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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22028, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899057

RESUMO

Comparison of different anticoagulants in blood management and complications with tranexamic acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is unclear. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety among receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium or rivaroxaban after TXA in THA.150 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA were received 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA (IV-TXA) before skin incision, followed by 1 of nadroparin calcium (Group A), enoxaparin sodium (Group B), or rivaroxaban (Group C) randomly during hospitalization. The primary outcome was hidden blood loss (HBL). Other outcomes such as the maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, total blood loss (TBL), the volume of drainage, transfusion rate, length of hospital stay (LOS), and complications were also compared.There were no statistically significant differences in HBL, the maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, transfusion rate, and complications among 3 groups. LOS was significantly higher for patients in Group B than Group A (P = .026). Neither deep venous thrombosis (DVT) nor pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred in any group.There were no differences in efficacy and safety in patients undergoing THA receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, or rivaroxaban after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nadroparina/administração & dosagem , Nadroparina/efeitos adversos , Sangue Oculto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1151-1157, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862676

RESUMO

AIMS: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. There remains a lack of prospective evidence for the use of TXA in patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous (IV) TXA is effective in reducing calculated blood loss and transfusions after PAO. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of 81 patients aged 12 to 45 years undergoing elective PAO by a single surgeon. The intervention group (n = 40) received two doses of IV TXA of a maximum 1 g in each dose; the control group (n = 41) received two doses of 50 ml 0.9% saline IV. The primary outcome was perioperative calculated blood loss. Secondary outcomes included allogenic transfusions and six-week postoperative complications. RESULTS: There were no differences in demographics or intraoperative variables between study groups. The TXA group demonstrated lower mean calculated blood loss (1,265 ml, (SD 321) vs 1,515 ml, (SD 394); p = 0.002) and lower frequency of allogenic transfusion (10%/n = 4 vs 37%/n = 15; p = 0.008). Regression analyses associated TXA use with significant reductions in calculated blood loss (p < 0.001) and transfusion (p = 0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin, cell-saver volume, intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure, and operating time. No patients suffered venous thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSION: In this trial, IV TXA decreased postoperative calculated blood loss by 293 ml and reduced the frequency of allogenic transfusions by 73% (37% vs 10%) following PAO. TXA may be safe and effective for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing PAO. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1151-1157.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteotomia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 238-245, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytic medications, such as tranexamic acid, have recently garnered increased attention. Despite its ability to mitigate intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion, there remains a paucity of research in breast reconstruction. The authors investigate whether intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces the risk of hematoma following implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze all consecutive patients undergoing immediate two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction following mastectomy between 2015 and 2016. The incidence of postoperative hematomas and thromboembolic events among all patients was reviewed. The patients in the intervention group received 1000 mg of intravenous tranexamic acid before mastectomy incision and 1000 mg at the conclusion of the procedure. Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to study the impact of intravenous tranexamic acid after adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS: A total of 868 consecutive breast reconstructions (499 women) were reviewed. Overall, 116 patients (217 breasts) received intravenous tranexamic acid, whereas 383 patients (651 breasts) did not. Patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between the two the groups. Patients who received tranexamic acid were less likely to develop hematomas [n = 1 (0.46 percent)] than patients who did not [n = 19 (2.9 percent)] after controlling for age, hypertension, and type of reconstruction (prepectoral and subpectoral) (p = 0.018). Adverse effects of intravenous tranexamic acid, including thromboembolic phenomena were not observed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age and hypertension independently increase risk for hematoma. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces risk of hematoma in implant-based breast reconstruction. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Hematoma/prevenção & controle , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21747, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. There is an urgent need of studies that efficiently control for confounding, conduct comprehensive and consecutive observation of potential risks of the TXA administration, and investigate its clinical applicability. The purpose of this work is to assess the safety and efficacy of the intravenous TXA in decreasing perioperative blood loss in the patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, prospective research was carried out between January 2017 and January 2018. All the patients and their family members signed the informed consent forms, and this current work was authorized via the ethics committee of Nanjing first hospital (registration No.: NJU1003586). A total of 100 patients were divided randomly into 2 group: the control group (n = 50) and study group (n = 50). The study group receives intravenous TXA administration [1 g] before skin incision. The control group receives equivalent normal saline. Primary outcome measures including blood loss, hemoglobin decline, transfusion rate, C-reactive protein, D-dimer value, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were recorded. The measures of secondary outcomes refer to the clinical data involving the range of motion and postoperative pain score. The pain score was quantified by utilizing the 10-cm scale of visual analog. The pain strength was in the range of 0-10, where 0 is totally no pain and 10 represents the most severe pain. RESULTS: This experiment had strict inclusive criteria and exclusive criteria and a well- regulated intervention. CONCLUSION: Our results can bring a new perspective on the use of TXA after arthroscopically assisted ACL surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5798).


