. Fungicides are the major control measure for CBS, but have limited efficiency and high cost, and give rise to fungal strains resistant to these products. This work assayed the production of antifungal compounds by Bacillus spp. isolates and tested the potential of two isolates from B. subtilis (ACB-AP3 and ACB-83) for controlling CBS under field conditions with two previously untested orange varieties. A total of 15 isolates produced cell-free, thermostable or volatile compounds effective in suppressing P. citricarpa growth in vitro. It was possible to detect the production of two antibiotics (iturin and surfactin) by B. subtilis ACB-83. Additionally, B. subtilis isolates ACB-AP3 and ACB-83 displayed significant effects in controlling the disease under field conditions.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Citrus/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 383-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880884

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic small peptide chains that have good antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. AMP-17 is a recombinant insect AMP obtained by a prokaryotic expression system. However, the full antifungal activity, physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 were previously unknown. AMP-17 was shown to have good antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9.375-18.75 µg/ml, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of 18.75-37.5 µg/ml. Notably, the antifungal activity of AMP-17 against Cryptococcus neoformans was superior to that of other Candida spp. In addition, the hemolytic rate of AMP-17 was only 1.47%, even at the high concentration of 16× MIC. AMP-17 was insensitive to temperature and high salt ion concentration, with temperatures of 98°C and -80°C, and NaCl and MgCl2 concentrations of 50-200 mmol/l, having no significant effect on antifungal activity. However, AMP-17 was sensitive to proteases, trypsin, pepsin, and proteinase K. The elucidation of antifungal activity, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 provided an experimental basis for its safety evaluation and application, as well as indicated that AMP-17 might be a promising drug.Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic small peptide chains that have good antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. AMP-17 is a recombinant insect AMP obtained by a prokaryotic expression system. However, the full antifungal activity, physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 were previously unknown. AMP-17 was shown to have good antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9.375­18.75 µg/ml, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of 18.75­37.5 µg/ml. Notably, the antifungal activity of AMP-17 against Cryptococcus neoformans was superior to that of other Candida spp. In addition, the hemolytic rate of AMP-17 was only 1.47%, even at the high concentration of 16× MIC. AMP-17 was insensitive to temperature and high salt ion concentration, with temperatures of 98°C and ­80°C, and NaCl and MgCl2 concentrations of 50­200 mmol/l, having no significant effect on antifungal activity. However, AMP-17 was sensitive to proteases, trypsin, pepsin, and proteinase K. The elucidation of antifungal activity, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 provided an experimental basis for its safety evaluation and application, as well as indicated that AMP-17 might be a promising drug.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Moscas Domésticas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolíticos/química , Hemolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Hemolíticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(28): 2579-2592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infections associated with skin and mucosal surfaces, mainly in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. During the last decade, there have been an increasing numbers of cases of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, coupled with an increase in the number of incidences of drug resistance and toxicity to anti fungal agents. Hence, there is a dire need for safe, potent and affordable new antifungal drugs for the efficient management of candidal infections with minimum or no side effects. INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis represents a critical problem to human health and a serious concern worldwide. Due to the development of drug resistance, there is a need for new antifungal agents. Therefore, we reviewed the different medicinal plants as sources of novel anticandidal drugs. METHODS: The comprehensive and detailed literature on medicinal plants was carried out using different databases, such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct and all the relevant information from the articles were analyzed and included. RESULTS: Relevant Publications up to the end of November 2018, reporting anticandidal activity of medicinal plants has been included in the present review. In the present study, we have reviewed in the light of SAR and mechanisms of action of those plants whose extracts or phytomolecules are active against candida strains. CONCLUSION: This article reviewed natural anticandidal drugs of plant origin and also summarized the potent antifungal bioactivity against fungal strains. Besides, mechanism of action of these potent active plant molecules was also explored for a comparative study. We concluded that the studied active plant molecules exhibit potential antifungal activity against resistant fungal strains.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569357