Assuntos
Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos
5.
Lancet ; 395(10241): 1927-1936, 2020 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma. Meta-analyses of small trials show that tranexamic acid might decrease deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: We did an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 164 hospitals in 15 countries. Patients were enrolled if the responsible clinician was uncertain whether to use tranexamic acid, were aged above the minimum age considered an adult in their country (either aged 16 years and older or aged 18 years and older), and had significant (defined as at risk of bleeding to death) upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were randomly assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients received either a loading dose of 1 g tranexamic acid, which was added to 100 mL infusion bag of 0·9% sodium chloride and infused by slow intravenous injection over 10 min, followed by a maintenance dose of 3 g tranexamic acid added to 1 L of any isotonic intravenous solution and infused at 125 mg/h for 24 h, or placebo (sodium chloride 0·9%). Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation; analysis excluded patients who received neither dose of the allocated treatment and those for whom outcome data on death were unavailable. This trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN11225767, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01658124. FINDINGS: Between July 4, 2013, and June 21, 2019, we randomly allocated 12 009 patients to receive tranexamic acid (5994, 49·9%) or matching placebo (6015, 50·1%), of whom 11 952 (99·5%) received the first dose of the allocated treatment. Death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation occurred in 222 (4%) of 5956 patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 226 (4%) of 5981 patients in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 0·99, 95% CI 0·82-1·18). Arterial thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar in the tranexamic acid group and placebo group (42 [0·7%] of 5952 vs 46 [0·8%] of 5977; 0·92; 0·60 to 1·39). Venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were higher in tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (48 [0·8%] of 5952 vs 26 [0·4%] of 5977; RR 1·85; 95% CI 1·15 to 2·98). INTERPRETATION: We found that tranexamic acid did not reduce death from gastrointestinal bleeding. On the basis of our results, tranexamic acid should not be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding outside the context of a randomised trial. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD002126, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) impacts the quality of life of otherwise healthy women. The perception of HMB is subjective and management depends upon, among other factors, the severity of the symptoms, a woman's age, her wish to get pregnant, and the presence of other pathologies. Heavy menstrual bleeding was classically defined as greater than or equal to 80 mL of blood loss per menstrual cycle. Currently the definition is based on the woman's perception of excessive bleeding which is affecting her quality of life. The intrauterine device was originally developed as a contraceptive but the addition of progestogens to these devices resulted in a large reduction in menstrual blood loss: users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) reported reductions of up to 90%. Insertion may, however, be regarded as invasive by some women, which affects its acceptability. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, acceptability and safety of progestogen-releasing intrauterine devices in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL (from inception to June 2019); and we searched grey literature and for unpublished trials in trial registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in women of reproductive age treated with LNG-IUS devices versus no treatment, placebo, or other medical or surgical therapy for heavy menstrual bleeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and conducted GRADE assessments of the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 RCTs (2511 women). Limitations in the evidence included risk of attrition bias and low numbers of participants. The studies compared the following interventions. LNG-IUS versus other medical therapy The other medical therapies were norethisterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral contraceptive pill, mefenamic acid, tranexamic acid or usual medical treatment (where participants could choose the oral treatment that was most suitable). The LNG-IUS may improve HMB, lowering menstrual blood loss according to the alkaline haematin method (mean difference (MD) 66.91 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 42.61 to 91.20; 2 studies, 170 women; low-certainty evidence); and the Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart (MD 55.05, 95% CI 27.83 to 82.28; 3 studies, 335 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether the LNG-IUS may have any effect on women's satisfaction up to one year (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63; 3 studies, 141 women; I² = 0%, very low-certainty evidence). The LNG-IUS probably leads to slightly higher quality of life measured with the SF-36 compared with other medical therapy if (MD 2.90, 95% CI 0.06 to 5.74; 1 study: 571 women; moderate-certainty evidence) or with the Menorrhagia Multi-Attribute Scale (MD 13.40, 95% CI 9.89 to 16.91; 1 trial, 571 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The LNG-IUS and other medical therapies probably give rise to similar numbers of women with serious adverse events (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.30; 1 study, 571 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Women using other medical therapy are probably more likely to withdraw from treatment for any reason (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.60; 1 study, 571 women, moderate-certainty evidence) and to experience treatment failure than women with LNG-IUS (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.44; 6 studies, 535 women; moderate-certainty evidence). LNG-IUS versus endometrial resection or ablation (EA) Bleeding outcome results are inconsistent. We are uncertain of the effect of the LNG-IUS compared to EA on rates of amenorrhoea (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.72; 8 studies, 431 women; I² = 21%; low-certainty evidence) and hypomenorrhoea (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.33; 4 studies, 200 women; low-certainty evidence) and eumenorrhoea (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.00; 3 studies, 160 women; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether both treatments may have similar rates of satisfaction with treatment at 12 months (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07; 5 studies, 317 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if the LNG-IUS compared to EA has any effect on quality of life, measured with SF-36 (MD -14.40, 95% CI -22.63 to -6.17; 1 study, 33 women; very low-certainty evidence). Women with the LNG-IUS compared with EA are probably more likely to have any adverse event (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.94; 3 studies, 201 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Women with the LNG-IUS may experience more treatment failure compared to EA at one year follow up (persistent HMB or requirement of additional treatment) (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90; 5 studies, 320 women; low-certainty evidence); or requirement of hysterectomy may be higher at one year follow up (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.42; 3 studies, 400 women; low-certainty evidence). LNG-IUS versus hysterectomy We are uncertain whether the LNG-IUS has any effect on HMB compared with hysterectomy (RR for amenorrhoea 0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70; 1 study, 75 women; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether there is difference between LNG-IUS and hysterectomy in satisfaction at five years (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08; 1 study, 232 women; low-certainty evidence) and quality of life (SF-36 MD 2.20, 95% CI -2.93 to 7.33; 1 study, 221 women; low-certainty evidence). Women in the LNG-IUS group may be more likely to have treatment failure requiring hysterectomy for HMB at 1-year follow-up compared to the hysterectomy group (RR 48.18, 95% CI 2.96 to 783.22; 1 study, 236 women; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported cost data suitable for meta-analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The LNG-IUS may improve HMB and quality of life compared to other medical therapy; the LNG-IUS is probably similar for HMB compared to endometrial destruction techniques; and we are uncertain if it is better or worse than hysterectomy. The LNG-IUS probably has similar serious adverse events to other medical therapy and it is more likely to have any adverse events than EA.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Levanogestrel/uso terapêutico , Menorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Noretindrona/uso terapêutico , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Endométrio/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Ácido Mefenâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Mefenâmico/uso terapêutico , Menorragia/cirurgia , Noretindrona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(6): e454-e459, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is an antifibrinolytic agent that has been shown to decrease blood loss and transfusion requirements in several populations undergoing various surgical procedures. However, the efficacy of EACA has not been assessed in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy undergoing bilateral varus rotational femoral osteotomies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of intravenous EACA in reducing calculated intraoperative blood loss and transfusions in this population. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or younger were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive EACA or placebo (saline), and randomization was stratified based on sex and whether or not additional soft tissue or osseous procedures were performed. On the basis of retrospective data, the calculated sample size was 12 patients per arm to detect a difference of 250-mL blood loss. The primary outcome was calculated intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes included transfusion requirements, 24-hour drain output, length of stay, and incidence of complications. RESULTS: The mean age of patients in this study was 8 years (SD: 2.4 y). There were no differences in age, sex, height, weight, type of anesthesia, operative time, and associated procedures between the EACA and placebo groups (P>0.05). Preoperative hematocrit was lower in the EACA group (37.1 vs. 40.0, P=0.04). Calculated intraoperative blood loss was 536 mL in the EACA group and 628 mL in the placebo group (P=0.45). Transfusions were required in 62% of patients in the EACA group and 67% of patients in the placebo group (P=0.68). Total 24-hour drain output was 72.5 mL in the EACA group and 103.3 mL in the placebo group (P=0.37). Length of stay was similar between both groups, and there were no drug or placebo-related complications in either group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in blood loss or transfusion requirements associated with EACA compared with placebo; however, this study is underpowered to detect smaller differences in blood loss. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings and further elucidate the indications for antifibrinolytic agents in pediatric patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminocaproico/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Osteotomia/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Hematócrito , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20619, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Questions still remain about the safest and most effective route of administration for tranexamic acid (TXA) in lumbar interbody fusion. As such, the goal of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of topical TXA compared with intravenous TXA in lumbar interbody fusion. METHODS: This was a prospectively randomized trial that investigated the effectiveness and safety of the intravenous and topical administrations of TXA with regard to lumbar interbody fusion. Approval from Clinical Studies Ethical Committee in our hospital was obtained. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment options:Patients, surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and research assistants collecting data were blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome measures were perioperative calculated blood loss, total drain output at 24 hours, and perioperative blood transfusion rate. Secondary outcomes included an analysis of complications, namely symptomatic venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular accident, and arterio-occlusive events. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package SPSS version 25.0 (Chicago, IL). RESULTS: There are several limitations to this study. We did not include a group of patients who did not receive TXA. Another potential limitation is that the study population contains heterogeneity such as varying patient diagnosis and surgical technique/approach. Despite these limitations, the validity of our results should be maintained, as the same methodology was applied to both treatment arms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5564).


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Fusão Vertebral , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Tópica , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 87(4): 227-232, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350188

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in coagulopathy, which increases mortality risk. The Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Head injury (CRASH)-2 and CRASH-3 trials confirmed that tranexamic acid (TXA) was effective after trauma. Herein, we report a unique coagulation change in a patient with TBI given TXA after point-of-care assessment. Coagulation functions were impaired on admission. At 1 hour after TXA administration, clotting time was further prolonged in the extrinsic coagulation pathway but shortened in the intrinsic coagulation system. The results of a test of the total thrombus-formation analysis system showed improved blood clot formation ability. Intrinsic coagulation and clot formation improved after TXA administration in a TBI patient with coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(Supplement_2): S46-S53, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426833

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of time to tranexamic acid administration on blood product usage in trauma patients and to assess the potential benefit of initiating a protocol for field administration by ground ambulance personnel. METHODS: Adult patients with traumatic injuries who received 1 g of tranexamic acid during the period January 2014 through June 2016 were retrospectively identified via review of automated dispensing cabinet and electronic medical record data and cross-referencing with the New Mexico Trauma Registry. Exclusion criteria included tranexamic acid use for nontrauma indications, previous admission for trauma during the study period, and a lack of pertinent information regarding the time, type, or severity of trauma in available records. The primary outcome was blood product use (aggregate of units of platelets, packed red blood cells [pRBCs], and fresh frozen plasma [FFP]) in the first 24 hours of hospital admission. RESULTS: The analysis included 107 patient cases, with a median transport time of 20 minutes (range, 7-103 minutes); 73% of reported transport times were less than 30 minutes. All patients received a loading dose of tranexamic acid in the hospital, with the exception of 2 patients who received tranexamic acid in the field. Administration of a tranexamic acid loading dose was documented within 3 hours for 90.7% of patients, with a mean time to administration of 91.9 minutes. A mean (SD) total of 14.8 (16.0) units of blood products (range, 0-91 units) were administered, consisting of a mean (SD) of 8.0 (8.4) units of pRBCs (range, 0-48 units), 5.6 (7.5) units of FFP (range, 0-38 units), and 1.2 (1.7) units of platelets (range, 0-7 units). Time to tranexamic acid administration did not affect blood product usage in the first 24 hours of admission after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Earlier administration of tranexamic acid was not associated with a decrease in use of blood products. This finding, paired with the relatively short ground transport times typical for our institution, makes it unlikely that field administration of tranexamic acid would benefit the evaluated patient population.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 54(2): 132-137, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32254027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) combined with diluted epinephrine (DEP) reduces blood loss and the need for transfusions compared with the administration of TXA alone following surgery for trochanteric femoral fractures. METHODS: Hundred patients were enrolled in this study. In the target group (TXA/DEP group: n=50; 19 men and 31 women, mean age 72.5±11.1 years), the surgical sites were injected with 35 mL normal saline mixed with 3 g of TXA with 0.2 mg of DEP at a 1:200,000 dilution (TXA/DEP) immediately after musculoaponeurotic closure. In the control group (TXA group: n=50; 22 men and 28 women; mean age: 70.5±12.2 years), the surgical site was injected with 35 mL normal saline containing 3 g of TXA alone. The main outcome measures were postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels, hematocrit, drainage volume, and total blood loss (TBL); the secondary measures included transfusion requirements and perioperative complications. RESULTS: The mean Hb levels among patients in theTXA/DEP group were significantly lower than among those in the TXA group, measured on postoperative day 1 at 101.0±14.1 g/L vs. 106.9±10.5 g/L and day 3 as 104.2±8.2 g/L vs. 108.5±9.1 g/L, respectively (p<0.05). Drainage volume from the surgical site and TBL measured on postoperative day 2 were also significantly reduced in the TXA/DEP group vs. the TXA group, measured at 71.4±26.0 mL vs. 82.5±24.6 mL and 343.6±148.0 mL vs. 419.6±165.4 mL, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, 11 patients (22%) from the TXA group and 15 (30%) from the TXA/DEP group received blood transfusions; the mean number of transfusion events (1.2±0.4 vs. 1.9±0.7) and the amount of blood transfused (1.7±0.5 Units vs. 2.9±1.0 Units) was also markedly reduced in the TXA/DEP group (p<0.05). Two cases in the TXA/DEP group and three in the TXA group were diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis, a difference that did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Local administration of TXA with DEP reduced blood loss and limited the need for blood transfusions after surgery for trochanteric femoral fracture without increasing the risk of perioperative complications. Our study indicates that the local administration of TXA/DEP is safe and more effective than the administration of TXA alone in treating trochanteric femoral fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
12.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 54(2): 207-212, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32254038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of topical and systemic tranexamic acid (TXA) on fracture healing in a rat surgical model. METHODS: We created standard, right-sided, open, diaphyseal femoral fractures with intramedullary Kirschner wire fixation in 48 male rats and divided them into three groups: a topical TXA (10 mg/kg) group, a systemic TXA (10 mg/kg) group, and a control group. Fracture healing was evaluated radiographically and histologically after early (week 2) and late (week 4) postoperative sacrifice. RESULTS: The radiological scores differed significantly among the all groups (p=0.001), as did the week 2 and 4 scores (p=0.003 and p=0.010, respectively). Radiologically, the topical TXA group exhibited better bone healing at both 2 (p=0.001) and 4 (p=0.007) weeks than the control group, and the systemic group showed better healing at both 2 (p=0.027) and 4 (p=0.023) weeks than the control TXA group. Moreover, bone healing was better in the group treated with topical rather than systemic TXA on radiological examinations performed at 2 (p=0.001) and 4 (p=0.007) weeks postoperatively (p=0.001 and p=0.007, respectively). Histologically, the groups differed significantly (p=0.001). The histological scores differed significantly among the all groups (p=0.001). At 2 weeks, the topical TXA group exhibited significantly better bone healing than the control group (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that topical application of TXA in fracture patients may accelerate healing, whereas systemic administration may adversely affect healing.