RESUMO

In this study, potential antifungal properties of a brown alga Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated. The algal extract was obtained with the use of supercritical fluid extraction (scCO2) at a temperature of 50 °C under a pressure of 300 bar. The aqueous solution of the extract at the concentration of 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% was studied against pathogenic fungi on a liquid RB medium. This study is the first report on antifungal properties of the brown algae F. vesiculosus scCO2 extract against Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum phytopathogens. The concentrations of the studied extract (0.5% and 1.0%) were demonstrated to have an ability to inhibit 100% growth of macroconidia within 144 h, as well as an ability to cause their total degradation. As a result of the study, the antifungal effect of fucosterol against F. culmorum was also indicated. The total macroconidia growth was inhibited by 1.0% fucosterol. Moreover, at lower concentrations (0.05-0.2%) of fucosterol, macroconidia were characterized by shorter length and structural degradation was observed. The mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo38) by 1% scCO2 F. vesiculosus extract was analyzed at the level of 48% after 168 h of incubation, whereas 100% extract was found to be effective in F. culmorum (CBS122) and F. oxysporum (Fo38) growth inhibition by 72% and 75%, respectively after 168 h of incubation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fucus/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111631, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630045

RESUMO

In this work, over the course of four seasons (12 months), we have monitored the fluorescence quantum efficiency (η) from two sets (S1 and S2) of fresh natural dye extracts from the leaves of Tradescantia pallida purpurea. The natural dye was extracted in aqueous solutions from leaves collected from regions with a predominance of shade (S1) and sun (S2) during the day. The thermo-optical parameter fractional thermal load (φ) was measured using conical diffraction (CD) patterns caused by thermally driven self-phase modulation, for η determination in both sets of solutions. Fluorescence measurements corroborate the CD results, and the η values are, on average, slightly higher (~ 11%) in the summer than in the other seasons for both sets of samples (S1 and S2). In addition, the experimental results are presented using natural dye extracted from Tradescantia pallida purpurea as a fungicide probe in Fusarium solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungi. The promising fungicide results obtained for the aqueous natural dye extract were compared with those obtained for other natural dyes and fungi. The fungi tested are of the necrotrophic group and constitute important pathosystems in Brazil, causing diseases in several crops that synthetic fungicides often cannot control or do so with low efficiency.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Corantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tradescantia/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Refratometria , Estações do Ano , Tradescantia/metabolismo
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900416, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631505

RESUMO

The frequent disease of Panax notoginseng caused by the pathogenic fungi in field cultivation has become the major threaten to the sustainable development of it. The present study was conducted to find natural agent with potential inhibition against pathogen. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl essential oils (EOs) against P. notoginseng associated pathogenic fungi were conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of the Oxford cup test revealed that C. cassia dry bark EO (50 mg/mL) had significant inhibitory activity on the growth of all tested fungi, and the growth of various pathogens was completely inhibited, except for that of Fusarium solani. Therefore, the constituents of C. cassia EOs were analyzed by GC/MS, and the research demonstrated that the main constituents of C. cassia dry bark EO were trans-cinnamaldehyde (75.65 %), (E)-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (6.08 %), cinnamaldehyde (3.47 %) and cinnamyl acetate (1.02 %). The MIC results showed that C. cassia dry bark EO and the main compounds had good antifungal effect on the tested strains, and the inhibitory effect was similar to that of hymexazol (chemical pesticide). By analyzing the value of the fraction inhibitory concentration index (FICI), additive effects, irrelevant effects and synergistic effects were observed after the mixture of hymexazol against various pathogens. Moreover, in vivo model showed that C. cassia dry bark EO could reduce the occurrence of anthrax in P. notoginseng. To widen the resources of C. cassia available, the compositions of both C. cassia fresh bark and leaf EOs were also tested and many common compositions existed among them. Taken together, it was concluded that C. cassia EO had the potential use in the field to reduce the pathogenic disease.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Panax notoginseng/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia
10.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614954

RESUMO

Abstract: Apple tree canker infected by Valsa mali var. mali is a serious and widely distributed disease in China. Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 is an endophytic actinomycete isolated from cucumber roots, and it has been proven that this strain is a promising biocontrol agent on apple tree canker in previous studies. The aim of this study was to elucidate the active ingredients in its metabolites. Two pentaene macrolides, WH01 and WH02, were isolated from strain Hhs.015, and their structures were elucidated based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis. WH01 and WH02 were identified as fungichromin and 1'-deoxyfungichromin, among which WH02 is a novel compound. These two compounds showed strong in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against V. mali. By comparison of the structures of hyphae cells treated by pure compound and fermentation broth, it has been proven that pentaene macrolides are the main active ingredients in the metabolites of strain Hhs.015. This is the first report on the antifungal activity of fungichromin and its analogs on V. mali, and the 28-member pentaene macrolides were also firstly isolated from the genus of Saccharothrix.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Antifúngicos/química , Cucumis sativus/química , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , China , Fermentação , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 150, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549229

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize a powerful antifungal component from bacteria. Bacillus subtilis strain XB-1, which showed maximal inhibition of Monilinia fructicola, was isolated and identified, and an antifungal protein was obtained from it. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to purify and identify the proteins secreted by B. subtilis XB-1. Analyses revealed that purified fraction V had the strongest antifungal effect, with the largest pathogen inhibition zone diameter of 4.15 cm after 4 days (P < 0.05). This fraction showed a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 43 kDa in SDS-PAGE. Results from SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that fraction V was likely a member of the chitosanase family. These results suggest that B. subtilis XB-1 and its antifungal protein may be useful in potential biocontrol applications.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Peso Molecular
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11403-11407, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509401

RESUMO

Three new phenazine metabolites, strepphenazine A-C (1-3), along with a known compound baraphenazine E 4 were isolated from the culture broth of a Streptomyces strain YIM PH20095. The structures were elucidated based on the spectral data. Compounds 1-4 showed different antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Alternaria panax, and Phoma herbarum, which caused root-rot disease of Panax notoginseng with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16-64 µg/mL; compared with compound 4, compounds 1-3 showed better antifungal activity against some of these pathogenic fungi with MICs of 16-32 µg/mL, while compound 4 showed antifungal activity against F. oxysporum, P. cucumerina, and A. panax with the same MICs of 64 µg/mL. Thus, strain YIM PH20095 provides new sources for the development of biological control agents to prevent the infection of pathogenic fungi of P. notoginseng.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia , Fenazinas/química , Fenazinas/farmacologia , Streptomyces/química , Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Fenazinas/isolamento & purificação , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 145, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493267

RESUMO

The various diseases that occur during the growth of plants usually cause a significant reduction in production and quality of agricultural products. Actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces spp., become a valuable biological control resource due to their preponderant abilities to produce various secondary metabolites with novel structure and remarkable biological activity. The present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic actinomycete against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. By dual culture with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, an antagonistic actinomycete named Streptomyces corchorusii stain AUH-1 was screened out from 26 soil samples. The in vitro bioassay results showed that S. corchorusii stain AUH-1 had a broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against a range of fungal plant pathogens, such as F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, Rhizoctonia solani, P. capsica, Botryosphaeria dothidea, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Verticillium dahliae, and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. According to the morphological observations in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscope (FM), it was found that the cell membranes of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum were damaged when treated with the antifungal metabolite form S. corchorusii stain AUH-1. Meanwhile, the dropped ergosterol formation and increased malondialdehyde levels further confirmed that S. corchorusii strain AUH-1 exerted its antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum via damaging the structure and function of cell membranes. In conclusion, S. corchorusii strain AUH-1 showed a promising prospect for the development of biological agent, especially due to its broad-spectrum and effective antagonist on various soil-borne plant pathogens.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Antibiose , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Fusarium/citologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Filogenia , Phytophthora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/classificação , Verticillium/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470602

RESUMO

The promising antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) has led researchers to use them in combination with antimicrobial drugs in order to reduce drug toxicity, side effects, and resistance to single agents. Mentha x piperita, known worldwide as "Mentha of Pancalieri", is produced locally at Pancalieri (Turin, Italy). The EO from this Mentha species is considered as one of the best mint EOs in the world. In our research, we assessed the antifungal activity of "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO, either alone or in combination with azole drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole) against a wide panel of yeast and dermatophyte clinical isolates. The EO was analyzed by GC-MS, and its antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) parameters, in accordance with the CLSI guidelines, with some modifications. The interaction of EO with azoles was evaluated through the chequerboard and isobologram methods. The results suggest that this EO exerts a fungicidal activity against yeasts and a fungistatic activity against dermatophytes. Interaction studies with azoles indicated mainly synergistic profiles between itraconazole and EO vs. Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Thus, the "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO may act as a potential antifungal agent and could serve as a natural adjuvant for fungal infection treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104286, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394164

RESUMO

Three new compounds including two depsidones (simplicildones J and K) and one dihydroxanthenone (globosuxanthone E) together with nine known compounds were obtained from the crude extracts of two endophytic fungi Simplicillium lanosoniveum (J.F.H. Beyma) Zare & W. Gams PSU-H168 and PSU-H261 which were isolated from the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. The absolute configuration of globosuxanthone E was established by means of experimental and calculated TDDFT ECD data. Simplicildone K exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with equal MIC values of 128 µg/mL. Simplicildone K and globosuxanthone E displayed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC90113 with the same MIC values of 32 µg/mL. In addition, known botryohordine C and simplicildone A showed phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 5.69 and 9.96 µM, respectively, and were noncytotoxic toward noncancerous Vero cells.