Assuntos
Administração Tópica , Fraturas do Fêmur , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Fraturas do Fêmur/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Radiografia/métodos , Ratos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19552, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery is associated with significant blood loss; however, few studies have focused on hidden blood loss (HBL) in PLIF or its regulatory factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the HBL in PLIF surgery as well as the influence of tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss in PLIF. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and recruited patients undergoing PLIF into the study from November 2013 to April 2017. All participants were assigned to one of 2 groups according to a simple equal probability randomization scheme. At the end of PLIF surgery, for patients in the TXA group, the surgical field was immersed in TXA (1 g in 100 mL of saline solution) for 5 min before stitching the wound. For the control group, the surgical field was immersed in the same volume of normal saline. RESULTS: In our study, the drainage volume during the first 24 h and the total postoperative drainage volume were significantly lower in patients in the TXA group than in the control group (P = .001). The hematocrit (Hct) of the drainage and calculation of blood contained in the drainage showed similar results. The mean length of hospital stay and rate of blood transfusion in the TXA group were less than those in the control group (P < .05). HBL was responsible for 45.6% of the total blood loss in PLIF, and both of the indicators in the TXA group were much lower than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: PLIF is associated with massive perioperative HBL, but the application of topical TXA leads to less postoperative blood loss including less HBL, a lower blood product transfusion rate, and a shorter hospital stay for PLIF.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusão Vertebral , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(4): 945-948, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid after oral administration to postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted a single-center pharmacokinetic study at Teaching Hospital-Jaffna, Sri Lanka, on 12 healthy postpartum women who delivered vaginally. After oral administration of 2 g of immediate-release tranexamic acid 1 hour after delivery, pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on plasma samples at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours. Plasma tranexamic acid concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The outcome measures were maximum observed plasma concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, time to reach effective plasma concentration, time period effective serum concentration lasted, area under the curve for drug concentration, and half-life of tranexamic acid. RESULTS: The mean maximum observed plasma concentration was 10.06 micrograms/mL (range 8.56-12.22 micrograms/mL). The mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 2.92 hours (range 2.5-3.5 hours). Mean time taken to reach the effective plasma concentration of 5 micrograms/mL and the mean time this concentration lasted were 0.87 hours and 6.73 hours, respectively. Duration for which plasma tranexamic acid concentration remained greater than 5 micrograms/mL was 5.86 hours. Half-life was 1.65 hours. Area under the curve for drug concentration was 49.16 micrograms.h/mL (range 43.75-52.69 micrograms.h/mL). CONCLUSION: Clinically effective plasma concentrations of tranexamic acid in postpartum women may be achieved within 1 hour of oral administration. Given the promising pharmacokinetic properties, we recommend additional studies with larger sample sizes to investigate the potential of oral tranexamic acid for the treatment or prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Ácido Tranexâmico/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(6): 248-255, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoprosthetic reconstruction presents a significant risk of perioperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent used to reduce blood loss in orthopaedic procedures. The safety and efficacy of TXA in arthroplasty are well documented. There is, however, a dearth of literature exploring the safety and efficacy of TXA in musculoskeletal oncology patients. This retrospective, comparative study explores the effects of TXA on perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion rates, venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurrence, and hospital stay in patients undergoing resection of an aggressive bone tumor and endoprosthetic reconstruction. METHODS: For the study, charts from a total of 90 patients who underwent resection of an aggressive bone tumor and endoprosthetic reconstruction were reviewed; of these patients, 34 were in the TXA group and 56 in the non-TXA group. Study participants composed of a heterogeneous group of patients with primary bone sarcoma and metastatic osseous disease. Patients in the TXA group received 1 g of topical TXA administered into the wound bed before closure. The Hemoglobin Balance method was used to calculate blood loss. Patients were followed for 6 weeks. RESULTS: Patients undergoing proximal femur replacement and distal femur replacement in the TXA group experienced a 796 and 687 mL reduction in 72-hour mean blood loss, respectively (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.006). Average blood transfusions decreased by 0.45 U of packed red blood cells per patient in the TXA group (P = 0.048) and transfusion incidence decreased by 21.1% compared with the non-TXA group (P = 0.04). Patients undergoing proximal femur replacement in the TXA group left the hospital 2.2 days earlier than those in the non-TXA group (P = 0.0004). No increase in VTE rate was observed with TXA use. DISCUSSION: This study found results similar to total joint arthroplasty with regard to TXA's effect on perioperative blood loss, transfusion rates, hospital stay, and VTE occurrence. It provides initial data to support the efficacy of topical TXA use in this patient cohort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Implantação de Prótese , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(5): 358-365, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The CRASH-2 trial demonstrated that tranexamic acid (TXA) in adults with significant traumatic hemorrhage safely reduces mortality. Given that the CRASH-2 trial did not include U.S. sites, our objective was to evaluate patient characteristics, TXA dosing strategies, and the incidence of mortality and adverse events in adult trauma patients receiving TXA at a U.S. Level I trauma center in the post-CRASH-2 era. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that included patients aged 18 years or older who received TXA after an acute injury from July 2014 to June 2017. We excluded patients who received TXA orally, patients who received TXA for elective surgical procedures or nontrauma indications, patients who received it 8 hours or longer after the time of injury, and patients with cardiac arrest at time of emergency department arrival. Trained abstractors collected data from the trauma registry and hospital electronic medical records. Our primary outcome measures were in-hospital death and acute thromboembolic events within 28 days from injury. RESULTS: We included 273 patients with a mean (±SD) age of 43.8 (±18.7)  years. The mean (±SD) time of administration of TXA from time of injury was 1.55 (±1.2)  hours with 229 patients (83.9%) receiving TXA within 3 hours. The overall mortality within 28 days from injury was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.9% to 16.7%), which was similar compared to that in the CRASH-2 trial (14.5%, 95% CI = 13.9% to 15.2%). The incidence of acute thromboembolic events was 6.6% (95% CI = 3.7% to 9.5%), which was higher than that in the CRASH-2 trial (2.0%, 95% CI = 1.73% to 2.27%). Patients in our cohort also received surgery (64.8% vs. 47.9%) and blood transfusions (74.0% vs. 50.4%) more frequently than those in the CRASH-2 cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Adult trauma patients receiving TXA had similar incidences of death but higher incidences of thromboembolic events compared to the CRASH-2 trial. Variation in patient characteristics, injury severity, TXA dosing, and surgery and transfusion rates could explain these observed differences. Further research is necessary to provide additional insight into the incidence and risk factors of thromboembolic events in TXA use.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 31(1): 8-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the effect of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TA) on reducing the risk of revision for acute and delayed periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after primary total knee replacement (TKR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included 1,529 TKRs (396 males, 1,133 females; mean age 67.8 years; range, 44 to 85.1 years) performed between January 2003 and October 2017. We analyzed the revision rate for acute and delayed PJI in a group of 787 TKRs with preoperatively intravenously administered TA (TA group) in comparison with a group of 742 TKRs without administration of TA (non-TA group). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate significant predictors of TKR revision for acute and delayed PJI. RESULTS: Revision surgery due to PJI was recorded in one patient in the TA group and eight patients in the non-TA group. Cumulative revision rate of TKR was significantly lower in the TA group (0.13% vs. 1.08%, hazard ratio 0.113; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0147-0.937; p=0.043). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed two predictors of revision: being aged over 75 years at the time of primary surgery (odds ratio [OR] 8.464; 95% CI: 2.016-35.54; p=0.004) and male gender (OR: 7.9; 95% CI: 1.879-33.26; p=0.005). The use of TA was shown as the significant protective factor (OR: 0.109; 95% CI: 0.0128-0.929; p=0.043). CONCLUSION: We have found a lower cumulative revision rate of TKR for acute and delayed PJI when TA was used. We think that the preoperative intravenous use of TA may be an effective, safe and inexpensive method for the prevention of PJI.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Reoperação , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Am Heart J ; 222: 147-156, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062173