Assuntos
Depsídeos/farmacologia , Hevea/microbiologia , Hypocreales/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Tailândia , Células Vero , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
17.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 77(5): 394-417, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257019

RESUMO

Voriconazole is a second-generation triazole derived from fluconazole, having an enhanced antifungal spectrum, compared with older triazoles. It is the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis and many Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria Fusarium infections. Voriconazole is available in both intravenous and oral formulations. Since there is much interest in pharmaceutical quality control, separation of impurities from the main drug substances and accurate assay quantification, and since there is no reference or monograph until nowadays reported for the simultaneous separation of voriconazole from its specified and unspecified impurities along with sodium benzoate used as an antimicrobial preservative, our aim of this work is to develop a new simple, sensitive and stability indicating assay method allowing thus separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. The development of our method consisted in optimizing the following analytical parameters: nature and composition of the mobile phase, its pH, buffer concentration, nature of the stationary phase, column temperature and detection wavelength. After optimisation, separation was achieved on a stainless steel column NOVAPACK C18 (3.9mm×150mm; 4µm particle size) using a gradient mode with methanol, acetonitrile R and an aqueous solution acidified by acetic acid at 1% and adjusted to pH 2.77. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254nm. The flow rate was set at 1.0mL/min, the injection volume at 10µL, and the column oven temperature was maintained at 35°C. Under these conditions, separation was achieved with good resolution and symmetrical peaks' shape. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, and then it was successfully applied to establish inherent stability of the pharmaceutical formulation subjected to different ICH prescribed stress conditions. The developed method was proved to be simple, specific and precise. Hence, it can be considered as a method for stability study and for routine quality control analysis of voriconazole and sodium benzoate in a powder for oral suspension.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Benzoato de Sódio/química , Voriconazol/isolamento & purificação , Administração Oral , Antifúngicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Limite de Detecção , Pós , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Suspensões , Voriconazol/química
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180598, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271566

RESUMO

We have established how natural compounds from green propolis collected by the species Apis mellifera act against the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum. On the basis of mass spectrometry (Q-ToF MS), we determined that Artepillin C, the major constituent of green propolis, underlies the effect and displays activity against P. aphanidermatum at a minimal inhibitory concentration of 750 µg.mL-1. Biophysical studies based on model membranes showed that this inhibitory effect may be linked with a membrane-related phenomenon: Artepillin C increases the permeability of membranes with relatively high fluidity in their lateral structure, a feature that is in line with the lipid composition reported for the cytoplasmic membrane of P. aphanidermatum. Therefore, the present study supports the use of the effective and inexpensive green propolis to control the impact of the dangerous phytopathogen P. aphanidermatum on agriculture.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Própole/química , Pythium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Abelhas , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenilpropionatos/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1226-1232, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307248

RESUMO

Allosamidins come from the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces species, and they have the pseudotrisaccharide structures. Allosamidins are chitinase inhibitors that can be used to study the physiological effects of chitinases in a variety of organisms. They have the novel antiasthmatic activity and insecticidal/antifungal activities. Herein, the synthesis and activities of allosamidins were summarized and analyzed.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/análogos & derivados , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Trissacarídeos/farmacologia , Acetilglucosamina/química , Acetilglucosamina/isolamento & purificação , Acetilglucosamina/farmacologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/química , Antiasmáticos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/química , Trissacarídeos/química , Trissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109805, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349488

RESUMO

In recent years, both nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials have been growing in fields as diverse as biomedicine, food or electronics. Particularly metal nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), are being widely studied with different applications, for example as an antimicrobial agent, in hyperthermic therapy or drug transport. Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized by different methods, such as stand out reduction with citrate or greener methods that use greener reducing agents (e.g. stainless steel). In the present work, both the effect of the synthesis method yielding AuNPs with similar size and purification of AuNPs affect the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the AuNPs obtained by citrate reduction and with stainless steel. The growth curves of the gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) and the yeast C. albicans were constructed and the cell viability was evaluated by (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide (XTT). According to our results, the purification of the AuNPs after their synthesis and the growth determination method affect the antibacterial and antifungal activities while the synthesis method shows no significant differences.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Centrifugação , Ácido Cítrico/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Sonicação , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Aço Inoxidável , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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