RESUMO

Tranexamic acid (TxA) reduces perioperative blood transfusion in cardiac surgery; however, the optimal dose of TxA remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This large-scale, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up enrolls patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients are randomly assigned 1:1 into either the high-dose TxA group (intravenous bolus [30 mg/kg] after anesthesia followed by intravenous maintenance [16 mg/kg/h] throughout the operation, and a pump prime dose of 2 mg/kg) or the low-dose TxA group (intravenous bolus and maintenance are 10 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg/h, respectively, and a pump prime dose of 1 mg/kg). The primary efficacy end point is the rate of perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion defined as the number (%) of patients who will receive at least 1 RBC unit from operation day to discharge. The primary safety end point is the 30-day rate of the composite of perioperative seizures, renal dysfunction, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and all-cause mortality. The secondary end points are perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion volume, the non-RBC blood transfusion rate, postoperative bleeding, reoperation rate, mechanical ventilation duration, intensive care unit stay, hospital length of stay, total hospitalization cost, each component of composite primary safety end point, and the 6-month/1-year follow-up mortality and morbidity. We estimated a sample size of 3,008 participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study is designed to identify a TxA dose with maximal efficacy and minimal complications. We hypothesize that the high dose has superior efficacy and noninferior safety to the low dose.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
20.
Orthopade ; 49(4): 318-323, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974634

RESUMO

Fast-track concepts in hip and knee arthroplasty focus on an early and safe mobilisation after surgery using a multi-modal pain concept with local infiltration anaesthesia. No drains, femoral nerve blocks or urinary catheters are used. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion rates. Cortisone is helpful in reducing pain, PONV and postsurgical stress response. Minimal invasive surgical techniques and the renouncement of a tourniquet lead to a better functional result and less pain. Restrictions and precautions are not evidence-based and should, therefore, be abandoned.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Dor Pós-Operatória
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